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Schizophrenia hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393090/gender-specific-hippocampal-whole-genome-transcriptome-data-from-mice-lacking-the-cav2-3-r-type-or-cav3-2-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel
#1
Anna Papazoglou, Christina Henseler, Andreas Lundt, Carola Wormuth, Julien Soos, Karl Broich, Dan Ehninger, Marco Weiergräber
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are of central relevance in mediating numerous intracellular and transcellular processes including excitation-contraction coupling, excitation secretion-coupling, hormone and neurotransmitter release and gene expression. The Cav2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channel is a high-voltage activated channel which plays a crucial role in neurotransmitter release, long-term potentiation and hormone release. Furthermore, Cav2.3 R-type channels were reported to be involved in ictogenesis, epileptogenesis, fear behavior, sleep, pre-and postsynaptic integration and rhythmicity within the hippocampus...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353231/multiplex-immunoassay-profiling-of-serum-in-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Laurie Stephen, Emanuel Schwarz, Paul C Guest
Multiplex immunoassays allow for the rapid profiling of biomarker proteins in biological fluids, using less sample and labour than in single immunoassays. This chapter details the methods to develop and manufacture a 5-plex immunoassay for the Luminex® platform. Although assay development is not included here, the same methods can be used to covalently couple antibodies to the Luminex beads and to label antibodies for the screening of sandwich pairs, if needed. An example will be given for the analysis of five hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1, growth hormone, insulin, leptin and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in serum samples from schizophrenia patients and controls...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#3
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#4
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334543/-functional-impact-of-herg-from-physiological-role-to-target-of-anticancer-therapy
#5
Júlia Šatková, Markéta Bébarová
The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG; officially designated as KCNH2) encodes the structure of protein forming α-subunit of voltage-gated ion channel which conducts the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This current plays an important role namely in the cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG result in inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes characterized by a lenghtening or shortening of QT interval on the electrocardiogram and by an increased occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332369/gender-specific-associations-between-chgb-genetic-variants-and-schizophrenia-in-a-korean-population
#6
Joong Gon Shin, Jeong Hyun Kim, Chul Soo Park, Bong Jo Kim, Jae Won Kim, Ihn Geun Choi, Jaeuk Hwang, Hyoung Doo Shin, Sung Il Woo
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder and is known to be affected by genetic factors. The chromogranin B (CHGB), a member of the chromogranin gene family, has been proposed as a candidate gene associated with the risk of schizophrenia. The secretory pathway for peptide hormones and neuropeptides in the brain is regulated by chromogranin proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between genetic variants of CHGB and schizophrenia susceptibility...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316773/vitamin-d-treatment-during-pregnancy-prevents-autism-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#7
Stephanie Vuillermot, Wei Luan, Urs Meyer, Darryl Eyles
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282074/-epigenetics-2-0-the-multiple-faces-of-the-genome
#8
Marcelo Rubinstein
Epigenetics is the branch of genetics that studies the dynamic relationship between stable genotypes and varying phenotypes. To this end, epigenetics aims to discover the molecular mechanisms that explain how different nutrients and hormones, environmental changes, and emotional, social and cognitive experiences modify gene expression and behaviors, even permanently so. Psychiatry has learned that diseases with strong genetic predisposition, such as schizophrenia, show a concordance of around 50% between monozygotic twins, thus evidencing the importance of the genetic background and the presence of environmental variables that stimulate or block phenotypic development...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220059/disturbance-in-maternal-environment-leads-to-abnormal-synaptic-instability-during-neuronal-circuitry-development
#9
REVIEW
Yusuke Hatanaka, Tomohiro Kabuta, Keiji Wada
Adverse maternal environment during gestation and lactation can have negative effects on the developing brain that persist into adulthood and result in behavioral impairment. Recent studies of human and animal models suggest epidemiological and experimental association between disturbances in maternal environments during brain development and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193195/assessing-the-burden-of-treatment-emergent-adverse-events-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-medications
#10
Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Ann Hartry, T Michelle Brown, Dana B DiBenedetti, Siddhesh A Kamat, Clément François
BACKGROUND: Treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) show improved efficacy and reduced side effect burden compared with older antipsychotic medications. However, a risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) remains. TEAEs are hard to quantify and perspectives on the importance of TEAEs differ across patients and between patients and physicians. The current study is a qualitative assessment that investigates TEAEs of AAPs from both patient and physician perspectives to provide better understanding of the occurrence and burden of TEAEs associated with these medications...
