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Schizophrenia hormone

Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alexander J Riordan, Ari W Schaler, Jenny Fried, Tracie A Paine, Janice E Thornton
The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP...
February 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
W Veling, I E C Sommer, R Bruggeman, L de Haan
Personalised medicine (pm) means treatment that specifically targets the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics.<br/> AIM: To update our knowledge about the current use of pm in the treatment of psychotic disorders.<br/> METHOD: Review of the literature on pm for psychoses.<br/> RESULTS: At the moment, genetic and other biological characteristics cannot be used for the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders because they are not sensitive enough and their specificity is too low...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Heike Künzel, Katja Held, Dagmar Schmidt, Marc Ziegenbein, Harald Murck, Axel Steiger
Changes in sleep-EEG after endocrine stimulation tests in patients with schizophrenia include reduced sleep efficiency, prolonged sleep latency and increased awaking after sleep onset Findings on sleep associated growth hormone (GH) secretion were ambiguous. The aim of this study was to elucidate the sleep-endocrine activity especially in the GH system of patients with schizophrenia after repeated administration of GHRH. The effect of repetitive injections of 4 × 50 μg GHRH between 22.00 and 01.00 h on sleep endocrine parameters was investigated in 9 patients diagnosed for schizophrenia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Michael E Authement, Ludovic D Langlois, Ryan D Shepard, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki, Haifa Kassis, Fereshteh S Nugent
Centrally released corticotropin-releasing factor or hormone (extrahypothalamic CRF or CRH) in the brain is involved in the behavioral and emotional responses to stress. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region involved in value-based decision-making and stress evasion. Through its inhibition of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry, the increased activity of the LHb is associated with addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and behavioral disorders. We found that extrahypothalamic CRF neurotransmission increased neuronal excitability in the LHb...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Transgender or gender dysphoria has been defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as distress resulting from the incongruence between one's experienced gender and one's assigned gender, along with a persistent and strong desire to be of another gender, and accompanied by clinically significant distress. Adolescents referred for evaluation often want hormonal therapy and several among them also express a desire for gender reassignment surgery. Furthermore, evidence shows that adolescents and adults with gender dysphoria without a sex development disorder, before gender reassignments, are at increased risk for suicide...
December 24, 2017: Curēus
Nataly Paipa, Christian Stephan-Otto, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Araceli Núñez-Navarro, Judith Usall, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of circulating oestrogens in women and testosterone in men have been shown to have a protective effect against the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, mostly with respect to negative symptomatology. Certain studies suggest that they also have a protective effect against the neuropsychological impairment observed in the disease. We investigated whether greater prenatal exposure to estrogens in women and to testosterone in men, reflected by the 2D:4D ratio, was similarly associated with decreased negative symptomatology and improved neuropsychological functioning in patients...
March 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Khuram Khan, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Sanjiv Gray
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michele Iovino, Tullio Messana, Giovanni De Pergola, Emanuela Iovino, Franca Dicuonzo, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Vincenzo Triggiani
Although the neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin are mostly known for their role respectively in antiduresis the former and in labour, lactation and maternal behavior the latter, both might exert widespread influences either on emotion and cognition in healthy subjects, showing some gender-related differences. They interact one each other facilitating shifts between positive socially- oriented and defensive states. In fact, vasopressin amplifies the reactivity to stressors showing also beneficial effects on attention, verbal learning as well as memory, whereas oxytocin reduces the amplitude of the stress response, improves emotion processing, and can play a negative effect on memory and verbal learning in healthy individuals...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Sheng Wang, Tao Che, Anat Levit, Brian K Shoichet, Daniel Wacker, Bryan L Roth
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has been implicated in processes as diverse as reward, addiction, control of coordinated movement, metabolism and hormonal secretion. Correspondingly, dysregulation of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and nausea and vomiting. The actions of dopamine are mediated by a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors. The D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) is the primary target for both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs, and for drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease...
