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"Evolutionary biology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718921/homology-homoplasy-and-cusp-variability-at-the-enamel-dentine-junction-of-hominoid-molars
#1
Alejandra Ortiz, Shara E Bailey, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Matthew M Skinner
Evolutionary studies of mammalian teeth have generally concentrated on the adaptive and functional significance of dental features, whereas the role of development on phenotypic generation and as a source of variation has received comparatively little attention. The present study combines an evolutionary biological framework with state-of-the-art imaging techniques to examine the developmental basis of variation of accessory cusps. Scholars have long used the position and relatedness of cusps to other crown structures as a criterion for differentiating between developmentally homologous and homoplastic features, which can be evaluated with greater accuracy at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717386/understanding-low-radiation-background-biology-through-controlled-evolution-experiments
#2
Nathanael Lampe, Vincent Breton, David Sarramia, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, David G Biron
Biological experiments conducted in underground laboratories over the last decade have shown that life can respond to relatively small changes in the radiation background in unconventional ways. Rapid changes in cell growth, indicative of hormetic behaviour and long-term inheritable changes in antioxidant regulation have been observed in response to changes in the radiation background that should be almost undetectable to cells. Here, we summarize the recent body of underground experiments conducted to date, and outline potential mechanisms (such as cell signalling, DNA repair and antioxidant regulation) that could mediate the response of cells to low radiation backgrounds...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714481/evolutionary-biology-through-the-lens-of-budding-yeast-comparative-genomics
#3
REVIEW
Souhir Marsit, Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Éléonore Durand, Axelle Marchant, Marie Filteau, Christian R Landry
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly advanced model system for studying genetics, cell biology and systems biology. Over the past decade, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to this species has contributed to this yeast also becoming an important model for evolutionary genomics. Indeed, comparative genomic analyses of laboratory, wild and domesticated yeast populations are providing unprecedented detail about many of the processes that govern evolution, including long-term processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation, and short-term processes, such as adaptation to natural and domestication-related environments...
July 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713666/gramene-database-navigating-plant-comparative-genomics-resources
#4
Parul Gupta, Sushma Naithani, Marcela Karey Tello-Ruiz, Kapeel Chougule, Peter D'Eustachio, Antonio Fabregat, Yinping Jiao, Maria Keays, Young Koung Lee, Sunita Kumari, Joseph Mulvaney, Andrew Olson, Justin Preece, Joshua Stein, Sharon Wei, Joel Weiser, Laura Huerta, Robert Petryszak, Paul Kersey, Lincoln D Stein, Doreen Ware, Pankaj Jaiswal
Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online, open source, curated resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis designed to support researchers working in plant genomics, breeding, evolutionary biology, system biology, and metabolic engineering. It exploits phylogenetic relationships to enrich the annotation of genomic data and provides tools to perform powerful comparative analyses across a wide spectrum of plant species. It consists of an integrated portal for querying, visualizing and analyzing data for 44 plant reference genomes, genetic variation data sets for 12 species, expression data for 16 species, curated rice pathways and orthology-based pathway projections for 66 plant species including various crops...
November 2016: Current Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709399/draft-sequencing-and-assembly-of-the-genome-of-the-world-s-largest-fish-the-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-smith-1828
#5
Timothy D Read, Robert A Petit, Sandeep J Joseph, Md Tauqeer Alam, M Ryan Weil, Maida Ahmad, Ravila Bhimani, Jocelyn S Vuong, Chad P Haase, D Harry Webb, Milton Tan, Alistair D M Dove
BACKGROUND: The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) has by far the largest body size of any elasmobranch (shark or ray) species. Therefore, it is also the largest extant species of the paraphyletic assemblage commonly referred to as fishes. As both a phenotypic extreme and a member of the group Chondrichthyes - the sister group to the remaining gnathostomes, which includes all tetrapods and therefore also humans - its genome is of substantial comparative interest. Whale sharks are also listed as an endangered species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of threatened species and are of growing popularity as both a target of ecotourism and as a charismatic conservation ambassador for the pelagic ecosystem...
