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Joyeeta Mukherjee, Munishwar N Gupta
Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMC) are a high-activity preparation of enzymes for use in low-water media. The protocols for the preparation of PCMCs of Subtilisin Carlsberg and Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL B) are described. The combi-PCMC concept is useful both for cascade and non-cascade reactions. It can also be beneficial to combine two different specificities of a lipase when the substrate requires it. Combi-PCMC of CALB and Palatase used for the conversion of coffee oil present in spent coffee grounds to biodiesel is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hugo Pereira, Katkam N Gangadhar, Peter S C Schulze, Tamára Santos, Carolina Bruno de Sousa, Lisa M Schueler, Luísa Custódio, F Xavier Malcata, Luísa Gouveia, João C S Varela, Luísa Barreira
Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Li, H E Muñoz, A Schmidt, B Guo, C Lei, K Goda, D Di Carlo
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jung Ah Choi, Dong-Yeon Kim, Yeong Hwan Seo, Jong-In Han
In this study, Chlorella sorokiniana was successfully cultivated in the recycled medium whose nitrogen was supplied directly from the coagulant, Fe(NO3)3. With a dosage of 0.80g/L, harvesting efficiency of 95% could be achieved. What is more, this amount of nitrate in the coagulant was enough to fully support the growth of C. sorokiniana during the 8day cultivation period, almost as much as the initial nitrogen content in the BG11 culture medium. Other nutrients had to be supplemented, however, with at least 50% amount as in the BG11 recipe...
September 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hemmat Khattab, Zeinab El Marid
Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons...
October 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Karla Silva Teixeira Souza, Cintia Lacerda Ramos, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Disney Ribeiro Dias
The main carbon source used for growth by four yeast strains (Yarrowia lipolytica CCMA 0357, Y. lipolytica CCMA 0242, Wickerhamomyces anomalus CCMA 0358, and Cryptococcus humicola CCMA 0346) and their lipid production were evaluated, using different concentrations of crude and pure glycerol and glucose. Whereas crude glycerol (100 g/L) was the main carbon source used by Y. lipolytica CCMA 0357 (nearly 15 g/L consumed at 120 h) and W. anomalus CCMA 0358 (nearly 45.10 g/L consumed at 48 h), pure glycerol (150 g/L) was the main one used by C...
October 13, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Nakyung Choi, Jeom-Sig Lee, Jieun Kwak, Junsoo Lee, In-Hwan Kim
A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock. The acid oil consisted of 53.7 wt% fatty acids, 2.4 wt% monoacylglycerols, 9.1 wt% diacylglycerols, 28.8 wt% triacylglycerols, and 6.0 wt% others. Three immobilized lipases were evaluated as potential biocatalysts, including Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Pavlo Bohutskyi, Steven Chow, Ben Ketter, Coral Fung Shek, Dean Yacar, Yuting Tang, Mark Zivojnovich, Michael J Betenbaugh, Edward J Bouwer
An integrated system was implemented for water phytoremediation and biofuel production through sequential cultivation of filamentous algae followed by cultivation of lipid-producing microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana. Natural poly-culture of filamentous algae was grown in agricultural stormwater using the Algal Turf Scrubber®, harvested and subjected for lipid extraction and/or methane production using anaerobic digestion (AD). While filamentous algae lipid content was too low for feasible biodiesel production (<2%), both whole biomass and lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA) yielded ∼0...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
L D Zhu, Z H Li, E Hiltunen
In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hugo Roume, Jan B A Arends, Camar P Ameril, Sunil A Patil, Korneel Rabaey
Given the large amount of crude glycerol formed as a by-product in the biodiesel industries and the concomitant decrease in its overall market price, there is a need to add extra value to this biorefinery side stream. Upgrading can be achieved by new biotechnologies dealing with recovery and conversion of glycerol present in wastewaters into value-added products, aiming at a zero-waste policy and developing an economically viable process. In microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), the mixed microbial community growing on the cathode can convert glycerol reductively to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Carolina Shene, Yusuf Chisti, Daniela Vergara, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, Mariela Bustamante
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Erik Anderson, Min Addy, Huan Ma, Paul Chen, Roger Ruan
In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel...
October 4, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Aadel Xaaldi Kalhor, Adel Dabbagh Mohammadi Nassab, Ehsan Abedi, Ahmad Bahrami, Ali Movafeghi
Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times...
September 29, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jia Liu, Ming Yuan, Jia-Nan Liu, Li-Jun Lu, Kai-Ming Peng, Xiang-Feng Huang
Four mixed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used as sole carbon source to culture oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus by sequencing batch culture strategy. The highest lipid content (42.7%) and concentration (1.77g/L) were achieved when the ratio of VFAs (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) was 6:3:1. The oleaginous yeast favored to use VFAs for lipid biosynthesis rather than cell proliferation. With regard to the utilization ratio of VFAs, acetic acid reached over 99%, whereas propionic acid was barely 35%...
October 3, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Brandon Michael Graver, H Christopher Frey, Jiangchuan Hu
Few data are available regarding the effect of biodiesel on exhaust emission rates of two-stroke engines used in many passenger locomotives. Using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), duty cycle average nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates were measured for three locomotives operating on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and soy-based B10, B20, and B40 biodiesel blends. Measurements were conducted in the rail yard (RY) and over-the-rail (OTR) during passenger service...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Luana Dos S Souza, Carmen Simioni, Zenilda L Bouzon, Rosana de Cassia da S Schneider, Pablo Gressler, Maria Cecília Miotto, Marcio J Rossi, Leonardo R Rörig
Chlamydomonas acidophila LAFIC-004 is an acidophilic strain of green microalgae isolated from coal mining drainage. In the present work, this strain was cultivated in acidic medium (pH 3.6) under phototrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic regimes to determine the best condition for growth and lipid production, simultaneously assessing possible morphological and ultrastructural alterations in the cells. For heterotrophic and mixotrophic treatments, two organic carbon sources were tested: 1 % glucose and 1 % sodium acetate...
September 30, 2016: Protoplasma
Neha Sachdeva, Ravi Prakash Gupta, Anshu Shankar Mathur, Deepak Kumar Tuli
The present study aimed to develop thermo-tolerant mutants of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 for high lipids production. For this, ethyl methane sulfonate was used, which generated two effective thermo-tolerant mutants, M18 and M24 of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738, capable of surviving at temperature up to 47°C and showing improved lipid and biomass yields. They showed 59.62% and 50.75% increase, respectively in lipid content compared to wild type at 30°C, which could not grow at temperature above 35°C...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Sebastian Heger, Kerstin Bluhm, Julia Brendt, Philipp Mayer, Nico Anders, Andreas Schäffer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
Only few information on the potential toxic effectiveness of biofuels are available. Due to increasing worldwide demand for energy and fuels during the past decades, biofuels are considered as a promising alternative for fossil fuels in the transport sector. Hence, more information on their hazard potentials are required to understand the toxicological impact of biofuels on the environment. In the German Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass" design processes for economical, sustainable and environmentally friendly biofuels are investigated...
2016: PloS One
Shuyan Zhang, Masakazu Ito, Jeffrey M Skerker, Adam P Arkin, Christopher V Rao
Natural lipids can be used to make biodiesel and many other value-added compounds. In this work, we explored a number of different metabolic engineering strategies for increasing lipid production in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides IFO0880. These included increasing the expression of enzymes involved in different aspects of lipid biosynthesis-malic enzyme (ME), pyruvate carboxylase (PYC1), glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-and deleting the gene PEX10, required for peroxisome biogenesis...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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