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"Evolutionary biology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633360/expression-properties-exhibit-correlated-patterns-with-the-fate-of-duplicated-genes-their-divergence-and-transcriptional-plasticity-in-saccharomycotina
#1
Florian Mattenberger, Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz, Christina Toft, Gaurav Sablok, Mario A Fares
Gene duplication is an important source of novelties and genome complexity. What genes are preserved as duplicated through long evolutionary times can shape the evolution of innovations. Identifying factors that influence gene duplicability is therefore an important aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we show that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the levels of gene expression correlate with gene duplicability, its divergence, and transcriptional plasticity. Genes that were highly expressed before duplication are more likely to be preserved as duplicates for longer evolutionary times and wider phylogenetic ranges than genes that were lowly expressed...
June 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#2
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624633/from-flamingo-dance-to-desirable-drug-discovery-a-nature-inspired-approach
#3
REVIEW
Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Yunierkis Pérez-Castillo, Stephan C Schürer, Orazio Nicolotti, Giuseppe Felice Mangiatordi, Fernanda Borges, M Natalia D S Cordeiro, Eduardo Tejera, José L Medina-Franco, Maykel Cruz-Monteagudo
The therapeutic effects of drugs are well known to result from their interaction with multiple intracellular targets. Accordingly, the pharma industry is currently moving from a reductionist approach based on a 'one-target fixation' to a holistic multitarget approach. However, many drug discovery practices are still procedural abstractions resulting from the attempt to understand and address the action of biologically active compounds while preventing adverse effects. Here, we discuss how drug discovery can benefit from the principles of evolutionary biology and report two real-life case studies...
June 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617643/network-structure-and-selection-asymmetry-drive-coevolution-in-species-rich-antagonistic-interactions
#4
Cecilia S Andreazzi, John N Thompson, Paulo R Guimarães
Ecological interactions shape and are shaped by the evolution of interacting species. Mathematical models and empirical work have explored the multiple ways coevolution could occur in small sets of species, revealing that the addition of even one species can change the coevolutionary dynamics of a pairwise interaction. As a consequence, one of the current challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand how species-rich assemblages evolve and coevolve as networks of interacting species. We combined an adaptive network framework, a trait evolutionary model, and data on network structure to study how network organization affects and is affected by selection in antagonistic interactions such as parasitism, predation, and herbivory...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617640/microhabitat-and-climatic-niche-change-explain-patterns-of-diversification-among-frog-families
#5
Daniel S Moen, John J Wiens
A major goal of ecology and evolutionary biology is to explain patterns of species richness among clades. Differences in rates of net diversification (speciation minus extinction over time) may often explain these patterns, but the factors that drive variation in diversification rates remain uncertain. Three important candidates are climatic niche position (e.g., whether clades are primarily temperate or tropical), rates of climatic niche change among species within clades, and microhabitat (e.g., aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal)...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615504/biological-markets-in-cooperative-breeders-quantifying-outside-options
#6
Lena Grinsted, Jeremy Field
A major aim in evolutionary biology is to understand altruistic help and reproductive partitioning in cooperative societies, where subordinate helpers forego reproduction to rear dominant breeders' offspring. Traditional models of cooperation in these societies typically make a key assumption: that the only alternative to staying and helping is solitary breeding, an often unfeasible task. Using large-scale field experiments on paper wasps (Polistes dominula), we show that individuals have high-quality alternative nesting options available that offer fitness payoffs just as high as their actual chosen options, far exceeding payoffs from solitary breeding...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614414/species-specific-variation-in-nesting-and-postfledging-resource-selection-for-two-forest-breeding-migrant-songbirds
#7
Julianna M A Jenkins, Frank R Thompson, John Faaborg
Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611298/tumor-diversity-and-evolution-revealed-through-radseq
#8
Elizabeth B Perry, Alvin Makohon-Moore, Caihong Zheng, Charles K Kaufman, Jun Cai, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Richard M White
