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Biodiesel

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318826/modelling-pollutant-emissions-in-diesel-engines-influence-of-biofuel-on-pollutant-formation
#1
Zvonimir Petranović, Tibor Bešenić, Milan Vujanović, Neven Duić
In order to reduce the harmful effect on the environment, European Union allowed using the biofuel blends as fuel for the internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have been carried on, dealing with the biodiesel influence on the emission concentrations, showing inconclusive results. In this paper numerical model for pollutant prediction in internal combustion engines is presented. It describes the processes leading towards the pollutant emissions, such as spray particles model, fuel disintegration and evaporation model, combustion and the chemical model for pollutant formation...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314666/microbial-oil-a-plausible-alternate-resource-for-food-and-fuel-application
#2
REVIEW
B Bharathiraja, Sridevi Sridharan, V Sowmya, D Yuvaraj, R Praveenkumar
Microbes have recourse to low-priced substrates like agricultural wastes and industrial efflux. A pragmatic approach towards an emerging field- the exploitation of microbial oils for biodiesel production, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, food additives, biopolymer production will be of immense remunerative significance in the near future. Due to high free fatty acid, nutritive content and simpler solvent extraction processes of microbial oils with plant oil, microbial oils can back plant oils in food applications...
March 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314665/bioflocculation-an-alternative-strategy-for-harvesting-of-microalgae-an-overview
#3
Sabeela Beevi Ummalyma, Edgard Gnansounou, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Raveendran Sindhu, Ashok Pandey, Dinabandhu Sahoo
Microalgae based research has been extensively progressed for the production of value added products and biofuels. Potential application of microalgae for biofuel is recently gained more attention for possibilities of biodiesel and other high value metabolites. However, high cost of production of biomass associated with harvesting technologies is one of the major bottleneck for commercialization of algae based industrial product. Based on the operation economics, harvesting efficiency, technological possibilities, flocculation of algal biomass is a superior method for harvesting microalgae from the growth medium...
February 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303757/evaluation-of-microalgae-production-coupled-with-wastewater-treatment
#4
Davide De Francisci, Yixi Su, Arvo Iital, Irini Angelidaki
In the present study the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat panel photobioreactors. Biomass productivity was determined for four dilution rates (4.32 d(-1), 3.6 d(-1), 1.8 d(-1) and 0.72 d(-1)). The productivity peak was 1.524 g l(-1)d(-1) at the dilution rate of 2.41 d(-1). Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to dilution rates, while COD removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301719/a-reconfigured-kennedy-pathway-which-promotes-efficient-accumulation-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-leaf-oils
#5
Kyle B Reynolds, Matthew C Taylor, Darren P Cullerne, Christopher L Blanchard, Craig C Wood, Surinder P Singh, James R Petrie
Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C6-14 fatty acids) are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and broader oleochemicals. In recent decades, several studies have used transgenic engineering to produce MCFA in seeds oils, though these modifications result in unbalance membrane lipid profiles that impair oil yields and agronomic performance. Given the ability to engineer non-seed organs to produce oils, we have previously demonstrated that MCFA profiles can be produced in leaves, but this also results in unbalanced membrane lipid profiles and undesirable chlorosis and cell death...
March 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284157/calibration-sets-selection-strategy-for-the-construction-of-robust-pls-models-for-prediction-of-biodiesel-diesel-blends-physico-chemical-properties-using-nir-spectroscopy
#6
Anna Palou, Aira Miró, Marcelo Blanco, Rafael Larraz, José Francisco Gómez, Teresa Martínez, Josep Maria González, Manel Alcalà
Even when the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression for prediction of physico-chemical properties of biodiesel/diesel blends has been widely demonstrated, inclusion in the calibration sets of the whole variability of diesel samples from diverse production origins still remains as an important challenge when constructing the models. This work presents a useful strategy for the systematic selection of calibration sets of samples of biodiesel/diesel blends from diverse origins, based on a binary code, principal components analysis (PCA) and the Kennard-Stones algorithm...