July 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702705/wolbachia-in-the-genus-bicyclus-a-forgotten-player
#6
Anne Duplouy, Oskar Brattström
Bicyclus butterflies are key species for studies of wing pattern development, phenotypic plasticity, speciation and the genetics of Lepidoptera. One of the key endosymbionts in butterflies, the alpha-Proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis, is affecting many of these biological processes; however, Bicyclus butterflies have not been investigated systematically as hosts to Wolbachia. In this study, we screen for Wolbachia infection in several Bicyclus species from natural populations across Africa as well as two laboratory populations...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699625/mutation-supply-and-the-repeatability-of-selection-for-antibiotic-resistance
#7
Thomas van Dijk, Sungmin Hwang, Joachim Krug, Arjan Gm de Visser, Mark Peter Zwart
Whether evolution can be predicted is a key question in evolutionary biology. Here we set out to better understand the repeatability of evolution, which is a necessary condition for predictability. We explored experimentally the effect of mutation supply and the strength of selective pressure on the repeatability of selection from standing genetic variation. Different sizes of mutant libraries of antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 β-lactamase in Escherichia coli, generated by error-prone PCR, were subjected to different antibiotic concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698080/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-euproctis-similis-lepidoptera-noctuoidea-erebidae-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#8
Yu Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Xiao-Ming Zhao, Ying Wang, Bo-Ping Tang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Chun-Lin Zhou, Qiu-Ning Liu
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) can provide information for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. We sequenced, annotated, and characterized the mitogenome of Euproctis similis. The complete mitogenome is 15,437bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region (A+T-rich region). The A+T content in the mitogenome was 80.16%. All PCGs use standard ATN as a start codon, with the exception of cytochrome c coxidase 1 (cox1) with CGA...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689721/studying-the-evolutionary-significance-of-thermal-adaptation-in-ectotherms-the-diversification-of-amphibians-energetics
#9
Roberto F Nespolo, Julio Figueroa, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran
A fundamental problem in evolutionary biology is the understanding of the factors that promote or constrain adaptive evolution, and assessing the role of natural selection in this process. Here, comparative phylogenetics, that is, using phylogenetic information and traits to infer evolutionary processes has been a major paradigm . In this study, we discuss Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models (OU) in the context of thermal adaptation in ectotherms. We specifically applied this approach to study amphibians's evolution and energy metabolism...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673971/polymorphism-at-a-mimicry-supergene-maintained-by-opposing-frequency-dependent-selection-pressures
#10
Mathieu Chouteau, Violaine Llaurens, Florence Piron-Prunier, Mathieu Joron
Explaining the maintenance of adaptive diversity within populations is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology, with important implications for conservation, medicine, and agriculture. Adaptation often leads to the fixation of beneficial alleles, and therefore it erodes local diversity so that understanding the coexistence of multiple adaptive phenotypes requires deciphering the ecological mechanisms that determine their respective benefits. Here, we show how antagonistic frequency-dependent selection (FDS), generated by natural and sexual selection acting on the same trait, maintains mimicry polymorphism in the toxic butterfly Heliconius numata Positive FDS imposed by predators on mimetic signals favors the fixation of the most abundant and best-protected wing-pattern morph, thereby limiting polymorphism...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673048/taming-the-beast-a-community-teaching-material-resource-for-beast-2
#11
Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Veronika Bošková, Louis du Plessis, Denise Kühnert, Carsten Magnus, Venelin Mitov, Nicola F Müller, Julija Pecerska, David A Rasmussen, Chi Zhang, Alexei J Drummond, Tracy A Heath, Oliver G Pybus, Timothy G Vaughan, Tanja Stadler
Phylogenetics and phylodynamics are central topics in modern evolutionary biology. Phylogenetic methods reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among organisms, whereas phylodynamic approaches reveal the underlying diversification processes that lead to the observed relationships. These two fields have many practical applications in disciplines as diverse as epidemiology, developmental biology, palaeontology, ecology, and linguistics. The combination of increasingly large genetic datasets and increases in computing power is facilitating the development of more sophisticated phylogenetic and phylodynamic methods...
