keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mitragyna speciosa

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678221/determination-of-alkaloids-in-mitragyna-speciosa-kratom-raw-materials-and-dietary-supplements-by-hplc-uv-single-laboratory-validation-first-action-2017-14
#1
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
The AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) approved a method for the quantitation of alkaloids in Mitragynaspeciosa for consideration as First Action Official Method SM status. The previously published method summarized a single-laboratory validation of two alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in raw materials and finished products. The methods performance was compared with the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2015.008. With repeatability precision (RSDr ) ranging from 0.51 to 0.95% and recoveries from 93...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626673/assessment-of-gonadotropins-and-testosterone-hormone-levels-in-regular-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-users
#2
Darshan Singh, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Vicknasingam Kasinather, Michelle Su Ann Chan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho, Oliver Grundmann, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558272/severity-of-pain-and-sleep-problems-during-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-cessation-among-regular-kratom-users
#3
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Walter C Prozialeck, Surash Ramanathan, Hadzliana Zainal, Sabariah Noor Harun
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal value and psychoactive properties. Nonetheless, cessation from regular kratom use is reported to cause unpleasant dose-dependent withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the severity of pain and sleep problems following the cessation of kratom tea/juice consumption among regular kratom users. A total of 170 regular users were recruited through snowball sampling for this cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales were administered to assess the severity of pain and sleep problems...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511414/histologic-characterization-of-kratom-use-associated-liver-injury
#4
Michael Riverso, Michael Chang, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, Jinping Lai, Xiuli Liu
Kratom is an herbal product derived from the leaves of Southeast Asian Mitragyna speciosa trees. It has traditionally been used by indigenous people to relieve fatigue and manage pain, diarrhea, or opioid withdrawal. The use of kratom has become more commonplace in the United States for similar purposes. Only rare reports of kratom liver toxicity exist in the literature but without histologic characterization. Herein, we report one case of kratom use-associated liver toxicity in a 38-year-old patient. The patient complained of dark colored urine and light colored stools after using kratom...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488268/trends-in-the-use-of-illicit-substances-in-thailand-results-from-national-household-surveys
#5
Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Wichuda Jiraporncharoen, Surinporn Likhitsathian, Kanittha Thaikla, Manop Kanato, Usaneya Perngparn, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Apinun Aramrattana
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. DESIGN AND METHODS: National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459087/identification-of-five-mitragyna-alkaloids-in-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#6
Stephanie Basiliere, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a psychoactive plant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. Mitragyna alkaloids are not within the scope of traditional forensic toxicology screening methods, which may contribute to under-reporting. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS) were used to identify five alkaloids in urine. Target analytes included the two known psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in addition to speciociliatine, speciogynine, and paynantheine...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456604/death-from-kratom-toxicity-and-the-possible-role-of-intralipid
#7
Geeta Aggarwal, Edward Robertson, James McKinlay, Edward Walter
We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought into our emergency department in cardiorespiratory arrest, having taken Kratom 24 h previously. Despite multi-organ support, he deteriorated and died from cardiorespiratory failure and hypoxic brain damage 12 h later. Lipid emulsion was given, with significant temporary improvement in the cardiorespiratory failure. Kratom is derived from Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family, and is native to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used as a legal high in some parts of the world...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248691/kratom-use-and-mental-health-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Marc T Swogger, Zach Walsh
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant native to Southeastern Asia that is receiving increased international attention as a potential therapeutic agent. While much of the limited scientific research on kratom is focused on its analgesic potential, kratom use also has important risks and benefits in the domain of mental health. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive systematic review of all studies on kratom use and mental health published between January 1960 and July 2017...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248450/evaluating-the-hematological-and-clinical-chemistry-parameters-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-users-in-malaysia
#9
Darshan Singh, Christian P Müller, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Bonnie Avery, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076424/physicochemical-characterization-of-mitragyna-speciosa-alkaloid-extract-and-mitragynine-using-in-vitro-high-throughput-assays
#10
Wai Mun Kong, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed, Mohammed A Alshawsh
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Mitragynine, a major active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, acts as an agonist on µ-opioid receptors, producing effects similar to morphine and other opioids. It has been traditionally utilized to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms. Besides consideration about potency and selectivity, a good drug must possess a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, with suitable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profile, in order to have a high chance of success in clinical trials...
