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Karthikeyan Alagu, Beemkumar Nagappan, Jayaprabakar Jayaraman, Anderson Arul GnanaDhas
This manuscript presents the impact of addition of antioxidant additives to rice bran biodiesel blend on the performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition (C.I) engine. Rice bran methyl ester (RBME) was produced from rice bran oil by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. An experimental investigation was conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke C.I engine to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of rice bran methyl ester (RBME) blended with diesel at 20% by volume (B20) with and without addition of 1000 ppm of two monophenolic antioxidant additives, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis
For decades, microbial lipases are notably used as biocatalysts and efficiently catalyze various processes in many important industries. Biocatalysts are less corrosive to industrial equipment and due to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity they produced less harmful waste which promotes environmental sustainability. At present, thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases have gained enormous interest as biocatalyst due to their stability and robustness under high temperature and alkaline environment operation...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Bilel Hadrich, Ismahen Akremi, Mouna Dammak, Mohamed Barkallah, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi
BACKGROUND: Three steps are very important in order to produce microalgal lipids: (1) controlling microalgae cultivation via experimental and modeling investigations, (2) optimizing culture conditions to maximize lipids production and to determine the fatty acid profile the most appropriate for biodiesel synthesis, and (3) optimizing the extraction of the lipids accumulated in the microalgal cells. METHODS: Firstly, three kinetics models, namely logistic, logistic-with-lag and modified Gompertz, were tested to fit the experimental kinetics of the Chlorella sp...
April 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Jung Hun Lee, Moo-Young Jung, Min-Kyu Oh
Background: Glycerol is a major byproduct of the biodiesel industry and can be converted to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by microorganisms through a two-step enzymatic reaction. The production of 1,3-PDO from glycerol using microorganisms is accompanied by formation of unwanted byproducts, including lactate and 2,3-butanediol, resulting in a low-conversion yield. Results: Klebsiella pneumoniae was metabolically engineered to produce high-molar yield of 1,3-PDO from glycerol...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Alessandro Marco Lizzul, Aitor Lekuona-Amundarain, Saul Purton, Luiza Cintra Campos
This paper characterizes the strain Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 within a laboratory setting using a 1 L bubble column. The findings show that productivity can be trebled under mixotrophic conditions (from 0.2 g·L−1 ·d−1 to 0.66 g·L−1 ·d−1 ) with the addition of sodium acetate. The results also indicate that both the growth rate and final yield increase with the cultivation temperature, with most parameters showing an optimum in the range of 30–35 °C...
April 13, 2018: Biology
Lili Jiang, Jianying Dai, Yaqin Sun, Zhilong Xiu
Ionic liquids (ILs) as "green" solvents have been widely used owing to their excellent properties, e.g., for biodiesel production. Crude glycerol as a by-product in biodiesel production is an ideal feedstock for the microbial production of 1,3-propanediol (PDO), which is a versatile bulk chemical. PDO can be produced by microbial consortium with the advantages of high substrate tolerance and narrow by-product profile. In the present study, the effect of IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([Emim][TfO]) was evaluated on the capacity of PDO production from crude glycerol by microbial consortium DL38-BH...
April 12, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Kamila Kochan, Huadong Peng, Bayden R Wood, Victoria S Haritos
Background: Biodiesel is a valuable renewable fuel made from derivatized fatty acids produced in plants, animals, and oleaginous microbes. Of the latter, yeasts are of special interest due to their wide use in biotechnology, ability to synthesize fatty acids and store large amounts of triacylglycerols while utilizing non-food carbon sources. While yeast efficiently produce lipids, genetic modification and indeed, lipid pathway metabolic engineering, is usually required for cost-effective production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Maurilio Gustavo Nespeca, Rafael Rodrigues Hatanaka, Danilo Luiz Flumignan, José Eduardo de Oliveira
Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 85% (T85) recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content) through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS)...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Qiuyun Zhang, Hu Li, Song Yang
Mesoporous Ti-Mo bi-metal oxides with various titanium-molybdenum ratios were successfully fabricated via a facile approach by using stearic acid as a low-cost template agent. thermal gravity (TG) /differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3 -TPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements indicated these materials possessing mesoporous structure, sufficient pore size and high acid intensity...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Lan Ngoc Pham, Boi Van Luu, Hung Duong Phuoc, Hanh Ngoc Thi Le, Hoa Thi Truong, Phuong Duc Luu, Masakazu Furuta, Kiyoshi Imamura, Yasuaki Maeda
Candlenut oil (CNO) is a potentially new feedstock for biodiesel (BDF) production. In this paper, a two-step co-solvent method for BDF production from CNO was examined. Firstly, esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) (7 wt%) present in CNO was carried out using a co-solvent of acetonitrile (30 wt%) and H2 SO4 as a catalyst. The content of FFAs was reduced to 0.8 wt% in 1 h at 65°C. Subsequent transesterification of the crude oil produced was carried out using a co-solvent of acetone (20 wt%) and 1 wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
D Simón, A M Borreguero, A de Lucas, J F Rodríguez
The recycling of any kind of plastic to convert it in valuable products is one of the main challenges of today's society. Besides, if the recycling process is itself green, then it would be a great achievement. This paper reviews the way covered from the first attempts of reusing the polyurethane (PU) scraps as a filler for cushions to the last chemical routes employing green recycling agents. Polyurethane is the 6th most used polymer all over the world with a production of 18 millions tons per year, which means a daily production of PU specialties greater than 1 million of cubic meters, equivalent to the volume of the Empire State Building...