June 29, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667696/phylogenetic-convergence-and-multiple-shell-shape-optima-for-gliding-scallops-bivalvia-pectinidae
#12
Jeanne M Serb, Emma Sherratt, Alvin Alejandrino, Dean C Adams
An important question in evolutionary biology is how often, and to what extent, do similar ecologies elicit distantly related taxa to evolve towards the same phenotype? In some scenarios, the repeated evolution of particular phenotypes may be expected, for instance when species are exposed to common selective forces that result from strong functional demands. In bivalved scallops (Pectinidae), some species exhibit a distinct swimming behavior (gliding), which requires specific biomechanical attributes to generate lift and reduce drag during locomotive events...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649335/early-events-in-speciation-cryptic-species-of%C3%A2-drosophila-aldrichi
#13
Cynthia Castro Vargas, Maxi Polihronakis Richmond, Mariana Ramirez Loustalot Laclette, Therese Ann Markow
Understanding the earliest events in speciation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Thus identifying species whose populations are beginning to diverge can provide useful systems to study the process of speciation. Drosophila aldrichi, a cactophilic fruit fly species with a broad distribution in North America, has long been assumed to be a single species owing to its morphological uniformity. While previous reports either of genetic divergence or reproductive isolation among different D. aldrichi strains have hinted at the existence of cryptic species, the evolutionary relationships of this species across its range have not been thoroughly investigated...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648617/a-perspective-on-the-structural-and-functional-constraints-for-immune-evasion-insights-from-influenza-virus
#14
REVIEW
Nicholas C Wu, Ian A Wilson
Influenza virus evolves rapidly to constantly escape from natural immunity. Most humoral immune responses to influenza virus target the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which is the major antigen on the surface of the virus. The HA is composed of a globular head domain for receptor binding and a stem domain for membrane fusion. The major antigenic sites of HA are located in the globular head subdomain, which is highly tolerant of amino acid substitutions and continual addition of glycosylation sites. Nonetheless, the evolution of the receptor-binding site and the stem region on HA is severely constrained by their functional roles in engaging the host receptor and in mediating membrane fusion, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645767/assessing-the-potential-of-rad-sequencing-to-resolve-phylogenetic-relationships-within-species-radiations-the-fly-genus-chiastocheta-diptera-anthomyiidae-as-a-case-study
#15
Tomasz Suchan, Anahí Espíndola, Sereina Rutschmann, Brent C Emerson, Kevin Gori, Christophe Dessimoz, Nils Arrigo, Michał Ronikier, Nadir Alvarez
Determining phylogenetic relationships among recently diverged species has long been a challenge in evolutionary biology. Cytoplasmic DNA markers, which have been widely used, notably in the context of molecular barcoding, have not always proved successful in resolving such phylogenies. However, with the advent of next-generation-sequencing technologies and associated techniques of reduced genome representation, phylogenies of closely related species have been resolved at a much higher detail in the last couple of years...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#16
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633360/expression-properties-exhibit-correlated-patterns-with-the-fate-of-duplicated-genes-their-divergence-and-transcriptional-plasticity-in-saccharomycotina
#17
Florian Mattenberger, Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz, Christina Toft, Gaurav Sablok, Mario A Fares
Gene duplication is an important source of novelties and genome complexity. What genes are preserved as duplicated through long evolutionary times can shape the evolution of innovations. Identifying factors that influence gene duplicability is therefore an important aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we show that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the levels of gene expression correlate with gene duplicability, its divergence, and transcriptional plasticity. Genes that were highly expressed before duplication are more likely to be preserved as duplicates for longer evolutionary times and wider phylogenetic ranges than genes that were lowly expressed...
June 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#18
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624633/from-flamingo-dance-to-desirable-drug-discovery-a-nature-inspired-approach
#19
REVIEW
Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Yunierkis Pérez-Castillo, Stephan C Schürer, Orazio Nicolotti, Giuseppe Felice Mangiatordi, Fernanda Borges, M Natalia D S Cordeiro, Eduardo Tejera, José L Medina-Franco, Maykel Cruz-Monteagudo
The therapeutic effects of drugs are well known to result from their interaction with multiple intracellular targets. Accordingly, the pharma industry is currently moving from a reductionist approach based on a 'one-target fixation' to a holistic multitarget approach. However, many drug discovery practices are still procedural abstractions resulting from the attempt to understand and address the action of biologically active compounds while preventing adverse effects. Here, we discuss how drug discovery can benefit from the principles of evolutionary biology and report two real-life case studies...
June 15, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617643/network-structure-and-selection-asymmetry-drive-coevolution-in-species-rich-antagonistic-interactions
#20
Cecilia S Andreazzi, John N Thompson, Paulo R Guimarães
Ecological interactions shape and are shaped by the evolution of interacting species. Mathematical models and empirical work have explored the multiple ways coevolution could occur in small sets of species, revealing that the addition of even one species can change the coevolutionary dynamics of a pairwise interaction. As a consequence, one of the current challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand how species-rich assemblages evolve and coevolve as networks of interacting species. We combined an adaptive network framework, a trait evolutionary model, and data on network structure to study how network organization affects and is affected by selection in antagonistic interactions such as parasitism, predation, and herbivory...
July 2017: American Naturalist
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