Cancer is an evolutionary disease, and there is increasing interest in applying tools from evolutionary biology to understand cancer progression. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) was developed for the field of evolutionary genetics to study adaptation and identify evolutionary relationships among populations. Here we apply RADseq to study tumor evolution, which allows for unbiased sampling of any desired frequency of the genome, overcoming the selection bias and cost limitations inherent to exome or whole-genome sequencing...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610091/lepnet-the-lepidoptera-of-north-america-network
#9
Katja C Seltmann, Neil S Cobb, Lawrence F Gall, Charles R Bartlett, M Anne Basham, Isabelle Betancourt, Christy Bills, Benjamin Brandt, Richard L Brown, Charles Bundy, Michael S Caterino, Caitlin Chapman, Anthony Cognato, Julia Colby, Stephen P Cook, Kathryn M Daly, Lee A Dyer, Nico M Franz, Jon K Gelhaus, Christopher C Grinter, Charles E Harp, Rachel L Hawkins, Steve L Heydon, Geena M Hill, Stacey Huber, Norman Johnson, Akito Y Kawahara, Lynn S Kimsey, Boris C Kondratieff, Frank-Thorsten Krell, Luc Leblanc, Sangmi Lee, Christopher J Marshall, Lindsie M McCabe, Joseph V McHugh, Katrina L Menard, Paul A Opler, Nicole Palffy-Muhoray, Nick Pardikes, Merrill A Peterson, Naomi E Pierce, Andre Poremski, Derek S Sikes, Jason D Weintraub, David Wikle, Jennifer M Zaspel, Gregory Zolnerowich
The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609941/mitochondrial-genome-of-i-abraxas-i-i-suspecta-i-lepidoptera-geometridae-%C3%A2-and-comparative-analysis-with-other-lepidopterans
#10
Y U Sun, Jiawei Zhang, Qingqing Li, Dan Liang, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Bao-Jian Zhu, Chao-Liang Liu
In this study, a complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Abraxas suspecta (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is isolated and characterized. The complete DNA is 15,547 bp length and contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 23 putative transfer RNA (tRNA) genes including an extra tRNAAsn (AUU), 13 protein-coding genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region. The nucleotide composition and gene organization are identical to those of other lepidopteran, except for the presence of an extra copy of trnN (AUU)...
April 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602651/a-bhlh-code-for-sexually-dimorphic-form-and-function-of-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-somatic-gonad
#11
Maria D Sallee, Hana E Littleford, Iva Greenwald
How sexually dimorphic gonads are generated is a fundamental question at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology [1-3]. In C. elegans, sexual dimorphism in gonad form and function largely originates in different apportionment of roles to three regulatory cells of the somatic gonad primordium in young larvae. Their essential roles include leading gonad arm outgrowth, serving as the germline niche, connecting to epithelial openings, and organizing reproductive organ development. The development and function of the regulatory cells in both sexes requires the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor HLH-2, the sole ortholog of the E proteins mammalian E2A and Drosophila Daughterless [4-8], yet how they adopt different fates to execute their different roles has been unknown...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584112/causes-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification-mode-in-metazoans
#12
Carrie A Whittle, Cassandra G Extavour
In animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ lines, the cell lineages that produce sperm and eggs. PGCs form in embryogenesis, typically by one of two modes: a likely ancestral mode wherein germ cells are induced during embryogenesis by cell-cell signaling (induction) or a derived mechanism whereby germ cells are specified by using germ plasm-that is, maternally specified germ-line determinants (inheritance). The causes of the shift to germ plasm for PGC specification in some animal clades remain largely unknown, but its repeated convergent evolution raises the question of whether it may result from or confer an innate selective advantage...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576124/ancylostoma-ailuropodae-n-sp-nematoda-ancylostomatidae-a-new-hookworm-parasite-isolated-from-wild-giant-pandas-in-southwest-china
#13
Yue Xie, Eric P Hoberg, Zijiang Yang, Joseph F Urban, Guangyou Yang
BACKGROUND: Hookworms belonging to the genus Ancylostoma (Dubini, 1843) cause ancylostomiasis, a disease of considerable concern in humans and domestic and wild animals. Molecular and epidemiological data support evidence for the zoonotic potential among species of Ancylostoma where transmission to humans is facilitated by rapid urbanization and increased human-wildlife interactions. It is important to assess and describe these potential zoonotic parasite species in wildlife, especially in hosts that have physiological similarities to humans and share their habitat...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567606/autonomy-equality-and-teaching-among-aka-foragers-and-ngandu-farmers-of-the-congo-basin
#14
Adam H Boyette, Barry S Hewlett
The significance of teaching to the evolution of human culture is under debate. We contribute to the discussion by using a quantitative, cross-cultural comparative approach to investigate the role of teaching in the lives of children in two small-scale societies: Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers of the Central African Republic. Focal follows with behavior coding were used to record social learning experiences of children aged 4 to 16 during daily life. "Teaching" was coded based on a functional definition from evolutionary biology...