2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071751/pxr-mediated-induction-of-cyp3a4-cyp1a2-and-p-gp-by-mitragyna-speciosa-and-its-alkaloids
#11
Vamshi K Manda, Bharathi Avula, Olivia R Dale, Zulfiqar Ali, Ikhlas A Khan, Larry A Walker, Shabana I Khan
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a native herb of Southeast Asia, is widely known for its psychoactive properties. Recent increase in the use of kratom as a recreational drug has increased the risk of its interaction with conventional drugs if taken concomitantly. A few reports are available related to the effects of kratom on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), but there are no reports of its effects on pregnane X receptor (PXR), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of CYPs and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
December 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966251/enhancement-of-endothelial-barrier-permeability-by-mitragynine
#12
Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yoshifumi Morikawa, Kyoko Kamase, Misato Horinouchi, Yasuhide Sasajima, Koichi Suenami, Kiyohito Sato, Yuji Takekoshi, Satoshi Endo, Ossama El-Kabbani, Akira Ikari
Persistent inhalation of mitragynine (MG), a major alkaloid in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, causes various systemic adverse effects such as seizure, diarrhea and arthralgias, but its toxicity to endothelial cells and effects on barrier function of the cells are poorly understood. In this study, we compared toxicities of MG and mitraphylline, another constituent of the leaves, against human aortic endothelial (HAE), bronchial BEAS-2B, neuronal SK-N-SH, hepatic HepG2, kidney HEK293, gastric MKN45, colon DLD1, lung A549, breast MCF7 and prostate LNCaP cells, and found that MG, but not mitraphylline, shows higher toxicity to HAE cells compared to the other cells...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950813/a-review-on-the-antinociceptive-effects-of-mitragyna-speciosa-and-its-derivatives-in-animal-model
#13
Kok-Yong Chin, Wun Fui Mark-Lee
Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical plant with narcotic effects. The antinociceptive effects of its crude extracts, bioactive compounds and structurally modified derivatives have been examined in rodent models. This review aims to summarize the evidence on the antinociceptive effects of M. speciosa and its derivatives and explore whether they can offer an alternative to morphine in pain management. Methanolic and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa were shown to attenuate the nociceptive response in rodents. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine offered better antinociceptive effects than crude extracts...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947930/-mitragyna-speciosa-balancing-potential-medical-benefits-and-abuse
#14
EDITORIAL
Genevieve M Halpenny
Mitragyna speciosa , also known as kratom, has the potential meet the need for pain medications that lack the addictiveness and overdose risk of classical opioid analgesics, such as morphine. This need is urgent because opioid addiction and overdose deaths have risen throughout diverse segments of U.S. society. Some opioid addicts have found relief in kratom preparations. The use of kratom as an analgesic has been validated by historical accounts and contemporary pharmacological research. Although kratom is a promising source of analgesic candidates, it is a euphoriant with potential for both abuse and addiction...
September 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830758/the-medicinal-chemistry-and-neuropharmacology-of-kratom-a-preliminary-discussion-of-a-promising-medicinal-plant-and-analysis-of-its-potential-for-abuse
#15
REVIEW
Andrew C Kruegel, Oliver Grundmann
The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom), a tree endogenous to parts of Southeast Asia, have been used traditionally for their stimulant, mood-elevating, and analgesic effects and have recently attracted significant attention due to increased use in Western cultures as an alternative medicine. The plant's active alkaloid constituents, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have been shown to modulate opioid receptors, acting as partial agonists at mu-opioid receptors and competitive antagonists at kappa- and delta-opioid receptors...
August 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687506/effects-of-alkaloid-rich-extract-from-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-havil-on-naloxone-precipitated-morphine-withdrawal-symptoms-and-local-field-potential-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-mice
#16
Dania Cheaha, Chayaporn Reakkamnuan, Jakkrit Nukitram, Somsmorn Chittrakarn, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Niwat Keawpradub, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia. It has gained increasing attention as a plant with potential to substitute morphine in addiction treatment program. However, its action on the central nervous system is controversial. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, brain reward center) of mice...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559179/opioid-receptors-mediate-the-acquisition-but-not-the-expression-of-mitragynine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#17
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the main psychoactive ingredient of the herbal drug preparation Kratom (Ketum), derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa. Kratom is a widely abused drug in Southeast Asian and has a psychostimulant profile at low-medium doses, while high doses have opioidergic effects. Mitragynine was shown to possess opiate receptor affinity. However, its role in the behavioural effects of mitragynine is unclear. Here we asked whether the reinforcing effects of mitragynine are mediated by opiate receptors using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in rats...
August 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551311/evaluation-of-pharmacokinetics-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-of-mitragynine-using-in-vivo-microdialysis-technique
#18
Wai Mun Kong, Zahurin Mohamed, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Zamri Chik
A microdialysis system coupled with a sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) method was developed for the pharmacokinetic analysis of mitragynine in rat blood and striatum. Mitragynine is an active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa and has been proposed to be used for opioid withdrawal therapy. In this study, chromatographic separation was performed in a gradient elution mode with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile on a Zorbax Eclipse C18 column. The mass spectrometric (MS) analysis was carried out in a positive electrospray mode and mitragynine ion (m/z 399...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544011/changing-trends-in-the-use-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-in-southeast-asia
#19
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Ornella Corazza, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
OBJECTIVE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia. DESIGN: A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed. RESULTS: Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#20
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
keyword
keyword
91789
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"