March 3, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280870/metabolic-engineering-for-high-glycerol-production-by-the-anaerobic-cultures-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Marta V Semkiv, Kostyantyn V Dmytruk, Charles A Abbas, Andriy A Sibirny
Glycerol is used by the cosmetic, paint, automotive, food, and pharmaceutical industries and for production of explosives. Currently, glycerol is available in commercial quantities as a by-product from biodiesel production, but the purity and the cost of its purification are prohibitive. The industrial production of glycerol by glucose aerobic fermentation using osmotolerant strains of the yeasts Candida sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been described. A major drawback of the aerobic process is the high cost of production...
March 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275533/biofibres-from-biofuel-industrial-byproduct-pongamia-pinnata-seed-hull
#8
Puttaswamy Manjula, Govindan Srinikethan, K Vidya Shetty
BACKGROUND: Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. METHODS: These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274177/high-quality-fuel-from-food-waste-investigation-of-a-stepwise-process-from-the-perspective-of-technology-development
#9
Ke Yin, Ling Li, Apostolos Giannis, Piyarat Weerachanchai, Bernard J H Ng, Jing-Yuan Wang
A stepwise process (SP) was developed for sustainable energy production from food waste (FW). The process comprised of hydrothermal treatment followed by oil upgrading. Synthetic food waste was primarily used as feedstock in the hydrothermal reactor under subcritical water conditions. The produced hydrochars were analyzed for calorific value (17.0-33.7 MJ/kg) and elemental composition indicating high-quality fuel comparable to coal. Hydrothermal carbonization (e.g. 180°C) would be efficient for oil recovery (>90%) from FW, as compared to hydrothermal liquefaction (320°C) whereby lipid degradation may take place...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265578/corrigendum-to-comparison-of-different-strategies-for-selection-adaptation-of-mixed-microbial-cultures-able-to-ferment-crude-glycerol-derived-from-second-generation-biodiesel
#10
C Varrone, T M B Heggeset, S B Le, T Haugen, S Markussen, I V Skiadas, H N Gavala
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/932934.].
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260667/microbial-biodiesel-production-from-oil-palm-biomass-hydrolysate-using-marine-rhodococcus-sp-yhy01
#11
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Junyoung Kim, Hun-Seok Song, Hyun Joong Kim, Jong-Min Jeon, Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Kyungmoon Park, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
The effect of various biomass derived inhibitors (i.e. furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (4-HB) and acetate) was investigated for fatty acid accumulation in Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01. Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was able to utilize acetate, vanillin, and 4-HB for biomass production and fatty acid accumulation. The IC50 value for furfural (3.1mM), HMF (3.2mM), vanillin (2.0mM), 4-HB (2.7mM) and acetate (3.7mM) was calculated. HMF and vanillin affect fatty acid composition and increase saturated fatty acid content...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254731/remediation-of-a-mixture-of-analgesics-in-a-stirred-tank-photobioreactor-using-microalgal-bacterial-consortium-coupled-with-attempt-to-valorise-the-harvested-biomass
#12
Maha M Ismail, Tamer M Essam, Yasser M Ragab, Abo El-Khair B El-Sayed, Fathia E Mourad
An artificial microalgal-bacterial consortium was used to remediate a mixture of analgesics (ketoprofen, paracetamol and aspirin) in a stirred-tank photobioreactor. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3days supported poor treatment because of the formation of p-aminophenol (paracetamol toxic metabolite). Increasing the HRT to 4days enhanced the bioremediation efficiency. After applying an acclimatization regime, 95% removal of the analgesics mixture, p-aminophenol and COD reduction were achieved. However, shortening the HRT again to 3days neither improved the COD reduction nor ketoprofen removal...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249211/thermodynamic-and-physiological-study-of-caproate-and-1-3-propanediol-co-production-through-glycerol-fermentation-and-fatty-acids-chain-elongation
#13
Ling Leng, Peixian Yang, Yanping Mao, Zhuoying Wu, Tong Zhang, Po-Heng Lee
An alternative process for anaerobic wastewater treatment with methane recovery is to elongate the carbon chain of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with a formation of medium chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), e.g. n-caproic acid with higher monetary value. A potential electron donor is glycerol as a surplus byproduct from the rapid growth of waste-derived biodiesel industry. In the current approach, an industrial chemical, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is produced from crude glycerol along with a formation of other soluble byproducts including ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which necessitates a significant amount of energy input for separation and purification...
