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Lilian Kimura, Kelly Nunes, Lúcia Inês Macedo-Souza, Jorge Rocha, Diogo Meyer, Regina Célia Mingroni-Netto
OBJECTIVES: Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler)...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Lara R Arauna, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, Alex Mas-Sandoval, Hassan Izaabel, Asmahan Bekada, Soraya Benhamamouch, Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid, Pierre Zalloua, Garrett Hellenthal, David Comas
North Africa is characterized by its diverse cultural and linguistic groups and its genetic heterogeneity. Genomic data has shown an amalgam of components mixed since pre-Holocean times. Though no differences have been found in uniparental and classical markers between Berbers and Arabs, the two main ethnic groups in the region, the scanty genomic data available have highlighted the singularity of Berbers. We characterize the genetic heterogeneity of North African groups, focusing on the putative differences of Berbers and Arabs, and estimate migration dates...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ali Talasaz, Ana Luisa Trejos, Rajni Patel
The lack of haptic feedback in roboticsassisted surgery can result in tissue damage or accidental tool-tissue hits. This paper focuses on exploring the effect of haptic feedback via direct force reflection and visual presentation of force magnitude on performance during robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS) suturing. For this purpose, a haptics-enabled dual-arm master-slave teleoperation system capable of measuring tool-tissue interaction forces in all 7 Degrees-of-Freedom (DOFs) was used. Two suturing tasks, tissue puncturing and knottightening, were chosen to assess user skills when suturing on phantom tissue...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Ricardo Aguilar-López, Juan L Mata-Machuca
This paper proposes a synchronization methodology of two chaotic oscillators under the framework of identical synchronization and master-slave configuration. The proposed methodology is based on state observer design under the frame of control theory; the observer structure provides finite-time synchronization convergence by cancelling the upper bounds of the main nonlinearities of the chaotic oscillator. The above is showed via an analysis of the dynamic of the so called synchronization error. Numerical experiments corroborate the satisfactory results of the proposed scheme...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Rong Yu, Andriy H Nevidomskyy
We study the symmetry and strength of the superconducting pairing in a two-orbital [Formula: see text] model for iron pnictides using the slave boson strong coupling approach. We show that the nearest-neighbor biquadratic interaction [Formula: see text] strongly affects the superconducting pairing phase diagram by promoting the [Formula: see text] B 1g and the [Formula: see text] A 1g channels. The resulting phase diagram consists of several competing pairing channels, including the isotropic [Formula: see text] A 1g channel, an anisotropic [Formula: see text] B 1g channel, and two [Formula: see text] pairing channels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Juliana D Lindenau, Sandrine C Wagner, Simone M de Castro, Mara H Hutz
Sickle cell hemoglobin is the result of a mutation at the sixth amino acid position of the beta (β) globin chain. The HBB*S gene is in linkage disequilibrium with five main haplotypes in the β-globin-like gene cluster named according to their ethnic and geographic origins: Bantu (CAR), Benin (BEN), Senegal (SEN), Cameroon (CAM) and Arabian-Indian (ARAB). These haplotypes demonstrated that the sickle cell mutation arose independently at least five times in human history. The distribution of βS haplotypes among Brazilian populations showed a predominance of the CAR haplotype...
October 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Fabio Oscari, Roberto Oboe, Omar Andres Daud Albasini, Stefano Masiero, Giulio Rosati
The use of haptic devices in the rehabilitation of impaired limbs has become rather popular, given the proven effectiveness in promoting recovery. In a standard framework, such devices are used in rehabilitation centers, where patients interact with virtual tasks, presented on a screen. To track their sessions, kinematic/dynamic parameters or performance scores are recorded. However, as Internet access is now available at almost every home and in order to reduce the hospitalization time of the patient, the idea of doing rehabilitation at home is gaining wide consent...
October 1, 2016: Sensors
Tinde R van Andel, Rachel S Meyer, Saulo A Aflitos, Judith A Carney, Margaretha A Veltman, Dario Copetti, Jonathan M Flowers, Reinout M Havinga, Harro Maat, Michael D Purugganan, Rod A Wing, M Eric Schranz
African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and African cultivation practices are said to have influenced emerging colonial plantation economies in the Americas(1,2). However, the level of impact of African rice practices is difficult to establish because of limited written or botanical records(2,3). Recent findings of O. glaberrima in rice fields of Suriname Maroons bear evidence of the high level of knowledge about rice among African slaves and their descendants, who consecrate it in ancestor rituals(4,5). Here we establish the strong similarity, and hence likely origin, of the first extant New World landrace of O...
