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Organic food

Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Zhu Yi-Shen, Sun Shuai, Richard FitzGerald
To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/the World Health Organization (WHO) amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Saurabh Sudha Dhiman, Namita Shrestha, Aditi David, Neha Basotra, Glenn R Johnson, Bhupinder S Chadha, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Rajesh K Sani
Residual solid and liquid streams from the one-pot CRUDE (Conversion of Raw and Untreated Disposal into Ethanol) process were treated with two separate biochemical routes for renewable energy transformation. The solid residual stream was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), which produced 95 ± 7 L methane kg-1 volatile solid with an overall energy efficiency of 12.9 ± 1.7%. A methanotroph, Methyloferula sp., was deployed for oxidation of mixed TAD biogas into methanol. The residual liquid stream from CRUDE process was used in a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) to produce electricity...
March 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Anna Baldisserotto, Piergiacomo Buso, Matteo Radice, Valeria Dissette, Ilaria Lampronti, Roberto Gambari, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani
Moringa oleifera has gained increasing popularity as a food supplement but not in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area. The aim of this study was the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of extracts from the leaves of Moringa oleifera as a herbal sun care phytocomplex. Three different extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves, from Senegal, have been prepared and chemically characterized in the phenolic fraction by HPLC-DAD and Folin-Ciocalteu test. To explore photoprotective properties, an extensive evaluation of UV filtering, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC, PCL), and anti-hyperproliferative (human melanoma Colo38 cells) capacities have been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maria A Morosanova, Zahar V Samodelov, Elena I Morosanova
The interaction of silica-titania xerogel with triphenylmethane dyes (pyrocatechol violet, chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R) has been investigated to create a new sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of food oxalates. The complex forming reaction between xerogel incorporated titanium(IV) and triphenylmethane dyes has been studied; half-reaction periods, complex composition, equilibrium constants, and xerogel sorption capacity have been calculated for each dye. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) is characterized by the shortest half-reaction period, the smallest equilibrium constant, and the greatest capacity; it has been chosen for the sensor material construction because titanium(IV)-ECR complex is formed faster and can be destroyed easier than other studied complexes...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Irena F Creed, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Charles G Trick, Nancy B Grimm, Dag O Hessen, Jan Karlsson, Karen A Kidd, Emma Kritzberg, Diane M McKnight, Erika C Freeman, Oscar E Senar, Agneta Andersson, Jenny Ask, Martin Berggren, Mehdi Cherif, Reiner Giesler, Erin R Hotchkiss, Pirkko Kortelainen, Monica M Palta, Tobias Vrede, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer
Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM) - the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems - with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Seong Lin Teoh
Acrylamide (AA) is a water soluble white crystalline solid commonly used in industries. It was listed as an industrial chemical with potential carcinogenic properties. However to date, AA was used to produce polyacrylamide polymer, which was widely used as a coagulant in water treatment; additives during papermaking; grouting material for dams, tunnels, and other underground building constructions. AA in food could be formed during high-temperature cooking via several mechanisms, i.e., formation via acrylic acid which may be derived from the degradation of lipid, carbohydrates, or free amino acids; formation via the dehydration/decarboxylation of organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid); and direct formation from amino acids...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Bernard Yeboah-Asiamah Asare, Joyce Veronica Preko, Diana Baafi, Bismark Dwumfour-Asare
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is important for child health and growth, but its practice is low in many developing countries. This study aimed at determining the breastfeeding practices and examining the sociodemographic characteristics that influence exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic at Manhean, in the Tema East Sub-Meteropolitan area of Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that employed a structured questionnaire to collect data among 355 mothers of children aged 0-24 months selected through simple random sampling, attending a child welfare clinic from May to June, 2016...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
E J Stevenson, A W Watson, J M Brunstrom, B M Corfe, M A Green, A M Johnstone, E A Williams
'Ageing well' has been highlighted as an important research area by the World Health Organization. In the UK, healthy ageing has been identified as a priority research area by multiple Research Councils and is a key NHS priority. Sarcopaenia, the decline of muscle mass/strength and a key component of healthy ageing, can have a major impact on quality of life and is associated with premature mortality. Increasing protein intake at all stages of the life course may help to reduce the rate of muscle decline and the onset of associated health conditions...
