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Qingguo Chen, Feilong Cao
It is well known that the support vector machine (SVM) is an effective learning algorithm. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm has emerged as a powerful technique for solving distributed optimisation models. This paper proposes a distributed SVM algorithm in a master-slave mode (MS-DSVM), which integrates a distributed SVM and ADMM acting in a master-slave configuration where the master node and slave nodes are connected, meaning the results can be broadcasted. The distributed SVM is regarded as a regularised optimisation problem and modelled as a series of convex optimisation sub-problems that are solved by ADMM...
February 15, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
F C Monteiro Júnior, N R Mandarino, E M Santos, A M Santos, J V Salgado, D J A Brito, B J L Salgado, J S Lages, G Castelo Branco, N Salgado Filho
Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a possible new cardiovascular risk factor. However, the results of studies correlating serum vitamin D levels with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to correlate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in Afro-descendants. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 382 individuals from a cohort of descendants of African slaves, inhabitants of "Quilombola" communities, with a mean age of 57...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Bishwarup Paul, Sumana Annagiri
Thievery is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, social insects not being an exception. Brood is invaluable for the survival of social insect colonies and brood theft is well documented in ants. In many species the stolen brood act as slaves in the thief colony as they take up tasks related to foraging, defence and colony maintenance. Slave-making (dulotic) ants are at an advantage as they gain workforce without investing in rearing immature young, and several slave-making species have been recorded in temperate regions...
2018: PloS One
Stefan H Stricker, Magdalena Götz
The pristine formation of complex organs depends on sharp temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been frequently attributed a central role in controlling cell fate determination. A prime example for this is the first discovered and still most studied epigenetic mark, DNA methylation, and the development of the most complex mammalian organ, the brain. Recently, the field of epigenetics has advanced significantly: new DNA modifications were discovered, epigenomic profiling became widely accessible, and methods for targeted epigenomic manipulation have been developed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Isabel Inês M de Pina-Araujo, Natalia Spitz, Caroline C Soares, Christian Niel, Barbara V Lago, Selma A Gomes
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) diversity has not been previously studied in Cape Verde. The archipelago was discovered in 1460 by Portuguese explorers, who brought African slaves to colonise the islands. In this study, we investigated the HBV characteristics from 183 HBsAg-positive Cape Verdean individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of the pre-S/S region and the full-length genomes revealed 54 isolates with HBV/A1 (57%), 21 with HBV/A2 (22%), 19 with HBV/E (20%), and one with HBV/D (1%). HBV genotypes and subgenotypes were unequally distributed through the islands...
2018: PloS One
Brian S Peters, Priscila R Armijo, Crystal Krause, Songita A Choudhury, Dmitry Oleynikov
BACKGROUND: The use of laparoscopic and robotic procedures has increased in general surgery. Minimally invasive robotic surgery has made tremendous progress in a relatively short period of time, realizing improvements for both the patient and surgeon. This has led to an increase in the use and development of robotic devices and platforms for general surgery. The purpose of this review is to explore current and emerging surgical robotic technologies in a growing and dynamic environment of research and development...
February 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Eugenia D'Atanasio, Beniamino Trombetta, Maria Bonito, Andrea Finocchio, Genny Di Vito, Mara Seghizzi, Rita Romano, Gianluca Russo, Giacomo Maria Paganotti, Elizabeth Watson, Alfredo Coppa, Paolo Anagnostou, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Pedro Moral, Daniele Sellitto, Andrea Novelletto, Fulvio Cruciani
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the peopling of the Sahara during the Holocene climatic optimum, when the desert was replaced by a fertile environment. RESULTS: In order to investigate the role of the last Green Sahara in the peopling of Africa, we deep-sequence the whole non-repetitive portion of the Y chromosome in 104 males selected as representative of haplogroups which are currently found to the north and to the south of the Sahara. We identify 5,966 mutations, from which we extract 142 informative markers then genotyped in about 8,000 subjects from 145 African, Eurasian and African American populations...
February 12, 2018: Genome Biology
Filipa Simão, Ana Paula Ferreira, Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho, Walther Parson, Leonor Gusmão
The genetic composition of the Brazilian population was shaped by interethnic admixture between autochthonous Native Americans, Europeans settlers and African slaves. This structure, characteristic of most American populations, implies the need for large population forensic databases to capture the high diversity that is usually associated with admixed populations. In the present work, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 205 non-related individuals living in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Harry C Evans, Simon L Elliot, Robert W Barreto
Classical biological control has been used extensively for the management of exotic weeds and agricultural pests, but never for alien insect vectors of medical importance. This simple but elegant control strategy involves the introduction of coevolved natural enemies from the centre of origin of the target alien species. Aedes aegypti - the primary vector of the dengue, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses - is just such an invasive alien in the Americas where it arrived accidentally from its West African home during the slave trade...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Hebe Mattos, Martha Abreu, Isabel Castro
An analytical essay of the process of image production, audiovisual archive formation, analysis of sources, and creation of the filmic narrative of the four historiographic films that form the DVD set Passados presentes (Present pasts) from the Oral History and Image Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (Labhoi/UFF). From excerpts from the audiovisual archive of Labhoi and the films made, the article analyzes: how the problem of research (the memory of slavery, and the legacy of the slave song in the agrofluminense region) led us to the production of images in a research situation; the analytical shift in relation to the cinematographic documentary and the ethnographic film; the specificities of revisiting the audiovisual collection constituted by the formulation of new research problems...
