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"Evolutionary biology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432816/rhodnius-prolixus-from-classical-physiology-to-modern-developmental-biology
#1
REVIEW
Rodrigo Nunes-da-Fonseca, Mateus Berni, Vitória Tobias-Dos-Santos, Attilio Pane, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect and a primary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas disease. Over the past century, Rhodnius has been the subject of intense investigations, which have contributed to unveil important aspects of metabolism and physiology in insects. Recent technological innovations are helping dissect the genetic and molecular underpinnings of Rhodnius embryogenesis and organogenesis, thus fostering the use of this important species in the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431105/extinction-vs-rapid-radiation-the-juxtaposed-evolutionary-histories-of-coelotine-spiders-support-the-eocene-oligocene-orogenesis-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#2
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424728/landscape-population-genomics-of-forsythia-forsythia-suspensa-reveal-that-ecological-habitats-determine-the-adaptive-evolution-of-species
#3
Jie Yang, Cai-Yun Miao, Run-Li Mao, Yong Li
Understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to environmental variables is a key concern in molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. Determining the adaptive evolutionary direction and evaluating the adaptation status of species can improve our understanding of these mechanisms. In this study, we sampled 20 populations of Forsythia suspensa to infer the relationship between environmental variables and adaptive genetic variations. Population structure analysis revealed that four genetic groups of F...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423081/long-wavelength-sensitive-opsin-lws-gene-variability-in-neotropical-cichlids-teleostei-cichlidae
#4
Thomaz M C Fabrin, Sonia Maria A P Prioli, Alberto José Prioli
Cichlid fishes are an important group in evolutionary biology due to their fast speciation. This group depends widely of vision for feeding and reproduction. During the evolutionary process it plays a significant role in interspecific and intraspecific recognition and in its ecology. The molecular basis of vision is formed by the interaction of the protein opsin and retinal chromophore. Long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) gene is the most variable among the opsin genes and it has an ecological significance...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422426/dinosaurs-chameleons-humans-and-evo-devo-path-linking-%C3%A3-tienne-geoffroy-s-teratology-waddington-s-homeorhesis-alberch-s-logic-of-monsters-and-goldschmidt-hopeful-monsters
#5
REVIEW
Rui Diogo, Geoffrey Guinard, Raul E Diaz
Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411160/life-on-the-rocks-multilocus-phylogeography-of-rock-hyrax-procavia-capensis-from-southern-africa
#6
K Amanda Maswanganye, Michael J Cunningham, Nigel C Bennett, Christian T Chimimba, Paulette Bloomer
Understanding the role of geography and climatic cycles in determining patterns of biodiversity is important in comparative and evolutionary biology and conservation. We studied the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of a rock-dwelling small mammal species from southern Africa, the rock hyrax Procavia capensis. Using a multilocus coalescent approach, we assessed the influence of strong habitat dependence and fluctuating regional climates on genetic diversity. We sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and two nuclear introns (AP5, PRKC1) supplemented with microsatellite genotyping, in order to assess evolutionary processes over multiple temporal scales...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397400/on-the-origin-of-complex-adaptive-traits-progress-since-the-darwin-versus-mivart-debate
#7
Takao K Suzuki
The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389681/-adna-research-from-a%C3%A2-historical-perspective
#8
Elsbeth Bösl
aDNA studies are a cooperative field of research with a broad range of applications including evolutionary biology, genetics, anthropology and archaeology. Scientists are using ancient molecules as source material for historical questions. Colleagues from the humanities are observing this with both interest and concern because aDNA research is affecting academic identities and both concepts of history and historiography. aDNA research developed in a way that can be described as a Hype Cycle (Chackie Fenn)...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386109/the-underlying-process-of-early-ecological-and-genetic-differentiation-in-a-facultative-mutualistic-sinorhizobium-meliloti-population
#9
Nicolás Toro, Pablo J Villadas, María Dolores Molina-Sánchez, Pilar Navarro-Gómez, José M Vinardell, Lidia Cuesta-Berrio, Miguel A Rodríguez-Carvajal
The question of how genotypic and ecological units arise and spread in natural microbial populations remains controversial in the field of evolutionary biology. Here, we investigated the early stages of ecological and genetic differentiation in a highly clonal sympatric Sinorhizobium meliloti population. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that a large DNA region of the symbiotic plasmid pSymB was replaced in some isolates with a similar synteny block carrying densely clustered SNPs and displaying gene acquisition and loss...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381622/genetic-variation-during-range-expansion-effects-of-habitat-novelty-and-hybridization
#10
Amanda A Pierce, Rafael Gutierrez, Amber M Rice, Karin S Pfennig
How species' ranges evolve remains an enduring problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Species' range limits are potentially set by the inability of peripheral populations to adapt to range-edge habitat. Indeed, peripheral populations are often assumed to have reduced genetic diversity and population sizes, which limit evolvability. However, support for this assumption is mixed, possibly because the genetic effects of range expansion depend on two factors: the extent that habitat into which expansion occurs is novel and sources of gene flow...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379977/comparative-transcriptomics-of-entelegyne-spiders-araneae-entelegynae-with-emphasis-on-molecular-evolution-of-orphan-genes
#11
David E Carlson, Marshal Hedin
Next-generation sequencing technology is rapidly transforming the landscape of evolutionary biology, and has become a cost-effective and efficient means of collecting exome information for non-model organisms. Due to their taxonomic diversity, production of interesting venom and silk proteins, and the relative scarcity of existing genomic resources, spiders in particular are excellent targets for next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. In this study, the transcriptomes of six entelegyne spider species from three genera (Cicurina travisae, C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369868/pre-and-postcopulatory-sexual-selection-favor-aggressive-young-males-in-polyandrous-groups-of-red-junglefowl
#12
Grant C McDonald, Lewis G Spurgin, Eleanor A Fairfield, David S Richardson, Tommaso Pizzari
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection)...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365045/phylogenetic-paleoecology-tree-thinking-and-ecology-in-deep-time
#13
REVIEW
James C Lamsdell, Curtis R Congreve, Melanie J Hopkins, Andrew Z Krug, Mark E Patzkowsky
The new and emerging field of phylogenetic paleoecology leverages the evolutionary relationships among species to explain temporal and spatial changes in species diversity, abundance, and distribution in deep time. This field is poised for rapid progress as knowledge of the evolutionary relationships among fossil species continues to expand. In particular, this approach will lend new insights to many of the longstanding questions in evolutionary biology, such as: the relationships among character change, ecology, and evolutionary rates; the processes that determine the evolutionary relationships among species within communities and along environmental gradients; and the phylogenetic signal underlying ecological selectivity in background and mass extinctions and in major evolutionary radiations...
