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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928980/inside-doctor-livingstone-a-scottish-icon-s-encounter-with-tropical-disease
#1
Michael P Barrett, Federica Giordani
Dr David Livingstone died on May 1st 1873. He was 60 years old and had spent much of the previous 30 years walking across large stretches of Southern Africa, exploring the terrain he hoped could provide new environments in which Europeans and Africans could cohabit on equal terms and bring prosperity to a part of the world he saw ravaged by the slave trade. Just days before he died, he wrote in his journal about the permanent stream of blood that he was emitting related to haemorrhoids and the acute intestinal pain that had left him incapable of walking...
December 8, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925132/-modern-day-slavery-as-a-public-health-issue
#2
Luís Henrique da Costa Leão
Modern-day slave labor is one of the most pernicious and persistent social problems in Brazil. In the light of the need to implement a national occupational health policy, this paper discusses slave labor as a public health concern, highlighting possibilities for broadening strategies for vigilance and comprehensive care for this specific working population. Exploratory qualitative research was carried out based on the "social construction of reality" proposed by Lenoir, Berger and Luckmann. The investigation consisted of a theoretical review of modern-day slave labor on the national and international scene within the scope of the human, social and public health sciences and an analysis of social and political practices to tackle modern-day slave labor was conducted in the State of Rio de Janeiro...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905583/intracellular-water-an-overlooked-drug-target-cisplatin-impact-in-cancer-cells-probed-by-neutrons
#3
M P M Marques, A L M Batista de Carvalho, V Garcia Sakai, L Hatter, L A E Batista de Carvalho
The first neutron scattering study on human nucleated cells is reported, addressing the subject of solvent-slaving to a drug by probing intracellular water upon drug exposure. Inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy with isotope labelling was applied for monitoring interfacial water response to the anticancer drug cisplatin, in the low prognosis human metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Optical vibrational data were also obtained for lyophilised cells. Concentration-dependent dynamical changes evidencing a progressive mobility reduction were unveiled between untreated and cisplatin-exposed samples, concurrent with variations in the native organisation of water molecules within the intracellular medium as a consequence of drug action...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899421/the-importance-of-dynamic-re-analysis-in-diagnostic-whole-exome-sequencing
#4
Anna C Need, Vandana Shashi, Kelly Schoch, Slavé Petrovski, David B Goldstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873506/development-of-a-robotic-colonoscopic-manipulation-system-using-haptic-feedback-algorithm
#5
Jaehong Woo, Jae Hyuk Choi, Jong Tae Seo, Tae Il Kim, Byung Ju Yi
PURPOSE: Colonoscopy is one of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools for colorectal diseases. We aim to propose a master-slave robotic colonoscopy that is controllable in remote site using conventional colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master and slave robot were developed to use conventional flexible colonoscopy. The robotic colonoscopic procedure was performed using a colonoscope training model by one expert endoscopist and two unexperienced engineers...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862833/the-role-of-visual-and-direct-force-feedback-in-robotics-assisted-mitral-valve-annuloplasty
#6
Maria E Currie, Ali Talasaz, Reiza Rayman, Michael W A Chu, Bob Kiaii, Terry Peters, Ana Luisa Trejos, Rajni Patel
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to determine the effect of both direct force feedback and visual force feedback on the amount of force applied to mitral valve tissue during ex vivo robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty. METHODS: A force feedback-enabled master-slave surgical system was developed to provide both visual and direct force feedback during robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. This system measured the amount of force applied by novice and expert surgeons to cardiac tissue during ex vivo mitral valve annuloplasty repair...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834655/synchronization-of-an-inertial-neural-network-with-time-varying-delays-and-its-application-to-secure-communication
#7
Shanmugam Lakshmanan, Mani Prakash, Chee Peng Lim, Rajan Rakkiyappan, Pagavathigounder Balasubramaniam, Saeid Nahavandi
In this paper, synchronization of an inertial neural network with time-varying delays is investigated. Based on the variable transformation method, we transform the second-order differential equations into the first-order differential equations. Then, using suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and Jensen's inequality, the synchronization criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Moreover, a feedback controller is designed to attain synchronization between the master and slave models, and to ensure that the error model is globally asymptotically stable...
