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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#1
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913916/development-of-international-terminology-and-definitions-for-texture-modified-foods-and-thickened-fluids-used-in-dysphagia-management-the-iddsi-framework
#2
Julie A Y Cichero, Peter Lam, Catriona M Steele, Ben Hanson, Jianshe Chen, Roberto O Dantas, Janice Duivestein, Jun Kayashita, Caroline Lecko, Joseph Murray, Mershen Pillay, Luis Riquelme, Soenke Stanschus
Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation...
December 2, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911404/using-capillary-electrophoresis-to-quantify-organic-acids-from-plant-tissue-a-test-case-examining-coffea-arabica-seeds
#3
Michael Joe Vaughan, Ann Chanon, Joshua J Blakeslee
Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more terminal carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. Short chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs; carboxylic acids containing three to six carbons), such as malate and citrate, are critical to the proper functioning of many biological systems, where they function in cellular respiration and can serve as indicators of cell health. In foods, organic acid content can have significant impact on taste, with increased SCCA levels resulting in a sour or "acid" taste. Because of this, methods for the rapid analysis of organic acid levels are of particular interest to the food and beverage industries...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910260/impact-of-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-on-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-at-18%C3%A2-months-of-age-results-from-four-randomized-controlled-trials-in-africa
#4
Mary Arimond, Souheila Abbeddou, Chiza Kumwenda, Harriet Okronipa, Jaimie Hemsworth, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Eugenia Ocansey, Anna Lartey, Ulla Ashorn, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Stephen A Vosti, Sonja Y Hess, Kathryn G Dewey
Optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices can help ensure nutrient adequacy and support healthy growth and development. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been proposed to help fill nutrient gaps, but little is known about the impact of provision of SQ-LNS on breastfeeding or complementary feeding practices. In the context of four coordinated randomized controlled nutrient supplementation trials in diverse sites in Africa, we compared IYCF practices at infant age 18 months (after 9-12 months of supplementation) between those receiving and not receiving SQ-LNS...
December 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909986/toxicity-and-pharmacokinetic-profile-for-single-dose-injection-of-aby-029-a-fluorescent-anti-egfr-synthetic-affibody-molecule-for-human-use
#5
Kimberley S Samkoe, Jason R Gunn, Kayla Marra, Sally M Hull, Karen L Moodie, Joachim Feldwisch, Theresa V Strong, Daniel R Draney, P Jack Hoopes, David W Roberts, Keith Paulsen, Brian W Pogue
PURPOSE: ABY-029, a synthetic Affibody peptide, Z03115-Cys, labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye® 800CW, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been produced under good manufacturing practices for a US Food and Drug Administration-approved first-in-use human study during surgical resection of glioma, as well as other tumors. Here, the pharmacology, phototoxicity, receptor activity, and biodistribution studies of ABY-029 were completed in rats, prior to the intended human use...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909951/contrasting-patterns-in-solitary-and-eusocial-bees-while-responding-to-landscape-features-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-a-multiscaled-perspective
#6
D P Silva, D S Nogueira, P De Marco
Landscape structure is an important determinant of biological fluxes and species composition, but species do not respond equally to landscape features or spatial extents. Evaluating "multi-scale" responses of species to landscape structure is an important framework to be considered, allowing insights about habitat requirements for different groups. We evaluated the response of Brazilian Cerrado's bees (eusocial vs. solitary ones) to both the amount and isolation of remnant vegetation in eight nested multiple-local scales...
