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"Evolutionary biology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932852/evolutionary-connectionism-algorithmic-principles-underlying-the-evolution-of-biological-organisation-in-evo-devo-evo-eco-and-evolutionary-transitions
#1
Richard A Watson, Rob Mills, C L Buckley, Kostas Kouvaris, Adam Jackson, Simon T Powers, Chris Cox, Simon Tudge, Adam Davies, Loizos Kounios, Daniel Power
The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927887/surface-sensitive-microwear-texture-analysis-of-attrition-and-erosion
#2
S Ranjitkar, A Turan, C Mann, G A Gully, M Marsman, S Edwards, J A Kaidonis, C Hall, D Lekkas, P Wetselaar, A H Brook, F Lobbezoo, G C Townsend
Scale-sensitive fractal analysis of high-resolution 3-dimensional surface reconstructions of wear patterns has advanced our knowledge in evolutionary biology, and has opened up opportunities for translatory applications in clinical practice. To elucidate the microwear characteristics of attrition and erosion in worn natural teeth, we scanned 50 extracted human teeth using a confocal profiler at a high optical resolution (X-Y, 0.17 µm; Z < 3 nm). Our hypothesis was that microwear complexity would be greater in erosion and that anisotropy would be greater in attrition...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924867/constraints-and-spandrels-of-interareal-connectomes
#3
Mikail Rubinov
Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923679/evolutionary-scalpels-for-dissecting-tumor-ecosystems
#4
Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Pablo G Camara, Tim Chu, Raul Rabadan
Amidst the growing literature on cancer genomics and intratumor heterogeneity, essential principles in evolutionary biology recur time and time again. Here we use these principles to guide the reader through major advances in cancer research, highlighting issues of "hit hard, hit early" treatment strategies, drug resistance, and metastasis. We distinguish between two frameworks for understanding heterogeneous tumors, both of which can inform treatment strategies: (1) The tumor as diverse ecosystem, a Darwinian population of sometimes-competing, sometimes-cooperating cells; (2) The tumor as tightly integrated, self-regulating organ, which may hijack developmental signals to restore functional heterogeneity after treatment...
December 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923053/different-evolutionary-paths-to-complexity-for-small-and-large-populations-of-digital-organisms
#5
Thomas LaBar, Christoph Adami
A major aim of evolutionary biology is to explain the respective roles of adaptive versus non-adaptive changes in the evolution of complexity. While selection is certainly responsible for the spread and maintenance of complex phenotypes, this does not automatically imply that strong selection enhances the chance for the emergence of novel traits, that is, the origination of complexity. Population size is one parameter that alters the relative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive processes: as population size decreases, selection weakens and genetic drift grows in importance...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920384/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-wild-an-eco-evolutionary-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Teppo Hiltunen, Marko Virta, Anna-Liisa Laine
The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919924/gradual-vs-abrupt-reduction-of-carpels-in-syncarpous-gynoecia-a-case-study-from-polyscias-subg-arthrophyllum-araliaceae-apiales
#7
Polina V Karpunina, Alexei A Oskolski, Maxim S Nuraliev, Porter P Lowry, Galina V Degtjareva, Tahir H Samigullin, Carmen M Valiejo-Roman, Dmitry D Sokoloff
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Revealing the relative roles of gradual and abrupt transformations of morphological characters is an important topic of evolutionary biology. Gynoecia apparently consisting of one carpel have evolved from pluricarpellate syncarpous gynoecia in several angiosperm clades. The process of reduction can involve intermediate stages, with one fertile and one or more sterile carpels (pseudomonomery). The possible origin of monomery directly via an abrupt change of gynoecium merism has been a matter of dispute...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919705/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-thitarodes-sejilaensis-lepidoptera-hepialidae-a-host-insect-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-its-implication-in-taxonomic-revision-of-hepialusadopted-in-china
#8
Zhiwen Zou, Qiang Min, Shiyu Cheng, Tianrong Xin, Bin Xia
The mitochondrial genome is widely used for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. The complete mitochondrial genome of Thitarodes sejilaensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) was sequenced and analyzed in this study. This mitogenome is a typical circular molecule of 15,290bp, with the gene content, orientation and order identical to other insects in the family Hepialidae. The genome nucleotide composition is heavily biased towards As and Ts, accounting for 80.87% of total nucleotide content. The major strand shows a positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew...
December 2, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917480/evolutionary-processes-and-its-environmental-correlates-in-the-cranial-morphology-of-western-chipmunks-tamias
#9
Ana Paula A Assis, Daniela M Rossoni, James L Patton, Gabriel Marroig
The importance of the environment in shaping phenotypic evolution lies at the core of evolutionary biology. Chipmunks of the genus Tamias (subgenus Neotamias) are part of a very recent radiation, occupying a wide range of environments with marked niche partitioning among species. One open question is if and how those differences in environments affected phenotypic evolution in this lineage. Herein we examine the relative importance of genetic drift versus natural selection in the origin of cranial diversity exhibited by clade members...
