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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432521/intermittent-food-restriction-initiated-late-in-life-prolongs-lifespan-and-retards-the-onset-of-age-related-markers-in-the-annual-fish-nothobranchius-guentheri
#1
Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Yang Zhou, Su Wang, Feng Su, Shicui Zhang
Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3...
April 21, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432100/casein-kinase-i-isoform-hrr25-is-a-negative-regulator-of-haa1-in-the-weak-acid-stress-response-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Morgan E Collins, Joshua J Black, Zhengchang Liu
Haa1 is a transcription factor that adapts Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to weak organic acid stresses by activating the expression of various genes. Many of these genes encode membrane proteins such as TPO2 and YRO2 How Haa1 is activated by weak acids is not clear. Here, we show that casein kinase I isoform Hrr25 is an important negative regulator of Haa1. Haa1 is known to be multiply phosphorylated. We found that mutations in HRR25 lead to reduced Haa1 phosphorylation and increased expression of Haa1-target genes, and that Hrr25 interacts with Haa1...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#3
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431549/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-abdominal-but-not-general-obesity-among-iranian-children
#4
Fateme Jafari, Simin Ehsani, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Mahmood Noori-Shadkam, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is increasing all over the world. Food insecurity is mentioned as a possible risk factor; however, previous studies have led to inconsistent results in different societies while data are lacking for the Middle East. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and general or abdominal obesity in Iranian children in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Anthropometric data including height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained nutritionists...
April 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430140/-eat-as-if-you-could-save-the-planet-and-win-sustainability-integration-into-nutrition-for-exercise-and-sport
#5
Nanna Meyer, Alba Reguant-Closa
Today's industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429300/agroecology-and-health-lessons-from-indigenous-populations
#6
REVIEW
José Suárez-Torres, José Ricardo Suárez-López, Dolores López-Paredes, Hilario Morocho, Luis Enrique Cachiguango-Cachiguango, William Dellai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article aims to systematize and disseminate the main contributions of indigenous ancestral wisdom in the agroecological production of food, especially in Latin America. For this purpose, it is necessary to ask whether such knowledge can be accepted by academia research groups and international forums as a valid alternative that could contribute to overcome the world's nutritional problems. RECENT FINDINGS: Although no new findings are being made, the validity of ancestral knowledge and agroecology is recognized by scientific research, and by international forums organized by agencies of the United Nations...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428793/transcriptomics-targeted-metabolomics-and-gene-expression-of-blackberry-leaves-and-fruits-indicate-flavonoid-metabolic-flux-from-leaf-to-red-fruit
#7
Enrique Gutierrez, Ana García-Villaraco, José A Lucas, Ana Gradillas, F Javier Gutierrez-Mañero, Beatriz Ramos-Solano
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are among the high added value food products relevant for human health due to the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of polyphenols, which are very abundant in these fruits. Interestingly, these compounds also play a role on plant physiology, being especially relevant their role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. Hence, we hypothesize that since blackberry fruits have high amounts of flavonols and anthocyanins, leaves would also have high amounts of these compounds, and can be studied as a source of active molecules; furthermore, leaf synthesis would support their high contents in fruits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428623/paper-strip-embedded-graphene-quantum-dots-a-screening-device-with-a-smartphone-readout
#8
Ruslan Álvarez-Diduk, Jahir Orozco, Arben Merkoçi
Simple, inexpensive and rapid sensing systems are very demanded for a myriad of uses. Intrinsic properties of emerging paper-based analytical devices have demonstrated considerable potential to fulfill such demand. This work reports an easy-to-use, low cost, and disposable paper-based sensing device for rapid chemical screening with a smartphone readout. The device comprises luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) sensing probes embedded into a nitrocellulose matrix where the resonance energy transfer phenomenon seems to be the sensing mechanism...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428020/repeated-sub-chronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-xylooligosaccharides-xos-in-dogs
#9
Yonglin Gao, Yunzhi Wang, Yanshen Li, Rui Han, Chunmei Li, Lin Xiao, Susan Cho, Yukui Ma, Chao Fang, Albert W Lee
In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted...