December 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909941/degradation-and-half-life-of-dna-present-in-biomass-from-a-genetically-modified-organism-during-land-application
#7
Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909840/variable-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-to-daphnia-magna-effects-of-algal-particles-and-animal-nutrition
#8
Andrea L Conine, Paul C Frost
Aquatic environments vary widely in aspects other than their physicochemical properties that could alter the toxicity of novel contaminants. One factor that could affect chemical toxicity to aquatic consumers is their nutritional environment as it can strongly affect their physiology and life history. Nutrition has the potential to alter an organism's response to the toxin or how the toxin interacts with the consumer through its food. Here we determined how growth and survival responses of Daphnia to an emerging contaminant, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are affected by the presence of food and its stoichiometric food quality...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#9
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908487/mercury-exposure-and-source-tracking-in-distinct-marine-caged-fish-farm-in-southern-china
#11
Xiaoyu Xu, Wen-Xiong Wang
Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ(202)Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907064/nad-is-a-food-component-that-promotes-exit-from-dauer-diapause-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Mykola Mylenko, Sebastian Boland, Sider Penkov, Julio L Sampaio, Benoit Lombardot, Daniela Vorkel, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Teymuras V Kurzchalia
The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906139/myxobacteria-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-impregnation-in-wrapping-paper-used-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-apples
#13
Swati Bhople, Swapnil Gaikwad, Swapna Deshmukh, Shital Bonde, Aniket Gade, Sanjib Sen, Anna Brezinska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
The authors report Myxobacteria virescens (M. virescens) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-33591), Salmonella typhi (ATCC-51812), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC-14948), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-4030) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-4673). The organism exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics showed remarkable sensitivity, when used in combination of antibiotics and AgNPs. Antimicrobial property of AgNPs is playing a significant role in medicine and food storage...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905961/estimating-average-alcohol-consumption-in-the-population-using-multiple-sources-the-case-of-spain
#14
Luis Sordo, Gregorio Barrio, María J Bravo, Joan R Villalbí, Albert Espelt, Montserrat Neira, Enrique Regidor
BACKGROUND: National estimates on per capita alcohol consumption are provided regularly by various sources and may have validity problems, so corrections are needed for monitoring and assessment purposes. Our objectives were to compare different alcohol availability estimates for Spain, to build the best estimate (actual consumption), characterize its time trend during 2001-2011, and quantify the extent to which other estimates (coverage) approximated actual consumption. METHODS: Estimates were: alcohol availability from the Spanish Tax Agency (Tax Agency availability), World Health Organization (WHO availability) and other international agencies, self-reported purchases from the Spanish Food Consumption Panel, and self-reported consumption from population surveys...
June 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905825/saliva-volatile-biomarkers-and-profiles
#15
Maciej Milanowski, Paweł Pomastowski, Tomasz Ligor, Bogusław Buszewski
Saliva is an aqueous fluid found in the oral cavity playing fundamental role in the preservation and maintenance of oral health. Apart from higher-molecular-weight constituents it contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may origin from such sources as blood or be result of bacterial metabolism. They can also reach the oral fluid through dissolving of volatiles from breath and consumed foods. Some of them may serve as biomarkers of various diseases, such as dimethyl disulfide (halitosis), pyridine (periodontal disease) and trimethylamine (trimethylaminuria) or occupational exposure...
December 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904870/preclinical-study-of-68-ga-dotatoc-biodistribution-assessment-in-syrian-rats-and-evaluation-of-absorbed-dose-in-human-organs
#16
Mojdeh Naderi, Samaneh Zolghadri, Hassan Yousefnia, Ali Ramazani, Amir Reza Jalilian
OBJECTIVES: Gallium-68 DOTA-DPhe(1)-Tyr(3)-Octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTATOC) has been applied by several European centers for the treatment of a variety of human malignancies. Nevertheless, definitive dosimetric data are yet unavailable. According to the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, researchers are investigating the safety and efficacy of this radiotracer to meet Food and Drug Administration requirements. The aim of this study was to introduce the optimized procedure for (68)Ga-DOTATOC preparation, using a novel germanium-68 ((68)Ge)/(68)Ga generator in Iran and evaluate the absorbed doses in numerous organs with high accuracy...
2016: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903366/-effects-of-organochloride-pesticides-on-dyslipidemias
#17
W T Shao, A H Gu
Dyslipidemias is one important risk factor associated with chronic diseases. Persistent organic pollutants are resistant to degradation and can be bio-accumulated and magnified through the food chain. Recently, the relation between dyslipidemias and organochlorine pesticides has attracted more attentions. In this review, we explored the distribution of organochloride pesticides in the environment and human body, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms of the association between dyslipidemias and organochloride pesticides, including accumulation and release of organochloride, simulation of estrogen, impact on PPARs, the metabolic fingerprint, and the inflammatory reaction...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#18
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902825/association-between-the-amount-of-vaginal-mesh-used-with-mesh-erosions-and-repeated-surgery-after-repairing-pelvic-organ-prolapse-and-stress-urinary-incontinence
#19
Bilal Chughtai, Matthew D Barber, Jialin Mao, James C Forde, Sharon-Lise T Normand, Art Sedrakyan
Importance: Mesh, a synthetic graft, has been used in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) to augment and strengthen weakened tissue. Polypropylene mesh has come under scrutiny by the US Food and Drug Administration. Objective: To examine the rates of mesh complications and invasive reintervention after the placement of vaginal mesh for POP repair or SUI surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was an observational cohort study at inpatient and ambulatory surgery settings in New York State...
November 30, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#20
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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