March 8, 2018: Nature
Ningning Liu, Wenhua Zhang, Jiangshan Tan, Jiaxin Zhou, Xiaopeng Yu, Ningxin Ren, Zhiqing Fang, Wei Jiao, Yidong Fan, Cheng Liu
Adrenal myelolipoma with hyperandrogenemia is extremely rare. We report a case of a 26-year-old Chinese female with schizophrenia, who presented with a hormonally active tumor causing hyperandrogenemia. The mass was found by computerized tomography when she had her gynecologic examination for secondary amenorrhea, and it was confirmed to be an adrenal myelolipoma after a histopathological study. She was referred for a left adrenal laparoscopic excision, and the size of adrenal myelolipoma was found to be more than 10 cm...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Suheyla Dogan Bulut, Serdar Bulut, Ayse G Gundogmus, Cigdem Aydemir
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that sex hormones play a role in the development of schizophrenia and the severity of disease symptoms. However, study results have been inconsistent. This study compares the relationship between the severity of disease symptoms and levels of testosterone, and DHEA-S and cortisol in premenopausal female patients with schizophrenia and a matched group of healthy controls. METHODS: The study sample included 32 women who were diagnosed as having schizophrenia according to DSM-IV TR criteria, and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
February 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Giorgia Boero, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Francesca Biggio, Laura Muredda, Gianfranca Carta, Sebastiano Banni, Elena Paci, Paolo Follesa, Alessandra Concas, Patrizia Porcu, Mariangela Serra
We previously demonstrated that socially isolated rats at weaning showed a significant decrease in corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, associated with an enhanced response to acute stressful stimuli. Here we shown that social isolation decreased levels of total corticosterone and of its carrier corticosteroid-binding globulin, but did not influence the availability of the free active fraction of corticosterone, both under basal conditions and after acute stress exposure. Under basal conditions, social isolation increased the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors, while it decreased that of mineralocorticoid receptors...
January 31, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yasuhiko Kamada, Ai Sakamoto, Sayoko Kotani, Hisashi Masuyama
Dienogest is a fourth-generation progestin that is used for the treatment of endometriosis. We report a case of premenstrual mood changes in a patient with schizophrenia who was unresponsive to conventional treatment but successfully managed with dienogest. A 37-year-old Japanese woman with schizophrenia was referred to our hospital and diagnosed with premenstrual exacerbation of schizophrenia or coexisting premenstrual dysphoric disorder with schizophrenia. She had already taken maximal doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and combined oral contraceptives produced intolerable side effects...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Johann Steiner, Brisa S Fernandes, Paul C Guest, Henrik Dobrowolny, Gabriela Meyer-Lotz, Sabine Westphal, Katrin Borucki, Kolja Schiltz, Zoltán Sarnyai, Hans-Gert Bernstein
There is evidence for insulin resistance in drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (Sz) patients. We have tested whether impaired insulin homeostasis is also present in first-episode patients with major depression (MD) and if this can be discerned from stress-related and medication effects. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined in a cross-sectional cohort study of acute first-episode drug-naïve patients with MD (n = 18) or Sz (n = 24), and healthy controls (C, n = 43)...
January 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Kubranur Ünal, Rabia Nazik Yüksel, Turan Turhan, Sevilay Sezer, Elif Tatlidil Yaylaci
Nesfatin-1 and ghrelin are two hormones which has opposite effects and play role in food intake. This study was planned on the idea that both metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders are associated with nesfatin-1 and ghrelin. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the levels of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in patients with schizophrenia, by taking confounding factor as the metabolic syndrome (MS). 55 patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls were included in the study.11 out of the 55 patients (%20) has MS...
December 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
S Fallahi, A Rostami, M Nourollahpour Shiadeh, H Behniafar, S Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
March 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Armando L Morera-Fumero, Estefanía Díaz-Mesa, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez, Lourdes Fernandez-Lopez, Fernando Guillen-Pino
Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied...
2017: PloS One
Andre B Veras, Mara Getz, Robert C Froemke, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Gilberto Sousa Alves, Julie Walsh-Messinger, Moses V Chao, Thorsten M Kranz, Dolores Malaspina
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that influences the integration of social cognition with behavior and affect regulation. Oxytocin also prominently directs the transition of neuronal GABA neurotransmission from excitatory to inhibitory after birth. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is linked to schizophrenia, a heterogeneous syndrome. Relationships of OXTR polymorphisms with specific clinical features could aid in evaluating any role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia...
February 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Shen Li, Ying Gao, Hao Lv, Miaomiao Zhang, Lili Wang, Rui Jiang, Chengai Xu, Xueshi Wang, Ming Gao, Yukun He, Jie Li, Wei-Dong Li
Second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs) cause serious metabolic side effects, including weight gain, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism abnormalities, which occur by unknown mechanisms. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) has been of major interest. So far, predictive factors predisposing patients to the develop obesity and related metabolic disturbances induced by SGAs have been relatively less studied among large samples of Chinese schizophrenic patients...
February 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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