May 31, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567240/phylogeography-genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-in-a-patagonian-endemic-plant
#15
Alicia López, Marisa G Bonasora
Phylogeographical patterns provide valuable insight into the historical processes underlying diversification, and may provide a better understanding of biodiversity, dispersal modes, diversification times, extinctions, refuge areas and other species-/population-level processes. Here, we examine the genetic structure of Oxalis laciniata, a representative of Oxalis, which is an important emerging model in evolutionary biology and phylogenetic studies. We analyse genetic correlation, haplotype diversity and genetic structure...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566483/the-sources-of-adaptive-variation
#16
REVIEW
Deborah Charlesworth, Nicholas H Barton, Brian Charlesworth
The role of natural selection in the evolution of adaptive phenotypes has undergone constant probing by evolutionary biologists, employing both theoretical and empirical approaches. As Darwin noted, natural selection can act together with other processes, including random changes in the frequencies of phenotypic differences that are not under strong selection, and changes in the environment, which may reflect evolutionary changes in the organisms themselves. As understanding of genetics developed after 1900, the new genetic discoveries were incorporated into evolutionary biology...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555029/venom-on-a-chip-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-comparative-venomics
#17
Giulia Zancolli, Libia Sanz, Juan J Calvete, Wolfgang Wüster
Venom research has attracted an increasing interest in disparate fields, from drug development and pharmacology, to evolutionary biology and ecology, and rational antivenom production. Advances in "-omics" technologies have allowed the characterization of an increasing number of animal venoms, but the methodology currently available is suboptimal for large-scale comparisons of venom profiles. Here, we describe a fast, reproducible and semi-automated protocol for investigating snake venom variability, especially at the intraspecific level, using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on-chip technology...
May 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548230/molecular-basis-of-social-competence-in-medaka-fish
#18
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547179/telomere-length-measurement-by-qpcr-in-birds-is-affected-by-storage-method-of-blood-samples
#19
Sophie Reichert, Hannah Froy, Winnie Boner, Theresa M Burg, Francis Daunt, Robert Gillespie, Kate Griffiths, Sue Lewis, Richard A Phillips, Dan H Nussey, Pat Monaghan
Given the potential role of telomeres as biomarkers of individual health and ageing, there is an increasing interest in studying telomere dynamics in a wider range of taxa in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. Measuring telomere length across the lifespan in wild animal systems is essential for testing these hypotheses, and may be aided by archived blood samples collected as part of longitudinal field studies. However, sample collection, storage, and DNA extraction methods may influence telomere length measurement, and it may, therefore, be difficult to balance consistency in sampling protocol with making the most of available samples...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544874/the-relative-safety-of-paternal-maternal-and-traditional-foster-care-placements
#20
Jesse J Helton, Brian B Boutwell, Michael DiBernardo
When children are placed into foster care the caseworker must give preference to an adult relative, many of whom are grandparents, over an unrelated caregiver. This kinship preference is based in evolutionary biology, which suggests that the imperative to care for a child should be greater for kin versus non-kin. However, not all kin are related to a child in the same way, and level of paternity uncertainty may influence level of care provided. For instance, maternal grandparents can be assured that they share genetic material with their grandchild, while paternal grandparents may not have the same level of certainty...
May 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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