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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545129/direct-and-indirect-costs-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-mali-a-case-control-study
#1
Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Stéphane Besançon, Mira Johri, Sidibe Assa, Jonathan Betz Brown, Kaushik Ramaiya
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most burdensome chronic diseases and is associated with shorter lifetime, diminished quality of life and economic burdens on the patient and society as a result of healthcare, medication, and reduced labor market participation. We aimed to estimate the direct (medical and non-medical) and indirect costs of DM and compare them with those of people without DM (ND), as well as the cost predictors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Observational retrospective case-control study performed in Mali...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544930/neural-oscillations-demonstrate-that-general-anesthesia-and-sedative-states-are-neurophysiologically-distinct-from-sleep
#2
REVIEW
Oluwaseun Akeju, Emery N Brown
General anesthesia is a man-made neurophysiological state comprised of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility along with maintenance of physiological stability. Growing evidence suggests that anesthetic-induced neural oscillations are a primary mechanism of anesthetic action. Each anesthetic drug class produces distinct oscillatory dynamics that can be related to the circuit mechanisms of drug action. Sleep is a naturally occurring state of decreased arousal that is essential for normal health...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544822/the-cost-effectiveness-of-tight-control-of-inflammation-in-early-psoriatic-arthritis-economic-analysis-of-the-ticopa-trial
#3
John L O'Dwyer, David M Meads, Claire T Hulme, Lucy McParland, Sarah Brown, Laura C Coates, Anna R Moverley, Paul Emery, Philip G Conaghan, Philip S Helliwell
OBJECTIVE: Treat-to-target approaches have proved to be effective in rheumatoid arthritis, but have not been studied in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This study was undertaken to examine the cost effectiveness of tight control (TC) of inflammation in early psoriatic arthritis compared to standard care (SC). METHODS: Cost effectiveness analyses were undertaken alongside a UK-based, open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Taking the perspective of the healthcare sector, effectiveness was measured using EQ-5D-3L which allows the calculation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544700/income-inequality-and-traumatic-dental-injuries-in-12-years-old-children-a-multi-level-analysis
#4
Mario Vianna Vettore, Salma Efhima, Carolina Machuca, Gabriela de Almeida Lamarca
BACKGROUND/AIM: Contextual socioeconomic factors have been associated with traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). However, evidence concerning the role of income inequality on TDIs in children is scarce.The aim of this study was to investigate the association between contextual income inequality over a ten-year period and TDIs in Brazilian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study population comprised a representative sample of 5027 children aged 12 years who participated in the Brazilian oral health survey in 2010...
May 24, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544668/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Melanie Brown, Lauren Robinson, Giovanna Cristina Campione, Kelsey Wuensch, Tom Hildebrandt, Nadia Micali
Intolerance of uncertainty is an empirically supported transdiagnostic construct that may have relevance in understanding eating disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of intolerance of uncertainty in eating disorders using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We calculated random-effects standardised mean differences (SMD) for studies utilising the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and summarised additional studies descriptively...
May 23, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544213/bac-recombineering-of-the-agouti-loci-from-spotted-gar-and-zebrafish-reveals-the-evolutionary-ancestry-of-dorsal-ventral-pigment-asymmetry-in-fish
#6
Laura Cal, Manuel MegÍas, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543984/cycle-affects-imidacloprid-efficiency-by-mediating-cytochrome-p450-expression-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#7
K Kang, P Yang, R Pang, L Yue, W Zhang
Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]...