December 5, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914620/gene-regulation-and-speciation
#10
REVIEW
Katya L Mack, Michael W Nachman
Understanding the genetic architecture of speciation is a major goal in evolutionary biology. Hybrid dysfunction is thought to arise most commonly through negative interactions between alleles at two or more loci. Divergence between interacting regulatory elements that affect gene expression (i.e., regulatory divergence) may be a common route for these negative interactions to arise. We review here how regulatory divergence between species can result in hybrid dysfunction, including recent theoretical support for this model...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#11
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#12
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907853/sewall-wright-shifting-balance-theory-and-the-hardening-of-the-modern-synthesis
#13
Yoichi Ishida
The period between the 1940s and 1960s saw the hardening of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. Gould and Provine argue that Wright's shifting balance theory of evolution hardened during this period. But their account does not do justice to Wright, who always regarded selection as acting together with drift. This paper presents a more adequate account of the development of Wright's shifting balance theory, paying particular attention to his application of the theory to the geographical distribution of flower color dimorphism in Linanthus parryae...
November 28, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896715/genome-sequencing
#14
Mansi Verma, Samarth Kulshrestha, Ayush Puri
Genome sequencing is an important step toward correlating genotypes with phenotypic characters. Sequencing technologies are important in many fields in the life sciences, including functional genomics, transcriptomics, oncology, evolutionary biology, forensic sciences, and many more. The era of sequencing has been divided into three generations. First generation sequencing involved sequencing by synthesis (Sanger sequencing) and sequencing by cleavage (Maxam-Gilbert sequencing). Sanger sequencing led to the completion of various genome sequences (including human) and provided the foundation for development of other sequencing technologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894252/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-genetic-basis-underlying-the-seasonal-development-of-keratinized-nuptial-spines-in-leptobrachium-boringii
#15
Wei Zhang, Yue Guo, Jun Li, Li Huang, Eric Gilbert Kazitsa, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: The expression of sexually selected traits often varies with populations' breeding cycles in many animals. The elucidation of mechanisms underlying the expression of such traits is a research topic in evolutionary biology; however, the genetic basis of the seasonal development of their expression remains unknown. Male Leptobrachium boringii develop keratinized nuptial spines on their upper jaw during the breeding season that fall off when the breeding season ends. To illuminate the genetic basis for the expression of this trait and its seasonal development, we assessed the de novo transcriptome for L...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885570/neo-darwinists-and-neo-aristotelians-how-to-talk-about-natural-purpose
#16
Peter Woodford
This paper examines the points of disagreement between Neo-Darwinian and recent Neo-Aristotelian discussions of the status of purposive language in biology. I discuss recent Neo-Darwinian "evolutionary" treatments and distinguish three ways to deal with the philosophical status of teleological language of purpose: teleological error theory, methodological teleology, and Darwinian teleological realism. I then show how "non-evolutionary" Neo-Aristotelian approaches in the work of Michael Thompson and Philippa Foot differ from these by offering a view of purposiveness grounded in life-cycle patterns, rather than in long-term evolutionary processes or natural selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881753/how-can-we-estimate-natural-selection-on-endocrine-traits-lessons-from-evolutionary-biology
#17
REVIEW
Frances Bonier, Paul R Martin
An evolutionary perspective can enrich almost any endeavour in biology, providing a deeper understanding of the variation we see in nature. To this end, evolutionary endocrinologists seek to describe the fitness consequences of variation in endocrine traits. Much of the recent work in our field, however, follows a flawed approach to the study of how selection shapes endocrine traits. Briefly, this approach relies on among-individual correlations between endocrine phenotypes (often circulating hormone levels) and fitness metrics to estimate selection on those endocrine traits...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880935/evolutionary-biologic-changes-of-gut-microbiota-in-an-adenoma-carcinoma-sequence-mouse-colorectal-cancer-model-induced-by-1-2-dimethylhydrazine
#18
Teng Sun, Shanglong Liu, Yanbing Zhou, Zengwu Yao, Dongfeng Zhang, Shougen Cao, Zhiliang Wei, Bin Tan, Yi Li, Zheng Lian, Song Wang
The molecular biological mechanisms underlying the evolutionary biologic changes leading to carcinogenesis remain unclear. The main objective of our study was to explore the evolution of the microbiota community and molecules related with CRC in the dynamic transition from normal colon epithelium to premalignant adenoma with the aid of an 'adenoma-carcinoma sequence' mouse CRC model induced by DMH. We generated a modified mouse CRC model induced by DMH for DNA sequences, and characterized the molecular networks...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879317/correlated-evolution-between-ck1%C3%AE-and-the-serine-rich-motif-contributes-to-regulating-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#19
Lijuan Xing, Yang An, Guangsen Shi, Jie Yan, Pancheng Xie, Zhipeng Qu, Zhihui Zhang, Zhiwei Liu, Dejing Pan, Ying Xu
Understanding the mechanism underlying the physiological divergence of species is a long-standing issue in evolutionary biology. The circadian clock is a highly conserved system existing in almost all organisms that regulates a wide range of physiological and behavioral events to adapt to the day-night cycle. Here, the interactions between hCK1δ/ϵ/DBT (Drosophila ortholog of CK1δ/ϵ) and serine rich (SR) motifs from hPER2 (ortholog of Drosophila per) were reconstructed in a Drosophila circadian system. The results indicated that in Drosophila, the SR mutant form hPER2S662G does not recapitulate the mouse or human mutant phenotype...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870264/a-hot-topic-the-genetics-of-adaptation-to-geothermal-vents-in-mimulus-guttatus
#20
Kathleen G Ferris
Identifying the individual loci and mutations that underlie adaptation to extreme environments has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. However, finding the genes that underlie adaptive traits is difficult for several reasons. First, because many traits and genes evolve simultaneously as populations diverge, it is difficult to disentangle adaptation from neutral demographic processes. Second, finding the individual loci involved in any trait is challenging given the respective limitations of quantitative and population genetic methods...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
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