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"Evolutionary biology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821552/differences-in-temperature-and-water-chemistry-shape-distinct-diversity-patterns-in-thermophilic-microbial-communities
#1
Cecilia M Chiriac, Edina Szekeres, Knut Rudi, Andreea Baricz, Adriana Hegedus, Nicolae Dragoş, Cristian Coman
This study presents the biodiversity and ecology of microbial mats developed in thermal gradients (20-65 °C) in the surroundings of three drillings (CH, CI, MB) tapping a hyperthermal aquifer from Romania. Using a metabarcoding approach, 16S rRNA genes were sequenced from both DNA and RNA transcripts (cDNA) and compared. The relationships between the microbial diversity and the physico-chemical factors were explored. Additionally, the cDNA data was used for in silico functionality predictions, bringing new insights into the functional potential and dynamics of these communities...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814445/meeting-report-on-experimental-approaches-to-evolution-and-ecology-using-yeast-and-other-model-systems
#2
Daniel Jarosz, Aimée M Dudley
The fourth EMBO-sponsored conference on Experimental Approaches to Evolution and Ecology Using Yeast and Other Model Systems (https://www.embl.de/training/events/2016/EAE16-01/), was held at the EMBL in Heidelberg, Germany, October 19-23, 2016. The conference was organized by Judith Berman (Tel Aviv University), Maitreya Dunham (University of Washington), Jun-Yi Leu (Academia Sinica), and Lars Steinmetz (EMBL Heidelberg and Stanford University). The meeting attracted ~120 researchers from 28 countries and covered a wide range of topics in the fields of genetics, evolutionary biology, and ecology with a unifying focus on yeast as a model system...
August 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812734/human-behaviour-as-a-long-term-ecological-driver-of-non-human-evolution
#3
REVIEW
Alexis P Sullivan, Douglas W Bird, George H Perry
Due to our intensive subsistence and habitat-modification strategies-including broad-spectrum harvesting and predation, widespread landscape burning, settlement construction, and translocation of other species-humans have major roles as ecological actors who influence fundamental trophic interactions. Here we review how the long-term history of human-environment interaction has shaped the evolutionary biology of diverse non-human, non-domesticated species. Clear examples of anthropogenic effects on non-human morphological evolution have been documented in modern studies of substantial changes to body size or other major traits in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in response to selective human harvesting, urbanized habitats, and human-mediated translocation...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812729/complex-modular-architecture-around-a-simple-toolkit-of-wing-pattern-genes
#4
Steven M Van Belleghem, Pasi Rastas, Alexie Papanicolaou, Simon H Martin, Carlos F Arias, Megan A Supple, Joseph J Hanly, James Mallet, James J Lewis, Heather M Hines, Mayte Ruiz, Camilo Salazar, Mauricio Linares, Gilson R P Moreira, Chris D Jiggins, Brian A Counterman, W Owen McMillan, Riccardo Papa
Identifying the genomic changes that control morphological variation and understanding how they generate diversity is a major goal of evolutionary biology. In Heliconius butterflies, a small number of genes control the development of diverse wing colour patterns. Here, we used full-genome sequencing of individuals across the Heliconius erato radiation and closely related species to characterize genomic variation associated with wing pattern diversity. We show that variation around colour pattern genes is highly modular, with narrow genomic intervals associated with specific differences in colour and pattern...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812721/predicting-evolution
#5
Michael Lässig, Ville Mustonen, Aleksandra M Walczak
The face of evolutionary biology is changing: from reconstructing and analysing the past to predicting future evolutionary processes. Recent developments include prediction of reproducible patterns in parallel evolution experiments, forecasting the future of individual populations using data from their past, and controlled manipulation of evolutionary dynamics. Here we undertake a synthesis of central concepts for evolutionary predictions, based on examples of microbial and viral systems, cancer cell populations, and immune receptor repertoires...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812669/the-evo-devo-of-plant-speciation
#6
REVIEW
Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Beverley J Glover
Speciation research bridges the realms of macro- and microevolution. Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has classically dealt with macroevolutionary questions through a comparative approach to distantly related organisms, but the field later broadened in focus to address recent speciation and microevolution. Here we review available evidence of the power of evo-devo approaches to understand speciation in plants at multiple scales. At a macroevolutionary scale, evidence is accumulating for evolutionary developmental mechanisms giving rise to key innovations promoting speciation...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812623/a-thousand-empirical-adaptive-landscapes-and-their-navigability
#7
José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Joshua L Payne, Andreas Wagner
The adaptive landscape is an iconic metaphor that pervades evolutionary biology. It was mostly applied in theoretical models until recent years, when empirical data began to allow partial landscape reconstructions. Here, we exhaustively analyse 1,137 complete landscapes from 129 eukaryotic species, each describing the binding affinity of a transcription factor to all possible short DNA sequences. We find that the navigability of these landscapes through single mutations is intermediate to that of additive and shuffled null models, suggesting that binding affinity-and thereby gene expression-is readily fine-tuned via mutations in transcription factor binding sites...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812622/species-rich-networks-and-eco-evolutionary-synthesis-at-the-metacommunity-level
#8
Hirokazu Toju, Masato Yamamichi, Paulo R Guimarães, Jens M Olesen, Akihiko Mougi, Takehito Yoshida, John N Thompson
Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes interdependently structure biosphere dynamics is a major challenge in the era of worldwide ecosystem degradation. However, our knowledge of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' depends largely on findings from simple systems representing limited spatial scales and involving few species. Here we review recent conceptual developments for the understanding of multispecies coevolutionary processes and then discuss how new lines of concepts and methods will accelerate the integration of ecology and evolutionary biology...