November 3, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828022/frequency-domain-phase-noise-analysis-of-dual-injection-locked-optoelectronic-oscillators
#8
Sajad Jahanbakht
Dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators (DIL-OEOs) have been introduced as a means to achieve very low-noise microwave oscillations while avoiding the large spurious peaks that occur in the phase noise of the conventional single-loop OEOs. In these systems, two OEOs are inter-injection locked to each other. The OEO with the longer optical fiber delay line is called the master OEO, and the other is called the slave OEO. Here, a frequency domain approach for simulating the phase noise spectrum of each of the OEOs in a DIL-OEO system and based on the conversion matrix approach is presented...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810516/is-fgf13-a-major-contributor-to-genetic-epilepsy-with-febrile-seizures-plus
#9
Kristin A Rigbye, Peter M van Hasselt, Rosemary Burgess, John A Damiano, Saul A Mullen, Slavé Petrovski, Ram S Puranam, Koen L I van Gassen, Jozef Gecz, Ingrid E Scheffer, James O McNamara, Samuel F Berkovic, Michael S Hildebrand
Mutation of fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13) has recently been implicated in genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) in a single family segregating a balanced translocation with a breakpoint in this X chromosome gene, predicting a partial knockout involving 3 of 5 known FGF13 isoforms. Investigation of a mouse model of complete Fgf13 knock-out revealed increased susceptibility to hyperthermia-induced seizures and epilepsy. Here we investigated whether mutation of FGF13 would explain other cases of GEFS+ compatible with X-linked inheritance...
December 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802472/slaves
#10
Renuka Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796350/opportunistic-brood-theft-in-the-context-of-colony-relocation-in-an-indian-queenless-ant
#11
Bishwarup Paul, Manabi Paul, Sumana Annagiri
Brood is a very valuable part of an ant colony and behaviours increasing its number with minimum investment is expected to be favoured by natural selection. Brood theft has been well documented in ants belonging to the subfamilies Myrmicinae and Formicinae. In this study we report opportunistic brood theft in the context of nest relocation in Diacamma indicum, belonging to the primitively eusocial subfamily Ponerinae. Pupae was the preferred stolen item both in laboratory conditions and in natural habitat and a small percentage of the members of a colony acting as thieves stole about 12% of the brood of the victim colony...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794541/military-officers-tropical-medicine-and-racial-thought-in-the-formation-of-the-west-india-regiments-1793-1802
#12
Michael Joseph
The article examines the establishment and growth between 1793 and 1802 of the West India Regiments, British army corps manned by slaves of African descent and commanded by European officers. Focusing on the medical history of British military operations in the West Indies, the article demonstrates that the rationale behind the regiments was medical, but that the impetus for them came from senior military commanders rather than from the medical practitioners whose writings are usually privileged in the historiography...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794425/facultative-slave-making-ants-formica-sanguinea-label-their-slaves-with-own-recognition-cues-instead-of-employing-the-strategy-of-chemical-mimicry
#13
Tomasz Włodarczyk, Lech Szczepaniak
Slave-making ant species use the host workforce to ensure normal colony functioning. Slaves are robbed as pupae from their natal nest and after eclosion, assume the parasite colony as their own. A possible factor promoting the successful integration of slaves into a foreign colony is congruence with the slave-makers in terms of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are known to play the role of recognition cues in social insects. Such an adaptation is observed in the obligate slave-making ant species, which are chemically adjusted to their slaves...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782783/-when-this-breaks-down-it-s-black-gold-race-and-gender-in-agricultural-health-and-safety
#14
Kathrine Lynn Barnes, Casper G Bendixsen
