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"Evolutionary biology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104380/-evolutionary-medicine-a-new-look-on-health-and-disease
#1
F Bauduer
Evolutionary medicine represents an innovative approach deriving from evolutionary biology. It includes the initial Darwin's view, its actualization in the light of progresses in genetics and also dissident theories (i.e. non gene-based) particularly epigenetics. This approach enables us to reconsider the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, as for instance, infection, and our so-called diseases of civilization especially obesity, type 2 diabetes, allergy or cancer. Evolutionary medicine may also improve our knowledge regarding inter-individual variation in susceptibility to disease or drugs...
January 16, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100823/conspicuous-plumage-colours-are-highly-variable
#2
Kaspar Delhey, Beatrice Szecsenyi, Shinichi Nakagawa, Anne Peters
Elaborate ornamental traits are often under directional selection for greater elaboration, which in theory should deplete underlying genetic variation. Despite this, many ornamental traits appear to remain highly variable and how this essential variation is maintained is a key question in evolutionary biology. One way to address this question is to compare differences in intraspecific variability across different types of traits to determine whether high levels of variation are associated with specific trait characteristics...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100017/subspecies-delineation-amid-phenotypic-geographic-and-genetic-discordance-in-a-songbird
#3
Jennifer Walsh, Irby J Lovette, Virginia Winder, Chris S Elphick, Brian J Olsen, W Gregory Shriver, Adrienne I Kovach
Understanding the processes that drive divergence within and among species is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Traditional approaches to assessing differentiation rely on phenotypes to identify intra- and interspecific variation, but many species express subtle morphological gradients in which boundaries among forms are unclear. This intraspecific variation may be driven by differential adaptation to local conditions and may thereby reflect the evolutionary potential within a species. Here, we combine genetic and morphological data to evaluate intraspecific variation within the Nelson's (Ammodramus nelsoni) and saltmarsh (A...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099784/investigating-the-extent-of-parallelism-in-morphological-and-genomic-divergence-among-lake-trout-ecotypes-in-lake-superior
#4
Alysse Perreault-Payette, Andrew M Muir, Frederick Goetz, Charles Perrier, Eric Normandeau, Pascal Sirois, Louis Bernatchez
Understanding the emergence of species through the process of ecological speciation is a central question in evolutionary biology which also has implications for conservation and management. Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is renowned for the occurrence of different ecotypes linked to resource and habitat use throughout North America. We aimed to unravel the fine genetic structure of the four Lake Trout ecotypes in Lake Superior. A total of 486 individuals from four sites were genotyped at 6822 filtered SNPs using RADseq technology...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097057/a-gene-expression-study-of-dorso-ventrally-restricted-pigment-pattern-in-adult-fins-of-neolamprologus-meeli-an-african-cichlid-species
#5
Ehsan Pashay Ahi, Kristina M Sefc
Fish color patterns are among the most diverse phenotypic traits found in the animal kingdom. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control in chromatophore distribution and pigmentation underlying this diversity is a major goal in developmental and evolutionary biology, which has predominantly been pursued in the zebrafish model system. Here, we apply results from zebrafish work to study a naturally occurring color pattern phenotype in the fins of an African cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096395/genomic-analysis-reveals-major-determinants-of-cis-regulatory-variation-in-capsella-grandiflora
#6
Kim A Steige, Benjamin Laenen, Johan Reimegård, Douglas G Scofield, Tanja Slotte
Understanding the causes of cis-regulatory variation is a long-standing aim in evolutionary biology. Although cis-regulatory variation has long been considered important for adaptation, we still have a limited understanding of the selective importance and genomic determinants of standing cis-regulatory variation. To address these questions, we studied the prevalence, genomic determinants, and selective forces shaping cis-regulatory variation in the outcrossing plant Capsella grandiflora We first identified a set of 1,010 genes with common cis-regulatory variation using analyses of allele-specific expression (ASE)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095616/using-xenopus-to-understand-human-disease-and-developmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Amy Sater, Sally A Moody
Model animals are crucial to biomedical research. Among the commonly used model animals, the amphibian, Xenopus, has had tremendous impact because of its unique experimental advantages, cost effectiveness, and close evolutionary relationship with mammals as a tetrapod. Over the past 50 years the use of Xenopus has made possible many fundamental contributions to biomedicine, and it is a cornerstone of research in cell biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, immunology, molecular biology, neurobiology, and physiology...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089512/paleozoic-nymphal-wing-pads-support-dual-model-of-insect-wing-origins
#8
Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, André Nel, Thomas Hörnschemeyer, Ewa Krzemińska, Wiesław Krzemiński, Michael S Engel
The appearance of wings in insects, early in their evolution [1], has been one of the more critical innovations contributing to their extraordinary diversity. Despite the conspicuousness and importance of wings, the origin of these structures has been difficult to resolve and represented one of the "abominable mysteries" in evolutionary biology [2]. More than a century of debate has boiled the matter down to two competing alternatives-one of wings representing an extension of the thoracic notum, the other stating that they are appendicular derivations from the lateral body wall...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087693/de-novo-genome-and-transcriptome-assembly-of-the-canadian-beaver-castor-canadensis
#9
Si Lok, Tara A Paton, Zhuozhi Wang, Gaganjot Kaur, Susan Walker, Ryan K C Yuen, Wilson W L Sung, Joseph Whitney, Janet A Buchanan, Brett Trost, Naina Singh, Beverly Apresto, Nan Chen, Matthew Coole, Travis J Dawson, Karen Y Ho, Zhizhou Hu, Sanjeev Pullenayegum, Kozue Samler, Arum Shipstone, Fiona Tsoi, Ting Wang, Sergio L Pereira, Pirooz Rostami, Carol Ann Ryan, Amy Hin Yan Tong, Karen Ng, Yogi Sundaravadanam, Jared T Simpson, Burton K Lim, Mark D Engstrom, Christopher J Dutton, Kevin C R Kerr, Maria Franke, William Rapley, Richard F Wintle, Stephen W Scherer
The Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) is the largest indigenous rodent in North America. We report a draft annotated assembly of the beaver genome, the first for a large rodent and the first mammalian genome assembled directly from uncorrected and moderate coverage (< 30 ×) long-reads generated by single-molecule sequencing. The genome size is 2.7 Gb estimated by k-mer analysis. We assembled the beaver genome using the new Canu assembler optimized for noisy reads. The resulting assembly was refined using Pilon supported by shortreads (80 ×) and checked for accuracy by congruency against an independent short-read assembly...