April 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427880/evaluation-of-effective-microorganisms-on-home-scale-organic-waste-composting
#10
Yee Van Fan, Chew Tin Lee, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Lee Suan Chua, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi, Chee Woh Leow
Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427828/a-combined-clostridium-perfringens-trueperella-pyogenes-inactivated-vaccine-induces-complete-immunoprotection-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Wenlong Zhang, Pu Wang, Bing Wang, Bo Ma, Junwei Wang
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) and Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) are two bacterial pathogens frequently associated with wound infections and following lethal complications in livestock. However, prudent use of antimicrobial agents is highly required given the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of both bacteria and need for food safety. In the current study, a combined vaccine, composed of inactivated C. perfringens and T. pyogenes, was prepared. The amount of formaldehyde being used to inactivate two bacteria was optimized to retain the immunogenicity of antigens...
April 17, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427739/boosting-biogas-production-from-sewage-sludge-by-adding-small-amount-of-agro-industrial-by-products-and-food-waste-residues
#12
A E Maragkaki, M Fountoulakis, A Kyriakou, K Lasaridi, T Manios
In Greece, in many cities, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operate their own anaerobic digestion (AD) facility in order to treat sewage sludge rather than achieve optimum biogas production. Nowadays, there is a growing interest regarding the addition of other co-substrates in these existing facilities in order to increase gas yield from the biomass. This practice may be possible by adding small amount of co-substrates which will not affect significantly in the designed hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the lack of experimental data regarding this option is a serious obstacle...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427570/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-screening-reveals-lipophilic-toxins-in-multiple-trophic-levels-from-the-north-sea
#13
Gabriel Orellana, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Maarten De Rijcke, Colin R Janssen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426782/peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-a-neglected-tropical-disease-in-maghreb-region-of-north-africa-and-its-threat-to-europe
#14
Ratiba Baazizi, Mana Mahapatra, Brian Donald Clarke, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Djamel Khelef, Satya Parida
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425899/associations-between-the-local-food-environment-and-the-severity-of-food-insecurity-among-new-families-using-community-food-security-interventions-in-montreal
#15
Elsury Pérez, Federico Roncarolo, Louise Potvin
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#16
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423468/cytoprotective-effects-of-dietary-flavonoids-against-cadmium-induced-toxicity
#17
REVIEW
Xia Li, Xinwei Jiang, Jianxia Sun, Cuijuan Zhu, Xiaoling Li, Lingmin Tian, Liu Liu, Weibin Bai
Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective effects against Cd-induced damage. The cytoprotective effects of flavonoids against Cd-induced diseases are mainly attributable to three mechanisms. First, flavonoids clear reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing lipid peroxide production and improving the activity of antioxidation enzymes. Second, flavonoids chelate Cd, thus reducing the accumulation of Cd and altering the levels of other essential metal ions in vivo...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423187/characterization-of-the-binding-capacity-of-mercurial-species-in-lactobacillus-strains
#18
Cristina Alcántara, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Manuel Zúñiga, Vicente Monedero
BACKGROUND: Metal sequestration by bacteria has been proposed as a strategy to counteract metal contamination in foodstuffs. Lactobacilli can interact with metals, but studies with important foodborne metals such as inorganic [Hg(II)] or organic (CH3 Hg) mercury are lacking. Lactobacilli were evaluated for their potential to bind these contaminants and the nature of the interaction was assessed by the use of metal competitors, chemical and enzymatical treatments and mutants affected in the cell-wall structure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422749/obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-is-mediated-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-subfornical-organ-of-the-brain
#19
Julie A Horwath, Chansol Hurr, Scott D Butler, Mallikarjun Guruju, Martin D Cassell, Allyn L Mark, Robin L Davisson, Colin N Young
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by an excess accumulation of hepatic triglycerides, is a growing health epidemic. While ER stress in the liver has been implicated in the development of NAFLD, the role of brain ER stress - which is emerging as a key contributor to a number of chronic diseases including obesity - in NAFLD remains unclear. These studies reveal that chemical induction of ER stress in the brain caused hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis in mice. Conversely, pharmacological reductions in brain ER stress in diet-induced obese mice rescued NAFLD independent of body weight, food intake, and adiposity...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420410/ethnopharmacologic-survey-of-medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-human-diseases-by-traditional-medical-practitioners-in-dega-damot-district-amhara-northwestern-ethiopia
#20
Muluken Wubetu, Tefera Abula, Getye Dejenu
BACKGROUND: One of the services that plants provide for human beings is their wider medicinal application. Although it is not fully assessed, the practice and wider use of traditional medicine is frequent in Ethiopia. Studies conducted previously are confined to the perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. A total of 45 informants were selected purposefully from the study area. For collecting the data, semi-structured interviewees, observation and field walks were employed from August 10 to September 30/2014...
April 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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