March 29, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359648/tachykinin-neurokinin-3-receptor-antagonists-a-new-treatment-for-cardiovascular-disease
#14
C Mary Schooling
Great progress has been made in reducing cardiovascular mortality over the past 50 years. Nevertheless, prevalence is rising in some settings and remains higher in men than in women, even with the same level of established risk factors. To gain new insights, researchers are now considering cardiovascular disease in relation to the well known evolutionary biology model of growth and reproduction trading off against longevity, with trials of calorie restriction underway. However, calorie restriction has not been as successful as expected in primates and it is increasingly realised that effects on the reproductive axis might also be important...
March 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357814/before-hierarchy-the-rise-and-fall-of-stephen-jay-gould-s-first-macroevolutionary-synthesis
#15
Max W Dresow
Few of Stephen Jay Gould's accomplishments in evolutionary biology have received more attention than his hierarchical theory of evolution, which postulates a causal discontinuity between micro- and macroevolutionary events. But Gould's hierarchical theory was his second attempt to supply a theoretical framework for macroevolutionary studies-and one he did not inaugurate until the mid-1970s. In this paper, I examine Gould's first attempt: a proposed fusion of theoretical morphology, multivariate biometry and the experimental study of adaptation in fossils...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356450/terrestrial-reproduction-as-an-adaptation-to-steep-terrain-in-african-toads
#16
H Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Julian Hafner, Johannes Penner, David J Gower, Tomáš Mazuch, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Simon P Loader
How evolutionary novelties evolve is a major question in evolutionary biology. It is widely accepted that changes in environmental conditions shift the position of selective optima, and advancements in phylogenetic comparative approaches allow the rigorous testing of such correlated transitions. A longstanding question in vertebrate biology has been the evolution of terrestrial life histories in amphibians and here, by investigating African bufonids, we test whether terrestrial modes of reproduction have evolved as adaptations to particular abiotic habitat parameters...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356070/core-genome-scaffold-comparison-reveals-the-prevalence-that-inversion-events-are-associated-with-pairs-of-inverted-repeats
#17
Dan Wang, Shuaicheng Li, Fei Guo, Kang Ning, Lusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Genome rearrangement describes gross changes of chromosomal regions, plays an important role in evolutionary biology and has profound impacts on phenotype in organisms ranging from microbes to humans. With more and more complete genomes accomplished, lots of genomic comparisons have been conducted in order to find genome rearrangements and the mechanisms which underlie the rearrangement events. In our opinion, genomic comparison of different individuals/strains within the same species (pan-genome) is more helpful to reveal the mechanisms for genome rearrangements since genomes of the same species are much closer to each other...
March 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353120/the-molecular-basis-of-evolution-and-disease-a-cold-war-alliance
#18
Edna Suárez-Díaz
This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen´s The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352297/adaptive-evolution-and-demographic-history-contribute-to-the-divergent-population-genetic-structure-of-potato-virus-y-between-china-and-japan
#19
Fangluan Gao, Wenchao Zou, Lianhui Xie, Jiasui Zhan
Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant pathogen causing considerable economic loss to potato production. Knowledge of the population genetic structure and evolutionary biology of the pathogen, particularly at a transnational scale, is limited but vital in developing sustainable management schemes. In this study, the population genetic structure and molecular evolution of PVY were studied using 127 first protein (P1) and 137 coat protein (CP) sequences generated from isolates collected from potato in China and Japan...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350496/fundamental-theorems-of-evolution
#20
David C Queller
Evolutionary biology is undergirded by an extensive and impressive set of mathematical models. Yet only one result, Fisher's theorem about selection and fitness, is generally accorded the status of a fundamental theorem. I argue that although its fundamental status is justified by its simplicity and scope, there are additional results that seem similarly fundamental. I suggest that the most fundamental theorem of evolution is the Price equation, both because of its simplicity and broad scope and because it can be used to derive four other familiar results that are similarly fundamental: Fisher's average-excess equation, Robertson's secondary theorem of natural selection, the breeder's equation, and Fisher's fundamental theorem...
April 2017: American Naturalist
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