March 2018: Nutrition Bulletin
Masami Fujiwara
The study of life history strategies has a long history in ecology and evolution, but determining the underlying mechanisms driving the evolution of life history variation and its consequences for population regulation remains a major challenge. In this study, a food web model with constant environmental conditions was used to demonstrate how multi-species consumer-resource interactions (food-web interactions) can create variation in the duration of the adult stage, age of maturation, and fecundity among species...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Josiemer Mattei
The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US), while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
Anna-Katharina Buchberger, Denise Brettschneider, Kristin Berg, Dirk Jungmann, Jörg Oehlmann, Marco Scheurer, Matthias Oetken
Aquatic organisms are impacted by various biotic and abiotic stressors such as current, inter- and intraspecific competition for food resources and habitat, neobiota as well as an increasing number of chemicals. The latter also include pharmaceuticals, which are increasingly being detected in surface waters due to their growing use. The aim of our study was to determine effect data for metoprolol as a model compound for beta-blockers under an environmentally realistic exposure scenario on aquatic invertebrates inhabiting lotic environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Caihong Song, Mingxiao Li, Hui Qi, Yali Zhang, Dongming Liu, Xunfeng Xia, Hongwei Pan, Beidou Xi
This study investigated the effect of anti-acidification microbial consortium (AAMC), which act synergistically for rapid bioconversion of organic acids on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes in the course of food waste (FW) composting by metaproteomics. AAMC was inoculated to the composting mass and compared with treatment with alkaline compounds and the control without any amendment. Inoculating AAMC could effectively accelerate carbohydrate degradation process and improve composting efficiency. Carbohydrate metabolic network profiles showed the inoculation with AAMC could increase significantly the types of enzymes catalysing the degradation of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mingfeng Li, Zhuqing Zhao, Jiajie Zhou, Daowen Zhou, Boning Chen, Liqiang Huang, Zhihua Zhang, Xinwei Liu
BACKGROUND: Foliar spray of selenium (Se) has increasingly been applied to improve Se concentrations in grain crops, but little information is available about the properties of Se-enriched fruits. In this study, selenium distribution in blueberry and Se effect on blueberry quality were investigated by foliar spraying selenite or selenate (200 g ha-1 ) on two blueberry cultivars (Bluecrop and Northland) during the young fruit or coloring stage. RESULTS: Selenium concentration in blueberry was mainly affected by cultivar and spray stage relative to Se source...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sakihito Kitajima, Wataru Aoki, Daisuke Shibata, Daisuke Nakajima, Nozomu Sakurai, Kazufumi Yazaki, Ryosuke Munakata, Toki Taira, Masaru Kobayashi, Shunsuke Aburaya, Eric Hyrmeya Savadogo, Susumu Hibino, Haruna Yano
Latexes in immature fruit, young petioles and lignified trunks of fig trees protect the plant using toxic proteins and metabolites in various organ-dependent ways. Latexes from plants contain high amounts of toxic proteins and metabolites, which attack microbes and herbivores after exudation at pest-induced wound sites. The protein and metabolite constituents of latexes are highly variable, depending on the plant species and organ. To determine the diversity of latex-based defense strategies in fig tree (Ficus carica) organs, we conducted comparative proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses on latexes isolated from immature fruit, young petioles and lignified trunks of F...
March 13, 2018: Planta
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marco Alexander Fraatz, Michael Goldmann, Torsten Geissler, Egon Gross, Michael Backes, Jens-Michael Hilmer, Jakob Ley, Johanna Rost, Alexander Francke, Holger Zorn
A number of methyl-branched aldehydes impart interesting flavor impressions, and especially 12-methyltridecanal is a highly sought after flavoring compound for savory foods. Its smell is reminiscent of cooked meat and tallow. For the biotechnological production of 12-methyltridecanal, the literature was screened for fungi forming iso-fatty acids. Suitable organisms were identified and successfully grown in submerged cultures. The culture medium was optimized to increase the yields of branched fatty acids. A recombinant carboxylic acid reductase was used to reduce 12-methyltridecanoic acid to 12-methyltridecanal...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Adriana Hernández, Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Jeffrey Lansdale, María Belén Salazar
Sweeteners are found in all types of foods, and their high consumption is associated with chronic degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, among others. A characterization was carried out of food products with sweeteners from the three biggest supermarkets at a national level; they were identified by the list of ingredients and classified according to caloric or non-caloric intake, and pursuant to their country of origin. A statistical interpretation of results was made using descriptive measures such as the number of times the sweeteners were found in the formulation of the products and how many of them were found in a product at the same time...
March 11, 2018: Nutrients
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