January 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#10
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078808/minimum-sample-sizes-for-population-genomics-an-empirical-study-from-an-amazonian-plant-species
#11
Alison G Nazareno, Jordan B Bemmels, Christopher W Dick, Lúcia G Lohmann
High throughput DNA sequencing facilitates the analysis of large portions of the genome in non-model organisms, ensuring high accuracy of population genetic parameters. However, empirical studies evaluating the appropriate sample size for these kinds of studies are still scarce. In this study, we use double digest restriction associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) to recover thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two physically isolated populations of Amphirrhox longifolia (Violaceae), a non-model plant species for which no reference genome is available...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074919/development-of-microsatellite-markers-and-estimation-of-inbreeding-frequency-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-melittobia
#12
Jun Abe, Bart A Pannebakker
The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using next-generation sequencing, 20 microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for M. australica. The developed loci were used to analyze two populations, one from a mainland Japan and one from the Okinawa island region...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067418/genome-wide-selection-components-analysis-in-a-fish-with-male-pregnancy
#13
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the genome-level targets of natural and sexual selection. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, whole-genome selection components analysis provides a promising avenue in the search for loci affected by selection in nature. Here, we implement a genome-wide selection components analysis in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Our approach involves a double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technique, applied to adult females, non-pregnant males, pregnant males and their offspring...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035890/phylogenetic-analysis-supports-the-aerobic-capacity-model-for-the-evolution-of-endothermy
#14
Roberto F Nespolo, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, Francisco Bozinovic
The evolution of endothermy is a controversial topic in evolutionary biology, although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it. To a great extent, the debate has centered on the aerobic-capacity model (AC model), an adaptive hypothesis involving maximum and resting rates of metabolism (MMR and RMR, respectively; hereafter "metabolic traits"). The AC model posits that MMR, a proxy of aerobic capacity and sustained activity, is the target of directional selection and that RMR is also influenced as a correlated response...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035885/differential-survival-between-visual-environments-supports-a-role-of-divergent-sensory-drive-in-cichlid-fish-speciation
#15
Martine E Maan, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis
Identifying the selective forces that initiate ecological speciation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes. Here, we present a reciprocal transplant experiment revealing species differences in performance in alternative visual environments, consistent with speciation by divergent sensory drive. The closely related cichlids Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei inhabit different visual environments in Lake Victoria and show associated differences in visual system properties...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035258/contrasted-levels-of-genetic-diversity-in-a-benthic-mediterranean-octocoral-consequences-of-different-demographic-histories
#16
Moutassem Billah Masmoudi, Lamya Chaoui, Nur Eda Topçu, Pachka Hammami, Mohamed Hichem Kara, Didier Aurelle
Understanding the factors explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity is an important question in evolutionary biology. We provide the first data on the genetic structure of a Mediterranean octocoral, the yellow gorgonian Eunicella cavolini, along with insights into the demographic history of this species. We sampled populations in four areas of the Mediterranean Sea: continental France, Algeria, Turkey, and the Balearic and Corsica islands. Along French coasts, three sites were sampled at two depths (20 and 40 m)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028941/the-computer-program-structure-for-assigning-individuals-to-populations-easy-to-use-but-easier-to-misuse
#17
Jinliang Wang
The computer program Structure implements a Bayesian method, based on a population genetics model, to assign individuals to their source populations using genetic marker data. It is widely applied in the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, human genetics and conservation biology for detecting hidden genetic structures, inferring the most likely number of populations (K), assigning individuals to source populations, and estimating admixture and migration rates. Recently, several simulation studies repeatedly concluded that the program yields erroneous inferences when samples from different populations are highly unbalanced in size...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025203/accelerating-bayesian-inference-for-evolutionary-biology-models
#18
Xavier Meyer, Bastien Chopard, Nicolas Salamin
MOTIVATION: Bayesian inference is widely used nowadays and relies largely on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Evolutionary biology has greatly benefited from the developments of MCMC methods, but the design of more complex and realistic models and the ever growing availability of novel data is pushing the limits of the current use of these methods. RESULTS: We present a parallel Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) framework built with a novel combination of enhancements aimed towards parameter-rich and complex models...
December 24, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018662/the-power-of-associative-learning-and-the-ontogeny-of-optimal-behaviour
#19
Magnus Enquist, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda
Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018475/concordant-morphological-and-molecular-clines-in-a-contact-zone-of-the-common-and-spined-toad-bufo-bufo-and-b-spinosus-in-the-northwest-of-france
#20
Jan W Arntzen, Tania Trujillo, Roland Butôt, Klaas Vrieling, Onno Schaap, Jorge Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
BACKGROUND: Hybrid zones are regions where individuals of two species meet and produce hybrid progeny, and are often regarded as natural laboratories to understand the process of species formation. Two microevolutionary processes can take place in hybrid zones, with opposing effects on population differentiation. Hybridization tends to produce genetic homogenization, reducing species differences, whereas the presence of mechanisms of reproductive isolation result in barriers to gene flow, maintaining or increasing differences between taxa...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
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