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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910720/the-management-of-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-young-children-post-2015-an-opportunity-to-close-the-policy-practice-gap
#1
Stephen M Graham
The treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children is supported by universal policy based on strong rationale and evidence of effectiveness, but has rarely been implemented in tuberculosis endemic countries. Areas covered: This review highlights a number of important recent developments that provide an unprecedented opportunity to close the policy-practice gap, as well as ongoing needs to facilitate implementation under programmatic conditions and scale-up. Expert commentary: The WHO's End TB Strategy and Stop TB Partnership's Plan to End TB provide ambitious targets for prevention at a time when National Tuberculosis Programs in tuberculosis endemic countries are increasing attention to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis disease in children...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909634/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-lymphadenitis-a-case-report
#2
Amanda M Krantz, Meera Varnam, Cristina Fernandez
Atypical mycobacteria, also known as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) includes acid-fast bacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NTM can be isolated from a variety of environmental sources including water, food products, domestic animals, and soil; human exposure is typically from soil to the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Diagnosis of NTM is suspected in children less than five years old with subacute, unilateral, non-tender cervicofacial lymphadenitis in combination with a history of water exposure, penetrating injection, as well as negative routine cultures or response to antistaphylococcal and antistreptococcal antibiotics...
October 25, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892847/international-adoption-from-ethiopia-an-overview-of-the-health-status-at-arrival-in-belgium
#3
Lydia Van Kesteren, Marek Wojciechowski
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. METHODS: Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014...
November 28, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890320/trepanation-in-the-late-bronze-age-and-early-iron-age-in-armenia
#4
A Yu Khudaverdyan
In this study, trepanations in ancient Armenia are discussed. In total, 10 cases were studied. Seven were male, 1 female and 2 were children. Age of the individuals ranged from 6 to 65 years. Among nine cases of surgical trepanations four had possible healing signs. In these cases the individuals showed evidence of previous trauma to the skull or infection (mastoiditis, tuberculosis), suggesting that the operation had been carried out for therapeutic purposes. This provides further support for the suggestion that trepanation (or trephination) was performed primarily for therapeutic purposes, and because of cranial infection or injury...
October 4, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885404/-health-examination-of-asylum-seekers-a-nationwide-analysis-of-state-policies-in-germany-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-62-of-the-asylum-law
#5
Katharina Wahedi, Stefan Nöst, Kayvan Bozorgmehr
BACKGROUND: A health examination of newly arrived asylum seekers, aimed at detecting infectious diseases and preventing disease outbreaks in accommodation facilities, is mandated by national law in all German states. Due to the decentralized German federal system, different state policies are in place and lead to substantial variation in the content and implementation of the health examination. OBJECTIVES: To compare health examination policies in the 16 German states with a focus on conducted tests, preventive measures and the general procedure...
November 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#6
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#7
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872320/pott-s-disease-a-major-issue-for-an-unaccompanied-refugee-minor
#8
Cihan Papan, Ulrich von Both, Matthias Kappler, Birgit Kammer, Matthias Griese, Johannes Huebner
The incidence of TB in children in Germany has been on a rise since 2008, especially among foreign-born individuals. With rapidly increasing numbers of refugees from the numerous areas of conflict, this increase in incidence is not expected to halt, neither in Germany nor in Europe in general. We report a case of insufficient tracking in a 16-year-old unaccompanied refugee minor from Somalia who had a positive interferon γ release assay on arrival in Germany. No actions were undertaken, until 6 months later, an X-ray showed prominent hilar enlargement...