January 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811875/ecosystem-size-predicts-eco-morphological-variability-in-a-postglacial-diversification
#9
Hans Recknagel, Oliver E Hooker, Colin E Adams, Kathryn R Elmer
Identifying the processes by which new phenotypes and species emerge has been a long-standing effort in evolutionary biology. Young adaptive radiations provide a model to study patterns of morphological and ecological diversification in environmental context. Here, we use the recent radiation (ca. 12k years old) of the freshwater fish Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to identify abiotic and biotic environmental factors associated with adaptive morphological variation. Arctic charr are exceptionally diverse, and in postglacial lakes there is strong evidence of repeated parallel evolution of similar morphologies associated with foraging...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801564/evolution-of-hemoglobin-genes-in-codfishes-influenced-by-ocean-depth
#10
Helle Tessand Baalsrud, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Ole Kristian Tørresen, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Michael Matschiner, Martin Malmstrøm, Reinhold Hanel, Walter Salzburger, Kjetill S Jakobsen, Sissel Jentoft
Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation is one of the main enigmas of evolutionary biology. Among vertebrates, hemoglobin has been well documented as a key trait for adaptation to different environments. Here, we investigate the role of hemoglobins in adaptation to ocean depth in the diverse teleost order Gadiformes, with species distributed at a wide range of depths varying in temperature, hydrostatic pressure and oxygen levels. Using genomic data we characterized the full hemoglobin (Hb) gene repertoire for subset of species within this lineage...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798311/genomic-regions-and-genes-related-to-inter-population-differences-in-body-size-in-the-ground-beetle-carabus-japonicus
#11
Ryohei Komurai, Tomochika Fujisawa, Yutaka Okuzaki, Teiji Sota
Body size is a key trait in diversification among animal species, and revealing the gene regions responsible for body size diversification among populations or related species is important in evolutionary biology. We explored the genomic regions associated with body size differences in Carabus japonicus ground beetle populations by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of F2 hybrids from differently sized parents from two populations using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and de novo assembly of the beetle whole genome...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797609/conservation-evo-devo-preserving-biodiversity-by-understanding-its-origins
#12
REVIEW
Calum S Campbell, Colin E Adams, Colin W Bean, Kevin J Parsons
Unprecedented rates of species extinction increase the urgency for effective conservation biology management practices. Thus, any improvements in practice are vital and we suggest that conservation can be enhanced through recent advances in evolutionary biology, specifically advances put forward by evolutionary developmental biology (i.e., evo-devo). There are strong overlapping conceptual links between conservation and evo-devo whereby both fields focus on evolutionary potential. In particular, benefits to conservation can be derived from some of the main areas of evo-devo research, namely phenotypic plasticity, modularity and integration, and mechanistic investigations of the precise developmental and genetic processes that determine phenotypes...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794221/revised-time-scales-of-rna-virus-evolution-based-on-spatial-information
#13
Moritz Saxenhofer, Vanessa Weber de Melo, Rainer G Ulrich, Gerald Heckel
The time scales of pathogen evolution are of major concern in the context of public and veterinary health, epidemiology and evolutionary biology. Dating the emergence of a pathogen often relies on estimates of evolutionary rates derived from nucleotide sequence data. For many viruses, this has yielded estimates of evolutionary origins only a few hundred years in the past. Here we demonstrate through the incorporation of geographical information from virus sampling that evolutionary age estimates of two European hantaviruses are severely underestimated because of pervasive mutational saturation of nucleotide sequences...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792676/the-messenger-matters-pollinator-functional-group-influences-mating-system-dynamics
#14
Jennifer J Weber
