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Schizophrenia hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#1
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#2
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027496/allostatic-load-and-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-schizophrenia
#3
Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, Anya Savransky, Feven Fisseha, Krista Wisner, Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, L Elliot Hong
Structural imaging studies have consistently found reduced gray matter thickness of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia, a finding that is evident in first episode psychosis and may be progressive in some cases. Although genetic predisposition and medication effects may contribute to cortical thinning, we hypothesize that the cumulative effects of stress may represent an environmental factor impacting brain morphology in schizophrenia. We examined the relationship between allostatic load, an index of peripheral biomarkers representing the cumulative effects of stress, and cortical thickness...
November 24, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000544/the-complex-inter-relationship-between-diabetes-and-schizophrenia
#4
Jeffery Rado
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating brain disorder. It is associated with increased mortality, primarily due to elevated cardio-metabolic risk. Affected patients have higher rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes [1]. Intrinsic factors contributing to this increased risk include a shared underlying pathophysiology between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus involving stress, inflammation and genetics. Extrinsic contributing factors include diet, lifestyle, health care access, low socioeconomic status and overburden of traditional diabetes risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992436/transcriptomic-analysis-shows-decreased-cortical-expression-of-nr4a1-nr4a2-and-rxrb-in-schizophrenia-and-provides-evidence-for-nuclear-receptor-dysregulation
#5
Susan M Corley, Shan-Yuan Tsai, Marc R Wilkins, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Many genes are differentially expressed in the cortex of people with schizophrenia, implicating factors that control transcription more generally. Hormone nuclear receptors dimerize to coordinate context-dependent changes in gene expression. We hypothesized that members of two families of nuclear receptors (NR4As), and retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs), are altered in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of people with schizophrenia. We used next generation sequencing and then qPCR analysis to test for changes in mRNA levels for transcripts encoding nuclear receptors: orphan nuclear receptors (3 in the NR4A, 3 in the RAR, 3 in the RXR families and KLF4) in total RNA extracted from the DLPFC from people with schizophrenia compared to controls (n = 74)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842943/raloxifene-increases-prefrontal-activity-during-emotional-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-based-on-estrogen-receptor-genotype
#6
Jochen Kindler, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Peter R Schofield, Rhoshel Lenroot, Thomas W Weickert
People with schizophrenia show decreased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during emotional response inhibition, a cognitive process sensitive to hormonal influences. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, binds estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-α), improves memory, attention and normalizes cortical and hippocampal activity during learning and emotional face recognition in schizophrenia. Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene restores neuronal activity during emotional response inhibition in schizophrenia...
December 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825840/environmental-toxicology-sensitive-periods-of-development-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Djai B Heyer, Rhiannon M Meredith
Development of the mammalian central nervous system is a complex process whose disruption may have severe and long-lasting consequences upon brain structure and function, potentially resulting in a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). Many NDDs are known to be genetic in origin, with symptom onset and their underlying mechanisms now known to be regulated during time-dependent windows or 'critical periods' during normal brain development. However, it is increasingly evident that similar disturbances to the developing nervous system may be caused by exposure to non-genetic, environmental factors...
November 4, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824682/treating-schizophrenia-during-menopause
#8
Amnon Brzezinski, Noa A Brzezinski-Sinai, Mary V Seeman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine three questions: What are the risks and benefits of treating women with schizophrenia with hormone therapy (HT) at menopause? Should the antipsychotic regimen be changed at menopause? Do early- and late-onset women with schizophrenia respond differently to HT at menopause? METHODS: MEDLINE databases for the years 1990 to 2016 were searched using the following interactive terms: schizophrenia, gender, menopause, estrogen, and hormones...
November 7, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804260/cortisol-and-acth-levels-in-drug-naive-adolescents-with-first-episode-early-onset-schizophrenia
#9
Şeref Şimşek, Salih Gençoğlan, Tuğba Yüksel, Hüseyin Aktaş
The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia. A total of 23 adolescent patients, who did not receive prior therapy and who were diagnosed with psychosis according to DSM-IV, were included. Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale were conducted with the participants. No significant differences were found between the patients and the control subjects in serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (P > ...
November 2, 2016: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789681/estrogen-signaling-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
Amanda Crider, Anilkumar Pillai
Estrogens, the primary female sex hormones, were originally characterized through their important role in sexual maturation and reproduction. However, recent studies have shown that estrogens play critical roles in a number of brain functions, including cognition, learning and memory, neurodevelopment, and adult neuroplasticity. A number of studies from both clinical as well as preclinical research suggest a protective role of estrogen in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776076/extracellular-elevation-of-adrenomedullin-a-gene-associated-with-schizophrenia-suppresses-heat-shock-protein-1a-1b-mrna
#11
Zhilei Zhao, Seiichiro Jinde, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kiyoto Kasai
Several recent gene expression studies on schizophrenia, including one using monozygotic twins discordant for the disease, have reported the upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), which was initially identified as a vasodilator hormone. It has been hypothesized that upregulation of ADM may be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia, although the exact role of ADM in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, we used a microarray analysis to investigate the changes in global gene expression induced by the administration of exogenous ADM in SK-N-SH cells, which allowed us to evaluate the effects of elevated ADM on the central nervous system...