November 21, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#9
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realised This review evaluates the evidence the effectiveness preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug susceptible and drug resistant bacteria. We summarise current national and international preventive therapy guidelines, as well as ongoing randomised trials evaluating regimen to prevent drug resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865381/the-impact-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-shortage-on-immunisation-practice-and-policies-in-europe-a-paediatric-tuberculosis-network-european-trials-group-ptbnet-survey
#10
Antti Kontturi, Begoña Santiago, Marc Tebruegge, Ulrich von Both, Eeva Salo, Nicole Ritz
BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate an ongoing BCG shortage that may influence immunisation practice. This study aimed to determine current availability of BCG vaccine across Europe, and implications on immunisation practices and policies in Europe. METHODS: Web-based survey among Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (ptbnet) members, between May and October 2015. RESULTS: Twenty individuals from 13 European countries participated...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865245/adolescent-with-recurrent-tuberculosis-can-it-be-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#11
Yashashree Gupta, Ira Shah
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent bacterial and fungal infections like Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia spp, Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia cepacia, Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus species. We present a 13-year-old male child who had 3 episodes of tuberculosis (TB) at 5 years, 8 years and 13 years of age, respectively, with no other intercurrent infections and who was diagnosed as CGD at the age of 13 years. This case highlights the possibility of phenotypic variations of CGD...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865242/a-study-on-knowledge-and-awareness-about-tuberculosis-in-senior-school-children-in-bangalore-india
#12
K Vanaja, Reshma Banu, Lokeshwar Reddy, P Chethan Kumar, Chaitra Srinivas, T Rajani, Navyashree, H S Shekar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), commonly affecting the lungs. All health care professionals including the pharmacists provide a valuable public health role in promoting community awareness of TB particularly in reducing stigma attached to TB. Thus, creating awareness at a community level could play a vital role in control and prevention of TB. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether educational intervention would affect the level of TB awareness among students of selected schools and pre-university colleges (PUCs) in Bangalore urban and Bangalore rural regions...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865236/pcr-targeting-is6110-in-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-children-in-comparison-to-mgit-culture
#13
Rajeshwar Dayal, Dipti Agarwal, Harish Pathak, Shehraj Feroz, Manoj Kumar, Devendra S Chauhan, Rakesh Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult in children especially in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). This study was conducted to evaluate the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting IS6110 in the diagnosis of TB in children with pulmonary TB and EPTB and also to compare its performance with MGIT 960 culture and conventional microscopy. METHODS: A total of 142 cases (50 pulmonary, 92 extrapulmonary) of suspected TB patients <15 years of age were included in the study...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864289/immunotherapy-for-arterial-ischaemic-stroke-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#14
Hannah B Edwards, Andrew A Mallick, Finbar J K O'Callaghan
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence about either prevention or treatment of childhood arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). However, drugs that regulate the immune and inflammatory response could theoretically prevent occurrence or recurrence of AIS. Additionally, as an acute treatment, they may limit the neurological damage caused by AIS. Here, we systematically review the evidence on the use of immunotherapy in childhood AIS. DESIGN: A systematic review of publications in databases Embase and Medline from inception...
November 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#15
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861788/phenotypically-resembling-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-children-with-hiv-and-exposed-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Nelita Du Plessis, Ruschca Jacobs, Andrea Gutschmidt, Zhuo Fang, Paul D van Helden, Manfred B Lutz, Anneke C Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl
Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855070/pharmacokinetics-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-ghanaian-children-with-tuberculosis-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#18
Sampson Antwi, Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Anima M Sarfo, Fizza S Gillani, Daniel Ansong, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Orstin, Theresa Opoku, Dennis Bosumtwe, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
Although human immunodefiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the most important risk factor for poor antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment response, its effect on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line drugs in children is understudied. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of the four first-line anti-TB drugs in children with tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV coinfection. Ghanaian children with TB on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854508/new-repurposed-drugs-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-practice-based-recommendations
#19
Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, James A Seddon, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling, Jay Achar, Jonathan Bernheimer, Andrea Cruz, Lia D'Ambrosio, Anne Detjen, Stephen M Graham, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Ben J Marais, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Lindsay McKenna, Alena Skrahina, Marina Tadolini, Peyton Wilson, Jennifer Furin
It is estimated that 33,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) each year. In spite of these numbers, children and adolescents have limited access to the new and repurposed MDR-TB drugs. There is also little clinical guidance for the use of these drugs and for the shorter MDR-TB regimen in the pediatric population. This is despite the fact that these drugs and regimens are associated with improved interim outcomes and acceptable safety profiles in adults. This review fills a gap in the pediatric MDR-TB literature by providing practice-based recommendations for the use of the new (delamanid and bedaquiline) and repurposed (linezolid and clofazimine) MDR-TB drugs and the new shorter MDR-TB regimen in children and adolescents...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853495/giant-omental-cyst-lymphangioma-mimicking-ascites-and-tuberculosis
#20
Asuman Nur Karhan, Tutku Soyer, Altan Gunes, Beril Talim, Ibrahim Karnak, Berna Oguz, Inci Nur Saltik Temizel
Omental and mesenteric cysts are both rare pathologies in children. Children who have omental cysts usually display symptoms of abdominal distension, with or without a palpable mass. The mass can simulate ascites on clinical observation, or tuberculosis on radiological images. The optimal treatment for this condition is complete resection. The presenting symptoms of abdominal distension and the simulation of septated ascites and abdominal tuberculosis are unusual. Reported cases in the literature usually display symptoms of abdominal distension, abdominal pain, painless mass or possible ascites...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
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