February 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247272/biostimulation-and-rainfall-infiltration-influence-on-retention-of-biodiesel-in-residual-clayey-soil
#14
Antônio Thomé, Iziquiel Cecchin, Cleomar Reginatto, Luciane M Colla, Krishna R Reddy
This study investigates the retention of biodiesel in residual clayey soil during biostimulation by nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) under conditions of rainfall infiltration. Several column tests were conducted in a laboratory under different void ratios (1.14, 1.24, and 1.34), varying moisture contents (15, 25, and 35%), and in both the presence and absence of biostimulation. The volume of biodiesel (which was equivalent to the volume of voids in the soil) was placed atop the soil and allowed to percolate for a period of 15 days...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240158/biodiesel-production-from-citrillus-colocynthis-oil-using-based-catalytic-reaction-and-characterization-studies
#15
Imededdine A Nehdi, Hassen M Sbihi, Lahssen El Blidi, Umer Rashid, Saud I Al-Resayes
In this investigation, an enzyme catalyzed process was optimized to prepare methyl esters from crude Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO). Novozym 435 was used to synthesize biodiesel by transesterification of CCO with methanol. Use of tert-butanol as a reaction medium eliminated negative effects caused by excess methanol and formation of glycerol byproduct. Several variables affecting the Citrullus colocynthis methyl ester (CCME) yield including lipase quantity, water content, methanol/oil mole ratio, reaction temperature, reaction medium composition, and reaction time were optimized...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236480/effect-of-biodiesel-fuel-on-real-world-nonroad-heavy-duty-diesel-engine-particulate-matter-emissions-composition-and-cytotoxicity
#16
Nathan Martin, Melissa Lombard, Kirk R Jensen, Patrick Kelley, Tara Pratt, Nora Traviss
Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235994/mass-spectrometry-profiling-of-oxylipins-endocannabinoids-and-n-acylethanolamines-in-human-lung-lavage-fluids-reveals-responsiveness-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-associated-lipid-metabolites-to-biodiesel-exhaust-exposure
#17
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Masoumeh Karimpour, Jenny A Bosson, Anders Blomberg, Jon Unosson, Jamshid Pourazar, Thomas Sandström, Annelie F Behndig, Malin L Nording
The adverse effects of petrodiesel exhaust exposure on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are well recognized. While biofuels such as rapeseed methyl ester (RME) biodiesel may have ecological advantages, the exhaust generated may cause adverse health effects. In the current study, we investigated the responses of bioactive lipid mediators in human airways after biodiesel exhaust exposure using lipidomic profiling methods. Lipid mediator levels in lung lavage were assessed following 1-h biodiesel exhaust (average particulate matter concentration, 159 μg/m(3)) or filtered air exposure in 15 healthy individuals in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled, crossover study design...
February 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230995/synthesis-of-high-quality-biodiesel-using-feedstock-and-catalyst-derived-from-fish-wastes
#18
Devarapaga Madhu, Rajan Arora, Shalini Sahani, Veena Singh, Yogesh Chandra Sharma
A low-cost and high-purity calcium oxide (CaO) was prepared from waste crab shells, which were extracted from the dead crabs, was used as an efficient solid base catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel. Raw fish oil was extracted from waste parts of fish through mechanical expeller followed by solvent extraction. Physical as well as chemical properties of raw fish oil were studied, and its free fatty acid composition was analyzed with GC-MS. Stable and high-purity CaO was obtained when the material was calcined at 800 °C for 4 h...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223079/pie-waste-a-component-of-food-waste-and-a-renewable-substrate-for-producing-ethanol
#19
Margaret Magyar, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Singaram Jayanthi, Venkatesh Balan
Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration...
February 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220353/exploitation-of-genus-rhodosporidium-for-microbial-lipid-production
#20
REVIEW
Jingyang Xu, Dehua Liu
Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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