October 21, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755159/peony-glycyrrhiza-decoction-for-antipsychotic-related-hyperprolactinemia-in-women-with-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Sui Cheung Man, Xian-Bin Li, Huai-Hai Wang, Hai-Ning Yuan, Hua-Ning Wang, Rui-Guo Zhang, Qing-Rong Tan, Hei Kiu Wong, Grainne M McAlonan, Chuan-Yue Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: An herbal preparation called peony-glycyrrhiza decoction (PGD) may have the potential in reducing antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL). This double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study aimed to reevaluate the efficacy of PGD against antipsychotic-related hyperPRL. METHODS: Ninety-nine schizophrenic women who were under antipsychotic therapy and had symptomatic hyperPRL were randomly assigned to additional treatment with placebo (n = 50) or PGD (n = 49, 45 g/d) for 16 weeks...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734702/-psycho-immuno-endocrinology-of-the-thyroid-gland
#13
Ivan Šterzl, Karolína Absolonová, Petr Matucha
Historically endocrinologists and psychiatrists are aware that disturbances in thyroid disease in beginning or even in clinically intensified states of thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism exhibit pathological mental manifestations, masking or potentiating the underlying disease. Immune system disorders cause thyroid organ-specific autoimmune process. This autoimmune thyroid disease binds with a number of disorders in both endocrine or non-endocrine organs. This appears in vascular, neurological, skin, connective tissue, gastrointestinal tract and mental pathology...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695666/the-neurobiological-basis-for-social-affiliation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#14
Amanda Crider, Anilkumar Pillai
Social interaction and communication are complex behavioral paradigms involving many components. Many different neurotransmitters, hormones, sensory inputs, and brain regions are involved in the act of social engagement and verbal or nonverbal communication. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are two neurodevelopmental disorders that have social and language deficits as hallmark symptoms, but show very different etiologies. The output of social dysfunction is common to both ASD and schizophrenia, but this likely arises from very different pathophysiological means...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663804/the-role-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#15
Agnieszka Bratek, Krzysztof Krysta, Karolina Drzyzga, Justyna Barańska, Krzysztof Kucia
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in schizophrenia have been recognized for a long time and it has been widely accepted that sex steroid hormones, especially estradiol, are strongly attributed to this fact. Two hypotheses regarding estradiol action in psychoses gained special research attention - the estrogen protection hypothesis and hypoestrogenism hypothesis. A growing number of studies have shown benefits in augmenting antipsychotic treatment with estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658834/the-effect-of-antipsychotics-on-bone-mineral-density-and-sex-hormones-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Süheyla Doğan Bulut, Serdar Bulut, Dicle Görkem Atalan, Rıza Gökçer Tulaci, Türker Türker, Eda Gürçay, Çiğdem Aydemir
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) of male schizophrenia patients with those of healthy controls in order to determine the relationship between BMD and hormonal changes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study sample included male outpatients between 18 and 55 years old, diagnosed with schizophrenia who had used prolactin-raising antipsychotics (n=23) and prolactin-sparing antipsychotics (n=19) for at least twelve months, along with an age - matched healthy control group...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641441/gut-instincts-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-development-ageing-and-neurodegeneration
#17
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610173/negative-correlation-between-serum-s100b-and-leptin-levels-in-schizophrenic-patients-during-treatment-with-clozapine-and-risperidone-preliminary-evidence
#18
Narjes Hendouei, Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini, Amin Panahi, Zahra Khazaeipour, Fatemeh Barari, Adeleh Sahebnasagh, Shahram Ala
Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608362/progesterone-the-neglected-hormone-in-schizophrenia-a-focus-on-progesterone-dopamine-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Jeehae Sun, Adam J Walker, Brian Dean, Maarten van den Buuse, Andrea Gogos
Sex differences appear to be an important factor in schizophrenia. Women with schizophrenia tend to exhibit less disease impairment than men, typically presenting with a later age-at-onset, lower overall incidence and less severe symptoms. These observations underpin the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, which postulates a protective role of estrogen against the development and severity of the disorder. While there has been significant attention placed on the impact of estrogens in schizophrenia, less consideration has been afforded to the role of progesterone, the other main female gonadal hormone...
December 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504985/olanzapine-depot-administration-induces-time-dependent-changes-in-adipose-tissue-endocrine-function-in-rats
#20
Katerina Horska, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Michal Karpisek, Regina Demlova, Radka Opatrilova, Pavel Suchy, Hana Kotolova
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) contribute significantly to increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Extensive preclinical research has addressed this issue over the past years, though mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of AAP are still not understood completely. Recently, attention is drawn towards the role of adipose tissue metabolism and neurohormonal regulations. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent effects of olanzapine depot administration at clinically relevant dosing on the regulation of energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, gastrointestinal and adipose tissue-derived hormones involved in energy balance regulations in female Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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