The incredible diversity of plant mating systems has fuelled research in evolutionary biology for over a century. Currently, there is broad concern about the impact of rapidly changing pollinator communities on plant populations. Very few studies, however, examine patterns and mechanisms associated with multiple paternity from cross-pollen loads. Often, foraging pollinators collect a mixed pollen load that may result in the deposition of pollen from different sires to receptive stigmas. Coincident deposition of self- and cross-pollen leads to interesting mating system dynamics and has been investigated in numerous species...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790902/integration-of-brain-and-skull-in-prenatal-mouse-models-of-apert-and-crouzon-syndromes
#15
Susan M Motch Perrine, Tim Stecko, Thomas Neuberger, Ethylin W Jabs, Timothy M Ryan, Joan T Richtsmeier
The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782044/evolution-of-complex-adaptations-in-molecular-systems
#16
Csaba Pál, Balázs Papp
A central challenge in evolutionary biology concerns the mechanisms by which complex adaptations arise. Such adaptations depend on the fixation of multiple, highly specific mutations, where intermediate stages of evolution seemingly provide little or no benefit. It is generally assumed that the establishment of complex adaptations is very slow in nature, as evolution of such traits demands special population genetic or environmental circumstances. However, blueprints of complex adaptations in molecular systems are pervasive, indicating that they can readily evolve...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777894/evolution-of-novel-mimicry-rings-facilitated-by-adaptive-introgression-in-tropical-butterflies
#17
Juan Enciso-Romero, Carolina Pardo-Díaz, Simon H Martin, Carlos F Arias, Mauricio Linares, W Owen McMillan, Chris D Jiggins, Camilo Salazar
Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of adaptive novelty, especially in adaptive radiations, is a major goal in evolutionary biology. Here, we used whole genome sequence data to investigate the origin of the yellow hindwing bar in the Heliconius cydno radiation. We found modular variation associated with hindwing phenotype in two narrow non-coding regions upstream and downstream of the cortex gene, which was recently identified as a pigmentation pattern controller in multiple species of Heliconius...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768892/baby-fish-working-out-an-epigenetic-source-of-adaptive-variation-in-the-cichlid-jaw
#18
Yinan Hu, R Craig Albertson
Understanding the developmental processes that underlie the production of adaptive variation (i.e. the 'arrival of the fittest') is a major goal of evolutionary biology. While most evo-devo studies focus on the genetic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypic variation, factors beyond changes in nucleotide sequence can also play a major role in shaping developmental outcomes. Here, we document a vigorous but enigmatic gaping behaviour during the early development of Lake Malawi cichlid larvae. The onset of the behaviour precedes the formation of bone, and we predicted that it might influence craniofacial shape by affecting the mechanical environment in which bone develops...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761013/why-gupta-et-al-s-critique-of-niche-construction-theory-is-off-target
#19
Marcus W Feldman, John Odling-Smee, Kevin N Laland
Gupta et al., in their article in this issue ('Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an academic niche?'. doi:10.1007/s12041-017-0787-6), lament 'serious problems with the way science is being done' and suggest that 'niche construction theory exemplifies this state of affairs.' However, their aggressively confrontational but superficial critique of niche construction theory (NCT) only contributes to these problems by attacking claims that NCT does not make. This is unfortunate, as their poor scholarship has done a disservice to the evolutionary biology community through propagating misinformation...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761006/unpacking-the-species-conundrum-philosophy-practice-and-a-way-forward
#20
Kartik Shanker, S P Vijayakumar, K N Ganeshaiah
The history of ecology and evolutionary biology is rife with attempts to define and delimit species. However, there has been confusion between concepts and criteria, which has led to discussion, debate, and conflict, eventually leading to lack of consistency in delimitation. Here, we provide a broad review of species concepts, a clarification of category versus concept, an account of the general lineage concept (GLC), and finally a way forward for species discovery and delimitation. Historically, species were considered as varieties bound together by reproduction...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
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