October 3, 2016: Nature Plants
Vandana Shashi, Loren D M Pena, Katherine Kim, Barbara Burton, Maja Hempel, Kelly Schoch, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Heather M McLaughlin, Megan Cho, Nicholas Stong, Scott E Hickey, Christine M Shuss, Michael S Freemark, Jane S Bellet, Martha Ann Keels, Melanie J Bonner, Maysantoine El-Dairi, Megan Butler, Peter G Kranz, Constance T R M Stumpel, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Karin Oberndorff, Malik Alawi, Rene Santer, Slavé Petrovski, Outi Kuismin, Satu Korpi-Heikkilä, Olli Pietilainen, Palotie Aarno, Mitja I Kurki, Alexander Hoischen, Anna C Need, David B Goldstein, Fanny Kortüm
The ASXL genes (ASXL1, ASXL2, and ASXL3) participate in body patterning during embryogenesis and encode proteins involved in epigenetic regulation and assembly of transcription factors to specific genomic loci. Germline de novo truncating variants in ASXL1 and ASXL3 have been respectively implicated in causing Bohring-Opitz and Bainbridge-Ropers syndromes, which result in overlapping features of severe intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. ASXL2 has not yet been associated with a human Mendelian disorder...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Silvina Cerveny, Izaskun Combarro-Palacios, Jan Swenson
Studies of protein dynamics at low temperatures are generally performed on hydrated powders and not in biologically realistic solutions of water because of water crystallization. However, here we avoid the problem of crystallization by reducing the size of the biomolecules. We have studied oligomers of the amino acid l-lysine, fully dissolved in water, and our dielectric relaxation data show that the glass transition-related dynamics of the oligomers is determined by the water dynamics, in a way similar to that previously observed for solvated proteins...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kemal Şafak, Ming Xin, Qing Zhang, Shih-Hsuan Chia, Oliver D Mücke, Franz X Kärtner
We present a powerful jitter analysis method for timing-distribution and remote-laser synchronization systems based on feedback flow between setup elements. We synchronize two different mode-locked lasers in a master-slave configuration locally and remotely over a timing-stabilized fiber link network. Local synchronization reveals the inherent jitter of the slave laser as 2.1 fs RMS (>20 kHz), whereas remote synchronization exhibits an out-of-loop jitter of 8.55 fs RMS integrated for 1 Hz - 1 MHz. Our comprehensive feedback model yields excellent agreement with the experimental results and identifies seven uncorrelated noise sources, out of which the slave laser's jitter dominates with 8...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Catherine Chin, Adrian Bradu, Rongxuan Lim, Mona Khandwala, John Schofield, Lasse Leick, Adrian Podoleanu
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is fast emerging as an additional non-interventional modality for skin tumor detection and diagnosis. A master/slave flying spot OCT configuration was assembled to detect periocular basal cell carcinomas (BCC). A swept source at 1300 nm and sweeping speed of 50 kHz were used. A three-step process was involved. First, 384 channeled spectra using a mirror were stored for 384 optical path differences at the master stage. Then, the stored channeled spectra (masks) were correlated with the channeled spectrum from the BCC tissue to produce 384 en face OCT images (200×200 pixels) for the optical path difference values used to acquire the masks...
September 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Song-Ho Chong, Sihyun Ham
Confined water often exhibits anomalous properties not observable in the bulk phase. Although water in hydrophobic confinement has been the focus of intense investigation, the behavior of water confined between hydrophilic surfaces, which are more frequently found in biological systems, has not been fully explored. Here, we investigate using molecular dynamics simulations dynamical properties of the water confined in hydrophilic protein-protein and protein-DNA interfaces. We find that the interfacial water exhibits glassy slow relaxations even at 300 K...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Charles N Rotimi, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Jennifer L Baker, Daniel Shriner
The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities...
September 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Preston J MacDougall, Christopher E Henze, Anatoliy Volkov
We present a unique platform for molecular visualization and design that uses novel subatomic feature detection software in tandem with 3D hyperwall visualization technology. We demonstrate the fleshing-out of pharmacophores in drug molecules, as well as reactive sites in catalysts, focusing on subatomic features. Topological analysis with picometer resolution, in conjunction with interactive volume-rendering of the Laplacian of the electronic charge density, leads to new insight into docking and catalysis...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
S B S Gaouar, M Lafri, A Djaout, R El-Bouyahiaoui, A Bouri, A Bouchatal, A Maftah, E Ciani, A B Da Silva
Algeria represents a reservoir of genetic diversity with local sheep breeds adapted to a large range of environments and showing specific features necessary to deal with harsh conditions. This remarkable diversity results from the traditional management of dryland by pastoralists over centuries. Most of these breeds are poorly productive, and the economic pressure leads farmers to realize anarchic cross-breeding (that is, not carried out in the framework of selection plans) with the hope to increase animal's conformation...
September 14, 2016: Heredity
A Miernik, S Hein, F Adams, J Halbritter, M Schoenthaler
Urological and surgical treatment of urinary stones are highly technological and technology-driven disciplines in present-day surgery. German medical engineering has always been recognized for its technical innovations in endoscopic surgery. Current and future trends are indicative of further miniaturization and automation of surgical instruments and assist systems to facilitate endourological procedures as well as improvements in the quality of results and ergonomics. These technologies include, e. g. 3D-tracking to facilitate access to the pelvicaliceal system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) or robotic master-slave systems for endourology...
October 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Sharareh Sayyad, Martin Eckstein
We investigate the time-dependent reformation of the quasiparticle peak in a correlated metal near the Mott transition, after the system is quenched into a hot electron state and equilibrates with an environment which is colder than the Fermi-liquid crossover temperature. Close to the transition, we identify a purely electronic bottleneck time scale, which depends on the spectral weight around the Fermi energy in the bad metallic phase in a nonlinear way. This time scale can be orders of magnitude larger than the bare and renormalized electronic hopping time, so that a separation of electronic and lattice time scales may break down...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
N Martinez, G Michoud, A Cario, J Ollivier, B Franzetti, M Jebbar, P Oger, J Peters
Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T...
2016: Scientific Reports
Behnaz Jarrahi, Roger Gassert, Johann Wanek, Lars Michels, Ulrich Mehnert, Spyros S Kollias
Mapping the brain centers that mediate the sensory-perceptual processing of visceral afferent signals arising from the body (i.e., interoception) is useful both for characterizing normal brain activity and for understanding clinical disorders related to abnormal processing of visceral sensation. Here, we report a novel closed-system, electrohydrostatically driven master-slave device that was designed and constructed for delivering controlled fluidic stimulations of visceral organs and inner cavities of the human body within the confines of a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
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