Farmers are growing older, and fewer new agriculturists are rising to take their place. Concurrently, women and minorities are entering agriculture at an increasing rate. These rates are particularly curious viewed in light of the racialized and gendered nature of agriculture. Slavery and agriculture share strong historical roots with many male slaves performing agricultural labor. So then, why would African American women choose to engage in agriculture in any form? Participant-observation and in-depth interviews with a group of African American women urban farmers in the southeastern United States were asked this question...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779131/magnetic-states-correlation-effects-and-metal-insulator-transition-in-fcc-lattice
#15
M A Timirgazin, P A Igoshev, A K Arzhnikov, V Yu Irkhin
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals [Formula: see text]...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773941/discriminatory-abilities-of-facultative-slave-making-ants-and-their-slaves
#16
T Włodarczyk
Intra-colony odor variability can disturb ants' ability to discriminate against intruders. The evolutionary relevance of this phenomenon can be revealed by studies on colonies of slave-making ants in which the parasite, and not the host, is subject to selection pressures associated with living in a mixed colony. We examined how the European facultative slave-making species Formica sanguinea and its F. fusca slaves perform in discriminating ants from alien colonies. Results of behavioral assays showed that slave-maker ants respond with hostility to conspecific individuals from alien colonies but are relatively tolerant to alien slaves...
2016: Insectes Sociaux
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761960/inferring-paternal-history-of-rural-african-derived-brazilian-populations-from-y-chromosomes
#17
Lilian Kimura, Kelly Nunes, Lúcia Inês Macedo-Souza, Jorge Rocha, Diogo Meyer, Regina Célia Mingroni-Netto
OBJECTIVES: Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler)...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744413/recent-historical-migrations-have-shaped-the-gene-pool-of-arabs-and-berbers-in-north-africa
#18
Lara R Arauna, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, Alex Mas-Sandoval, Hassan Izaabel, Asmahan Bekada, Soraya Benhamamouch, Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid, Pierre Zalloua, Garrett Hellenthal, David Comas
North Africa is characterized by its diverse cultural and linguistic groups and its genetic heterogeneity. Genomic data has shown an amalgam of components mixed since pre-Holocean times. Though no differences have been found in uniparental and classical markers between Berbers and Arabs, the two main ethnic groups in the region, the scanty genomic data available have highlighted the singularity of Berbers. We characterize the genetic heterogeneity of North African groups, focusing on the putative differences of Berbers and Arabs, and estimate migration dates...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740498/the-role-of-direct-and-visual-force-feedback-in-suturing-using-a-7-dof-dual-arm-teleoperated-system
#19
Ali Talasaz, Ana Luisa Trejos, Rajni Patel
The lack of haptic feedback in roboticsassisted surgery can result in tissue damage or accidental tool-tissue hits. This paper focuses on exploring the effect of haptic feedback via direct force reflection and visual presentation of force magnitude on performance during robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS) suturing. For this purpose, a haptics-enabled dual-arm master-slave teleoperation system capable of measuring tool-tissue interaction forces in all 7 Degrees-of-Freedom (DOFs) was used. Two suturing tasks, tissue puncturing and knottightening, were chosen to assess user skills when suturing on phantom tissue...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738651/a-new-finite-time-observer-for-nonlinear-systems-applications-to-synchronization-of-lorenz-like-systems
#20
Ricardo Aguilar-López, Juan L Mata-Machuca
This paper proposes a synchronization methodology of two chaotic oscillators under the framework of identical synchronization and master-slave configuration. The proposed methodology is based on state observer design under the frame of control theory; the observer structure provides finite-time synchronization convergence by cancelling the upper bounds of the main nonlinearities of the chaotic oscillator. The above is showed via an analysis of the dynamic of the so called synchronization error. Numerical experiments corroborate the satisfactory results of the proposed scheme...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
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