May 23, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543963/ageing-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-remodelling-and-loss-of-white-fat-browning-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#8
Leidyanne Ferreira Gonçalves, Thaissa Queiroz Machado, Camila Castro-Pinheiro, Nathalia Guimaraes de Souza, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Caroline Fernandes-Santos
Fat storage changes throughout life and affects body metabolism. Ageing impact on brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) deserves attention, especially in females, because they are less prone to age-induced weight gain. While in male mice the impact of ageing on adipose tissue remodelling is well characterized, the effects in female mice remain largely unclear. Thus, we investigated BAT and WAT remodelling during ageing in female C57BL/6 mice. At 3 months, body weight was 24 ± 0.3 g (mean±SD), and it increased from 6 to 9 months of age (+20%, P < 0...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543940/greater-gains-in-spine-and-hip-strength-for-romosozumab-compared-to-teriparatide-in-postmenopausal-women-with-low-bone-mass
#9
T M Keaveny, D B Crittenden, M A Bolognese, H K Genant, K Engelke, B Oliveri, J P Brown, B L Langdahl, C Yan, A Grauer, C Libanati
Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin and has been shown to reduce the risk of fractures within 12 months. In a Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of treatment-naïve postmenopausal women with low bone mass, romosozumab increased BMD at the hip and spine by the dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. In a substudy of that trial, which included placebo and teriparatide arms, here we investigated whether those observed increases in BMD also resulted in improvements in estimated strength, as assessed by finite element analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543913/from-ligand-to-phosphor-rapid-machine-assisted-syntheses-of-substituted-iridium-iii-pyrazolate-complexes-with-tuneable-luminescence
#10
Simon J Pope, Lara Groves, Christiane Schotten, Joseph Beames, James Platts, Duncan Browne, Simon Coles, Peter Horton
A first generation machine-assisted approach towards the preparation of hybrid ligand/metal materials has been explored. A comparison of synthetic approaches demonstrates that incorporation of both flow chemistry and microwave heating, can be successfully applied to the rapid synthesis of a range of new phenyl-1H-pyrazoles (ppz) substituted with electron withdrawing groups (-F, -CF3, -OCF3, -SF5), and these, in turn, can be translated in to heteroleptic complexes, [Ir(ppz)2(bipy)]BF4 (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine)...
May 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543716/an-atopic-dermatitis-management-algorithm-for-primary-care-providers-and-assessment-of-its-usefulness-as-a-clinical-tool
#11
Maria E Miyar, Megan Brown, Karina L Vivar, Kimberly Jablon, Christy Boscardin, Moise L Levy, Joyce M Teng, Erin F Mathes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of primary care provider (PCP) understanding of atopic dermatitis (AD) treatments and topical steroid use. We designed an AD management algorithm for pediatric PCPs. We hypothesized that the algorithm would improve pediatric PCPs' knowledge of AD diagnosis and management. METHODS: Pediatric primary care resident and attending physicians at three residency programs were invited to participate in an electronic AD algorithm survey that contained demographic and 19 knowledge-based questions...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543665/immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-epidermal-proliferation-differentiation-and-melanocytic-density-in-symmetrical-acrokeratoderma
#12
P-P Yang, J Peng, Y-Y Wu, Z Liu, P Sheng, Y Zhou, S-J Li, Y-M Fan
BACKGROUND: Symmetrical acrokeratoderma (SAK) is characterized by brown to black hyperkeratotic patches on acral regions. Although epidermal hyperkeratosis and acanthosis are consistent pathological changes, the nature of epidermal hyperplasia is unknown. AIM: To evaluate epidermal proliferation and differentiation and melanocytic density in skin lesions of SAK. METHODS: Expression of keratin 10 (K10), K14, K16, involucrin, filaggrin, Ki-67, and Melan-A was detected by immunohistochemistry in eight patients with SAK, seven patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and six healthy controls (HCs)...
May 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543426/predictors-and-pathways-of-language-and-motor-development-in-four-prospective-cohorts-of-young-children-in-ghana-malawi-and-burkina-faso
#13
Elizabeth L Prado, Souheila Abbeddou, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Jaden Bendabenda, Kenneth H Brown, Sonja Y Hess, Emma Kortekangas, Anna Lartey, Kenneth Maleta, Brietta M Oaks, Eugenia Ocansey, Harriet Okronipa, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, Anna Pulakka, Jérôme W Somé, Christine P Stewart, Robert C Stewart, Stephen A Vosti, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have identified 44 risk factors for poor early child development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Further understanding of their relative influence and pathways is needed to inform the design of interventions targeting ECD. METHODS: We conducted path analyses of factors associated with 18-month language and motor development in four prospective cohorts of children who participated in trials conducted as part of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project in Ghana (n = 1,023), Malawi (n = 675 and 1,385), and Burkina Faso (n = 1,122)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543402/a-prediction-model-of-radiation-induced-necrosis-for-intracranial-radiosurgery-based-on-target-volume
#14
Bo Zhao, Ning Wen, Indrin J Chetty, Yimei Huang, Stephen L Brown, Karen Snyder, Farzan Siddiqui, Benjamin Movsas, M Salim Siddiqui
PURPOSE: This study aims to extend the observation that the 12Gy-radiosurgical-volume (V12Gy) correlates with the incidence of radiation necrosis in patients with intracranial tumors treated with radiosurgery by using target volume to predict V12Gy. V12Gy based on the target volume was used to predict the radiation necrosis probability (P) directly. Also investigated was the reduction in radiation necrosis rates (ΔP) as a result of optimizing the prescription isodose lines for linac-based SRS...