October 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Ali Azimi Olyaei, Christine Wu, Witold Kinsner
An alternative approach of detecting unstable periodic orbits in chaotic time series is proposed using synchronization techniques. A master-slave synchronization scheme is developed, in which the chaotic system drives a system of harmonic oscillators through a proper coupling condition. The proposed scheme is designed so that the power of the coupling signal exhibits notches that drop to zero once the system approaches an unstable orbit yielding an explicit indication of the presence of a periodic motion. The results shows that the proposed approach is particularly suitable in practical situations, where the time series is short and noisy, or it is obtained from high-dimensional chaotic systems...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Hafiz Ahmed, Ivan Salgado, Héctor Ríos
Robust synchronization of master slave chaotic systems are considered in this work. First an approximate model of the error system is obtained using the ultra-local model concept. Then a Continuous Singular Terminal Sliding-Mode (CSTSM) Controller is designed for the purpose of synchronization. The proposed approach is output feedback-based and uses fixed-time higher order sliding-mode (HOSM) differentiator for state estimation. Numerical simulation and experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed technique...
January 10, 2018: ISA Transactions
Ayal B Gussow, Brett R Copeland, Ryan S Dhindsa, Quanli Wang, Slavé Petrovski, William H Majoros, Andrew S Allen, David B Goldstein
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181604.].
2018: PloS One
Mariana Furquim da Silva Martins, Mariane Barroso Pereira, Juliana de Jesus Guimarães Ferreira, Adriana de Oliveira França, Marlon Cézar Cominetti, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros Dorval, Cláudio Lúcio Rossi, Sílvia de Barros Mazon, Eros Antonio de Almeida, Sandra Cecília Botelho Costa, Gláucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon
Furnas do Dionísio is a Brazilian Afro-descendant settlement in the city of Jaraguari, 21.4 miles from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Approximately 96 families live in this quilombola (Maroon) settlement, also known in Brazil as a remnant community of descendants of African slaves. Recent studies found 20% of households were infested by triatomines, 18% of insects captured in the community were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and 22.7% of dogs presented T. cruzi antibodies. The low prevalence of Chagas disease observed in humans in Mato Grosso do Sul State is attributed to its arrival via colonist migration and subsequent transplacental transmission...
2018: PloS One
Max D Cruz-Santos, Michele S Gomes-Gouvêa, Jomar D Costa-Nunes, Camila Malta-Romano, Marinilde Teles-Sousa, Lena M Fonseca-Barros, Flair J Carrilho, Adalgisa de S Paiva-Ferreira, João R Rebello-Pinho
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to a chronic liver disease that is distributed worldwide. The characterization of HBV into genotypes/subgenotypes is not only a mere procedure for distinguishing different HBV strains around the world because determining their geographic distribution is crucial to understanding their spread across the world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We characterized different HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in five municipalities located in northeastern Maranhão, in the Brazilian north Atlantic coast...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
Virginia Zarulli, Julia A Barthold Jones, Anna Oksuzyan, Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Kaare Christensen, James W Vaupel
Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Renato P Freitas, Filipe A Coelho, Valter S Felix, Marcelo O Pereira, Marcos André Torres de Souza, Marcelino J Anjos
This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500°C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO2. Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples...
December 18, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Inge C M Van Seggelen-Damen, René Van Hezewijk, Anne S Helsdingen, Iwan G J H Wopereis
Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno. The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection...
December 2017: Theory & Psychology
S Piao, T Okura, M Irie
The fat quality is an important aspect, especially for Wagyu beef. A handheld fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer for on-site evaluation of beef fat quality was developed, and the interactance spectra of the intermuscular fat from 833 Wagyu carcasses at 12 markets were measured. The calibration model was transferred to five slave instruments using twenty-six block samples. The performance of one slave instrument was verified at five meat markets (n=360). The coefficients of determination of the slave instrument for monounsaturated, oleic, and saturated fatty acid compositions determined by gas chromatography and near-infrared measurements were 0...
November 27, 2017: Meat Science
Stefania Perticaroli, Lucia Comez, Paola Sassi, Assunta Morresi, Daniele Fioretto, Marco Paolantoni
Water is a strong self-associated liquid with peculiar properties that crucially depend on H-bonding. As regards its molecular dynamics, only recently water reorientation has been successfully described based on a jump mechanism, which is responsible for the overall H-bonding exchange. Here, using high-resolution broad-band depolarized light scattering, we have investigated the reorientational dynamics of formamide (FA) as a function of concentration from the neat liquid to diluted aqueous solutions. Our main findings indicate that in the diluted regime the water rearrangement can trigger the motion of FA solute molecules, which are forced to reorient at the same rate as water...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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