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Mitragyna speciosa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293192/indole-alkaloids-from-plants-as-potential-leads-for-antidepressant-drugs-a-mini-review
#1
Hazrulrizawati A Hamid, Aizi N M Ramli, Mashitah M Yusoff
Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284435/identification-of-cannabis-sativa-l-using-the-1-kbthca-synthase-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-probe
#2
Pattraporn Jeangkhwoa, Achirapa Bandhaya, Puangpaka Umpunjun, Ngarmnij Chuenboonngarm, Nathinee Panvisavas
This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. cells recovered from fresh and dried powdered plant materials. Two biotin-16-dUTP-labeled FISH probes were designed from the Cannabis-specific tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) gene and the ITS region of the 45S rRNA gene. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i.e., Humulus lupulus, Mitragyna speciosa, Papaver sp...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089300/mitragynine-concentrations-in-two-fatalities
#3
Olwen Domingo, Gabriele Roider, Andreas Stöver, Matthias Graw, Frank Musshoff, Hans Sachs, Wolfgang Bicker
Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects...
February 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999544/mitragyna-speciosa-leaf-extract-exhibits-antipsychotic-like-effect-with-the-potential-to-alleviate-positive-and-negative-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-mice
#4
Kamini Vijeepallam, Vijayapandi Pandy, Thubasni Kunasegaran, Dharmani D Murugan, Murali Naidu
In this study, we investigated the antipsychotic-like effect of methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa leaf (MMS) using in vivo and ex vivo studies. In vivo studies comprised of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and ketamine-induced social withdrawal tests in mice whereas the ex vivo study was conducted utilizing isolated rat vas deferens preparation. Acute oral administration of MMS (50-500 mg/kg) showed an inverted bell-shaped dose-response in apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior in mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951469/-evaluation-of-ion-mobility-spectrometry-for-the-detection-of-mitragynine-in-kratom-products
#5
Nathan Fuenffinger, Melissa Ritchie, Ashley Ruth, Connie Gryniewicz-Ruzicka
An ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) method was developed for the rapid detection of mitragynine, the most abundant alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa also known as kratom. The peak corresponding to the mitragynine protonated ion exhibited a reduced ion mobility of 0.95±0.00014cm(2)/(Vs), and the mitragynine limit of detection using IMS was 0.5ng. The IMS method was applied to the analysis of 15 commercial samples suspected of containing kratom. IMS results were compared to those obtained from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the same samples...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#6
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768072/rapid-high-throughput-species-identification-of-botanical-material-using-direct-analysis-in-real-time-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#7
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
We demonstrate that direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry can be used to produce mass spectral profiles of botanical material, and that these chemical fingerprints can be used for plant species identification. The mass spectral data can be acquired rapidly and in a high throughput manner without the need for sample extraction, derivatization or pH adjustment steps. The use of this technique bypasses challenges presented by more conventional techniques including lengthy chromatography analysis times and resource intensive methods...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752985/suspected-adulteration-of-commercial-kratom-products-with-7-hydroxymitragynine
#8
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725074/determination-of-mitragynine-in-mitragyna-speciosa-raw-materials-and-finished-products-by-liquid-chromatography-with-uv-detection-single-laboratory-validation
#9
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9...
October 8, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556704/mitragynine-corynantheidine-pseudoindoxyls-as-opioid-analgesics-with-mu-agonism-and-delta-antagonism-which-do-not-recruit-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#10
András Váradi, Gina F Marrone, Travis C Palmer, Ankita Narayan, Márton R Szabó, Valerie Le Rouzic, Steven G Grinnell, Joan J Subrath, Evelyn Warner, Sanjay Kalra, Amanda Hunkele, Jeremy Pagirsky, Shainnel O Eans, Jessica M Medina, Jin Xu, Ying-Xian Pan, Attila Borics, Gavril W Pasternak, Jay P McLaughlin, Susruta Majumdar
Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466822/notes-from-the-field-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-exposures-reported-to-poison-centers-united-states-2010-2015
#11
Mehruba Anwar, Royal Law, Josh Schier
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4)...
July 29, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260674/mitragynine-and-its-potential-blocking-effects-on-specific-cardiac-potassium-channels
#12
Yea Lu Tay, Yi Fan Teah, Yoong Min Chong, Mohd Fadzly Amar Jamil, Sina Kollert, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Habibah Abdul Wahab, Frank Döring, Erhard Wischmeyer, Mei Lan Tan
Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, IK1, a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and IKACh, a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function...