May 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543376/the-everyday-risk-work-of-dutch-child-healthcare-professionals-inferring-safe-and-good-parenting-through-trust-as-mediated-by-a-lens-of-gender-and-class
#15
Gerlieke Veltkamp, Patrick Brown
Amidst intensifying policy concerns with children's wellbeing and development, healthcare professionals are required not only to assess risk of abuse and neglect, but to manage risk of 'poor parenting' more broadly. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews and non-participant observations of 61 professional-family interactions, across four preventative public health services for children in the Netherlands, we explored how professionals accomplished such risk work amid intractable uncertainties. Building inferences from brief encounters with families, professionals gauged the extent to which they trusted parents to care 'appropriately'...
May 24, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543375/reversible-posterior-column-dysfunction-in-brown-vialetto-von-laere-syndrome
#16
Satish V Khadilkar, Hinaben Dayalal Faldu, Vrajesh Udani, Sarika B Patil, Sharad Malvadkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542620/elevated-catalase-expression-in-a-fungal-pathogen-is-a-double-edged-sword-of-iron
#17
Arnab Pradhan, Carmen Herrero-de-Dios, Rodrigo Belmonte, Susan Budge, Angela Lopez Garcia, Aljona Kolmogorova, Keunsook K Lee, Brennan D Martin, Antonio Ribeiro, Attila Bebes, Raif Yuecel, Neil A R Gow, Carol A Munro, Donna M MacCallum, Janet Quinn, Alistair J P Brown
Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542528/adaptation-of-candida-albicans-to-environmental-ph-induces-cell-wall-remodelling-and-enhances-innate-immune-recognition
#18
Sarah L Sherrington, Eleanor Sorsby, Nabeel Mahtey, Pizga Kumwenda, Megan D Lenardon, Ian Brown, Elizabeth R Ballou, Donna M MacCallum, Rebecca A Hall
Candida albicans is able to proliferate in environments that vary dramatically in ambient pH, a trait required for colonising niches such as the stomach, vaginal mucosal and the GI tract. Here we show that growth in acidic environments involves cell wall remodelling which results in enhanced chitin and β-glucan exposure at the cell wall periphery. Unmasking of the underlying immuno-stimulatory β-glucan in acidic environments enhanced innate immune recognition of C. albicans by macrophages and neutrophils, and induced a stronger proinflammatory cytokine response, driven through the C-type lectin-like receptor, Dectin-1...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542495/dna-barcoding-and-lc-ms-metabolite-profiling-of-the-lichen-forming-genus-melanelia-specimen-identification-and-discrimination-focusing-on-icelandic-taxa
#19
Maonian Xu, Starri Heidmarsson, Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Sesselja Omarsdottir, Elin S Olafsdottir
Taxa in the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) belong to a group of saxicolous lichens with brown to black foliose thalli, which have recently undergone extensive changes in circumscription. Taxa belonging to Parmeliaceae are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, which have also been traditionally used for chemotaxonomic purposes. However, the chemical diversity of the genus Melanelia and the use of chemical data for species discrimination in this genus are largely unexplored. In addition, identification based on morphological characters is challenging due to few taxonomically informative characters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542389/cognitive-distortions-among-older-adult-gamblers-in-an-asian-context
#20
Mythily Subramaniam, Siow Ann Chong, Colette Browning, Shane Thomas
AIMS: The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above) in Singapore. METHODS: Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents) aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers...
2017: PloS One
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