February 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152600/unbiased-metabolite-profiling-of-schizophrenia-fibroblasts-under-stressful-perturbations-reveals-dysregulation-of-plasmalogens-and-phosphatidylcholines
#11
Joanne H Huang, Hyoungjun Park, Jonathan Iaconelli, Shaunna S Berkovitch, Bradley Watmuff, Donna McPhie, Dost Öngür, Bruce M Cohen, Clary B Clish, Rakesh Karmacharya
We undertook an unbiased metabolite profiling of fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls to identify metabolites and pathways that are dysregulated in disease, seeking to gain new insights into the disease biology of schizophrenia and to discover potential disease-related biomarkers. We measured polar and nonpolar metabolites in the fibroblasts under normal conditions and under two stressful physiological perturbations: growth in low-glucose media and exposure to the steroid hormone dexamethasone...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127888/insulin-delivery-to-the-brain-using-intracranial-implantation-of-alginate-encapsulated-pancreatic-islets
#12
Konstantin Bloch, Alexey Vanichkin, Irit Gil-Ad, Pnina Vardi, Abraham Weizman
There is increasing evidence supporting a link between cognitive dysfunctions and impaired brain insulin signalling. Insulin therapy has previously been tested as an approach to ameliorate brain insulin resistance and deficiency in patients with various brain disorders. However, current strategies for insulin delivery to the brain may induce severe hypoglycaemia when injected peripherally or show poor uptake when delivered intranasally. Recently, we have shown that intracranial transplantation of naked pancreatic islets increased insulin content in the brain and attenuated cognitive dysfunctions without altering peripheral glucose homeostasis in rats with schizophrenia-like syndrome...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126575/low-levels-of-serum-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-presence-at-admission-and-absence-at-discharge-of-a-day-night-change-as-a-marker-of-acute-paranoid-schizophrenia-relapse
#13
Armando L Morera-Fumero, Estefanía Díaz-Mesa, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez, Lourdes Fernandez-Lopez, Maria Del Rosario Cejas-Mendez
BACKGROUND: An oxidant-antioxidant system dysregulation has been described as a schizophrenia pathophysiological base. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is one measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night concentration changes is a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is no information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia. AIMS: Studying the existence of a day/night TAC change in schizophrenia. METHOD: Forty-three DSM-IV paranoid schizophrenia inpatients participated in the study...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109841/disruption-of-aromatase-homeostasis-as-the-cause-of-a-multiplicity-of-ailments-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Human health is beset with a legion of ailments, which is exacerbated by lifestyle errors. Out of the numerous enzymes in human body, aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme is particularly very critical. Occurring at the crossroads of multiple signalling pathways, its homeostasis is vital for optimal health. Unfortunately, medications, hormone therapy, chemical additives in food, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products are oscillating the aromatase concentration beyond the permissible level. As this enzyme converts androgens (C19) into estrogens (C18), its agitation has different outcomes in different genders and age groups...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108225/female-schizophrenia-patients-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Ana Isabel Wu Chou, Yu-Chiao Wang, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. This population-based cohort study aimed to examine the association between breast cancer in female schizophrenia patients and its association with the use of antipsychotics drugs. METHODS: All study subjects were selected from the Taiwan Insurance Claims Data (1998-2008). We compared the risk for breast cancer between female schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics (n=29,641) with female patients without any serious mental illnesses nor receiving antipsychotic drugs (n=59,282)...
January 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#16
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#17
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027496/allostatic-load-and-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-schizophrenia
#18
Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, Anya Savransky, Feven Fisseha, Krista Wisner, Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, L Elliot Hong
Structural imaging studies have consistently found reduced gray matter thickness of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia, a finding that is evident in first episode psychosis and may be progressive in some cases. Although genetic predisposition and medication effects may contribute to cortical thinning, we hypothesize that the cumulative effects of stress may represent an environmental factor impacting brain morphology in schizophrenia. We examined the relationship between allostatic load, an index of peripheral biomarkers representing the cumulative effects of stress, and cortical thickness...
March 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000544/the-complex-inter-relationship-between-diabetes-and-schizophrenia
#19
Jeffery Rado
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating brain disorder. It is associated with increased mortality, primarily due to elevated cardio-metabolic risk. Affected patients have higher rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes [1]. Intrinsic factors contributing to this increased risk include a shared underlying pathophysiology between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus involving stress, inflammation and genetics. Extrinsic contributing factors include diet, lifestyle, health care access, low socioeconomic status and overburden of traditional diabetes risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992436/transcriptomic-analysis-shows-decreased-cortical-expression-of-nr4a1-nr4a2-and-rxrb-in-schizophrenia-and-provides-evidence-for-nuclear-receptor-dysregulation
#20
Susan M Corley, Shan-Yuan Tsai, Marc R Wilkins, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Many genes are differentially expressed in the cortex of people with schizophrenia, implicating factors that control transcription more generally. Hormone nuclear receptors dimerize to coordinate context-dependent changes in gene expression. We hypothesized that members of two families of nuclear receptors (NR4As), and retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs), are altered in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of people with schizophrenia. We used next generation sequencing and then qPCR analysis to test for changes in mRNA levels for transcripts encoding nuclear receptors: orphan nuclear receptors (3 in the NR4A, 3 in the RAR, 3 in the RXR families and KLF4) in total RNA extracted from the DLPFC from people with schizophrenia compared to controls (n = 74)...
2016: PloS One
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