April 3, 2018: Waste Management
Haijian Yang, Qiaoning He, Chunxiang Hu
Background: Compared with other general energy crops, microalgae are more compatible with desert conditions. In addition, microalgae cultivated in desert regions can be used to develop biodiesel. Therefore, screening oil-rich microalgae, and researching the algae growth, CO2 fixation and oil yield in desert areas not only effectively utilize the idle desertification lands and other resources, but also reduce CO2 emission. Results: Monoraphidium dybowskii LB50 can be efficiently cultured in the desert area using light resources, and lipid yield can be effectively improved using two-stage induction and semi-continuous culture modes in open raceway ponds (ORPs)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Masoumeh Karimpour, Jenny A Bosson, Anders Blomberg, Jon Unosson, Maria Sehlstedt, Jamshid Pourazar, Thomas Sandström, Annelie F Behndig, Malin L Nording
Experimental human exposure studies are an effective tool to study adverse health effects from acute inhalation of particulate matter and other constituents of air pollution. In this randomized and double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the systemic effect on bioactive lipid metabolite levels after controlled biodiesel exhaust exposure of healthy humans and compared it to filtered air at a separate exposure occasion. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins, as well as endocannabinoids and related lipids, were quantified in plasma from 14 healthy volunteers at baseline and at three subsequent time points (2, 6, and 24 h) after 1 h exposure sessions...
August 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Nikolaos Remmas, Spyridon Ntougias, Marianna Chatzopoulou, Paraschos Melidis
Despite the fact that biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process has been studied in detail in laboratory- and pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems treating landfill leachate, a limited number of research works have been performed in full-scale SBR plants regarding nitrification and denitrification. In the current study, a full-scale twin SBR system in series of 700 m3 (350 m3 each) treating medium-age landfill leachate was evaluated in terms of its carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency in the absence and presence of external carbon source, i...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Rashi Vishwakarma, Dolly Wattal Dhar, Sunil Pabbi
Chlorella sp. MCC 7 and Botryococcus sp. MCC 31 were investigated to enable large-scale biodiesel production from minimal constituents in the growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to maximise the biomass productivity and lipid yield using only nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. The optimum values were 0.42 g/L nitrogen; 0.14 g/L phosphorus and 0.22 g/L potassium for Chlorella sp.; and 0.46 g/L; 0.14 g/L and 0.25 g/L for Botryococcus sp...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jeesung Son, Bora Kim, Jeongseok Park, Jeongwoo Yang, Jae W Lee
This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58...
March 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Carmen Jarne, María Savirón, María Pilar Lapieza, Luis Membrado, Jesús Orduna, Javier Galbán, Rosa Garriga, Gertrud Elisabeth Morlock, Vicente Luis Cebolla
High-performance thin-layer chromatography was directly combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)for structural identification issues below the level of lipid classes in complex samples through a portable, automated, elution-based interface. For samples as diverse as biodiesel and human plasma, separation conditions using Automated Multiple Development were selected in each case to provide lipid classes as zones narrow enough to ensure a direct transfer of them to ESI-MS. The respective zone of interest can be selected at will...
March 23, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Gergely Kosa, Boris Zimmermann, Achim Kohler, Dag Ekeberg, Nils Kristian Afseth, Jerome Mounier, Volha Shapaval
Background: Mucoromycota fungi are important producers of low- and high-value lipids. Mortierella alpina is used for arachidonic acid production at industrial scale. In addition, oleaginous Mucoromycota fungi are promising candidates for biodiesel production. A critical step in the development of such biotechnological applications is the selection of suitable strains for lipid production. The aim of the present study was to use the Duetz-microtiter plate system combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for high-throughput screening of the potential of 100 Mucoromycota strains to produce low- and high-value lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ye Sol Shin, Hong Il Choi, Jin Won Choi, Jeong Seop Lee, Young Joon Sung, Sang Jun Sim
Microalgae have been rising as a feedstock for biofuel in response to the energy crisis. Due to a high lipid content, composed of fatty acids favorable for the biodiesel production, microalgae are still being investigated as an alternative to biodiesel. Environmental factors and process conditions can alternate the quality and the quantity of lipid produced by microalgae, which can be critical for the overall production of biodiesel. To maximize both the lipid content and the biomass productivity, it is necessary to start with robust algal strains and optimal physio-chemical properties of the culture environment in combination with a novel culture system...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Young-Jin Ryu, Z-Hun Kim, Seul Gi Lee, Ji-Hyun Yang, Hee-Yong Shin, Choul-Gyun Lee
Novel carbon-based solid acid catalysts have been synthesized through a sustainable route fromlipid extracted microalgal residue of Dunaliella tertiolecta , for biodiesel production. Two carbon based solid acid catalysts were prepared by surface modification of bio-char with sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) and sulfuryl chloride (SO2 Cl2 ), respectively. Treated catalysts were characterized and their catalytic activities were evaluated by esterification of oleic acid. Esterification catalytic activity of the SO2 Cl2 -treated bio-char revealed higher(11...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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