August 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192616/synthetic-and-receptor-signaling-explorations-of-the-mitragyna-alkaloids-mitragynine-as-an-atypical-molecular-framework-for-opioid-receptor-modulators
#13
Andrew C Kruegel, Madalee M Gassaway, Abhijeet Kapoor, András Váradi, Susruta Majumdar, Marta Filizola, Jonathan A Javitch, Dalibor Sames
Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018165/neurobiology-of-kratom-and-its-main-alkaloid-mitragynine
#14
REVIEW
Farah W Suhaimi, Nurul H M Yusoff, Rahimah Hassan, Sharif M Mansor, Visweswaran Navaratnam, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Kratom or its main alkaloid, mitragynine is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth which is indigenous to Southeast Asian countries. This substance has become widely available in other countries like Europe and United States due to its opium- and coca-like effects. In this article, we have reviewed available reports on mitragynine and other M. speciosa extracts. M. speciosa has been proven to have a rewarding effect and is effective in alleviating the morphine and ethanol withdrawal effects. However, studies in human revealed that prolonged consumption of this plant led to dependence and tolerance while cessation caused a series of aversive withdrawal symptoms...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015537/factor-analytical-investigation-of-krathom-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-withdrawal-syndrome-in-thailand
#15
Darika Saingam, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Alan F Geater, Sanguan Lerkiatbundit
Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an addictive and illicit substance used in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. It has become the most commonly used substance among villagers. The study aimed to explore the factor structure of the krathom withdrawal syndrome based on the findings of an earlier qualitative study. The current study was divided into two stages. Cross-sectional data collections were employed in both phases. The samples comprised, respectively, 196 and 330 krathom users aged over 25 years...
April 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006637/behavioural-and-electrophysiological-evidence-of-impaired-learning-and-memory-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-following-subchronic-exposure-to-standardised-methanolic-extract-of-mitragyna-speciosa-korth
#16
Mohd Ulul Ilmie, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Jafri Malin Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Mitragyna speciosa (MS) or ketum is primarily found in Southeast Asia, particularly in northern Malaysia and Thailand. The medicinal value of this plant has attracted significant attention from both herbal medicine practitioners and scientists worldwide. Despite having illegal consumption status, the plant merits study. We conducted a series of experiments to test our hypothesis that ketum impairs both learning and memory in rats. METHODS: Ketum leaves were extracted using methanol and standardised for the amount of its pure compound, mitragynine...
December 2015: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990882/chronic-mitragynine-kratom-enhances-punishment-resistance-in-natural-reward-seeking-and-impairs-place-learning-in-mice
#17
Nurul Iman W Ismail, Nanthini Jayabalan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Christian P Müller, Mustapha Muzaimi
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a widely abused herbal drug preparation in Southeast Asia. It is often consumed as a substitute for heroin, but imposing itself unknown harms and addictive burdens. Mitragynine is the major psychostimulant constituent of kratom that has recently been reported to induce morphine-like behavioural and cognitive effects in rodents. The effects of chronic consumption on non-drug related behaviours are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic mitragynine treatment on spontaneous activity, reward-related behaviour and cognition in mice in an IntelliCage® system, and compared them with those of morphine and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
March 17, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692748/effects-of-mitragynine-and-7-hydroxymitragynine-the-alkaloids-of-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-on-4-methylumbelliferone-glucuronidation-in-rat-and-human-liver-microsomes-and-recombinant-human-uridine-5-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase-isoforms
#18
Munirah Haron, Sabariah Ismail
BACKGROUND: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5'- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms...
October 2014: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688378/comparative-effects-of-mitragyna-speciosa-extract-mitragynine-and-opioid-agonists-on-thermal-nociception-in-rats
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jessica M Carpenter, Catherine A Criddle, Helaina K Craig, Zulfiqar Ali, Zhihao Zhang, Ikhlas A Khan, Kenneth J Sufka
This study sought to compare the effects of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. extract, alkaloids fraction, and mitragynine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, to that of morphine and oxycodone in a test of thermal nociception. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered test articles intraperitoneally (IP) 30 min prior to testing to compare the effects of M. speciosa articles to opioid reference compounds on the hotplate assay. Test articles were vehicle, 10 mg/kg morphine, 3 mg/kg oxycodone, 300 mg/kg M...
March 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26669124/herbal-supplements-and-hepatotoxicity-a-short-review
#20
REVIEW
Haszianaliza Haslan, Farihah Haji Suhaimi, Srijit Das
Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals...
October 2015: Natural Product Communications
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