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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081521/peer-victimization-in-adolescence-the-nature-progression-and-consequences-of-being-bullied-within-a-developmental-context
#1
Wendy Troop-Gordon
Since Dan Olweus's seminal work on bullying in the 1970's (Olweus, 1978), there has been a concerted effort by investigators to identify the confluence of factors that contribute to peer victimization and its role in psychosocial development. Although the cause and consequences of peer victimization may include underlying, age-invariant processes, the manifestation of these factors is, in part, driven by the developmental stage being studied. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of peer victimization requires an explicit developmental perspective...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049365/mental-health-issues-related-to-sexual-orientation-in-a-high-school-setting
#2
Susan G Williams
High school students are maturing physically, psychosocially, and sexually. Some may be unsure of their sexual orientation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether students who self-identified as homosexual-lesbian/gay, bisexual (LGB), and unsure of sexual orientation had more stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, bullying victimization, and depressive symptoms as compared to heterosexual peers. Cortisol was examined to determine whether levels were within normal range for age and followed a normal diurnal rhythm...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018896/factors-influencing-neurodevelopment-after-cardiac-surgery-during-infancy
#3
REVIEW
Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich
Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004904/children-and-adolescent-physical-activity-participation-and-enjoyment-during-active-play
#4
Asal Moghaddaszadeh, Yasamin Ahmadi, Angelo N Belcastro
BACKGROUND: Girls (9-19yrs) participation in physical activity (PA) is known to decrease at a faster rate than boys. A reduction in PA attractiveness (enjoyment) and lower psychosocial profile of girls approaching biological maturity may underlie the decreasing rate of PA participation. Since engaging children in active play programs improves health related quality of life indictors and enjoyment levels; the purposes of this study were to: a) assess psychosocial status and PA attractiveness/enjoyment of boys and girls to an eight-week active play program; and b) investigate the relationships among PA participation, psychosocial status and PA attractiveness with both age and maturity status for boys and girls following an active play PA program...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002312/committee-opinion-no-686-breast-and-labial-surgery-in-adolescents
#5
(no author information available yet)
The obstetrician-gynecologist may receive requests from adolescents and their families for advice, surgery, or referral for conditions of the breast or vulva to improve appearance and function. Appropriate counseling and guidance of adolescents with these concerns require a comprehensive and thoughtful approach, special knowledge of normal physical and psychosocial growth and development, and assessment of the physical maturity and emotional readiness of the patient. Individuals should be screened for body dysmorphic disorder...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002307/committee-opinion-no-686-summary-breast-and-labial-surgery-in-adolescents
#6
(no author information available yet)
The obstetrician-gynecologist may receive requests from adolescents and their families for advice, surgery, or referral for conditions of the breast or vulva to improve appearance and function. Appropriate counseling and guidance of adolescents with these concerns require a comprehensive and thoughtful approach, special knowledge of normal physical and psychosocial growth and development, and assessment of the physical maturity and emotional readiness of the patient. Individuals should be screened for body dysmorphic disorder...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992861/how-much-nutrition-for-how-much-growth-%C3%A2
#7
Michael Hermanussen, Jan M Wit
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing agreement exists about the use of length-for-age as the indicator of choice in monitoring the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiency. Yet, already shortly after World War I, a causal link between nutrition and growth was questioned. Also, modern meta-analyses of controlled nutrition intervention studies show that the net effect of nutrition on body height is small. Broad evidence obtained from historic observations on human starvation made since the 19th century questions an obligatory association between nutrition and growth...
December 19, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893245/the-quest-for-identity-in-adolescence-heterogeneity-in-daily-identity-formation-and-psychosocial-adjustment-across-5-years
#8
Andrik I Becht, Stefanie A Nelemans, Susan J T Branje, Wilma A M Vollebergh, Hans M Koot, Jaap J A Denissen, Wim H J Meeus
Identity formation is one of the key developmental tasks in adolescence. According to Erikson (1968) experiencing identity uncertainty is normative in adolescence. However, empirical studies investigating identity uncertainty on a daily basis are lacking. Hence, studying individual differences in daily certainty (i.e., identity commitment levels) and uncertainty (i.e., identity commitment fluctuations and identity reconsideration) in the identity formation process may advance our knowledge about the extent to which adolescents' identity uncertainty is part of normative identity development...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893243/adolescent-psychosocial-development-a-review-of-longitudinal-models-and-research
#9
Wim Meeus
This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple developmental domains; (2) heterogeneous continuity of personal relationships; (3) good goes together with good, and bad with bad, across time in adolescence; (4) parents transmit values and behaviors to their adolescent children over time; (5) adolescent psychopathology leads to erosion of personal relationships with parents and peers; (6) adolescent psychopathology prevents adolescent independence from parents; (7) parental interference in personal issues of adolescents has counterproductive effects over time; (8) mood variability and (social and personal) uncertainty are mechanisms that maintain psychopathology in adolescence...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#10
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870579/evidence-base-update-of-psychosocial-treatments-for-child-and-adolescent-depression
#11
V Robin Weersing, Megan Jeffreys, Minh-Chau T Do, Karen T G Schwartz, Carl Bolano
Depression in youth is prevalent and disabling and tends to presage a chronic and recurrent course of illness and impairment in adulthood. Clinical trial research in youth depression has a 30-year history, and evidence-based treatment reviews appeared in 1998 and 2008. The current review of 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) updates these reviews to include RCTs published between 2008 and 2014 (N = 14) and reevaluates previously reviewed literature. Given the growing maturity of the field, this review utilized a stringent set of methodological criteria for trial inclusion, most notable for excluding trials based in subclinical samples of youth that had been included in previous reviews (N = 12) and including well-designed RCTs with null and negative findings (N = 8)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#12
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629365/psychoneuroimmunology-of-early-life-stress-the-hidden-wounds-of-childhood-trauma
#13
Andrea Danese, Stephanie J Lewis
The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600751/longitudinal-effects-of-self-report-pubertal-timing-and-menarcheal-age-on-adolescent-psychological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-female-youths-from-northern-taiwan
#14
Chih-Ting Lee, Meng-Che Tsai, Chung-Ying Lin, Carol Strong
BACKGROUND: Early puberty is linked to adverse developmental outcomes in adolescents in Western societies. However, little is known about this relationship in an East Asian context. In addition, whether the impact of subjective pubertal timing (PT) and menarcheal age (MA) on adolescent psychosocial development persists into early adulthood remains unclear and is worthy of investigation. METHODS: A subset of data was retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project, which recruited and followed a longitudinal cohort of 7(th)- and 9(th)-grade female Taiwanese students from 2000 to 2007...
July 26, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515021/trajectories-of-cannabis-use-disorder-risk-factors-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#15
Derek B Kosty, John R Seeley, Richard F Farmer, Joseph J Stevens, Peter M Lewinsohn
AIMS: To estimate cannabis use disorder (CUD) trajectory classes from ages 14 to 30 years and compare classes on clinical characteristics, risk factors and psychosocial outcomes. DESIGN: Four waves (T1-T4) of data from an epidemiological study of psychopathology among a regionally representative sample. Trajectory classes described risk for CUD as a function of age. The number of classes was determined by model fit. SETTING: Participants were selected randomly from nine high schools in western Oregon, USA...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462292/cognitive-emotional-and-psychosocial-functioning-of-girls-treated-with-pharmacological-puberty-blockage-for-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty
#16
Slawomir Wojniusz, Nina Callens, Stefan Sütterlin, Stein Andersson, Jean De Schepper, Inge Gies, Jesse Vanbesien, Kathleen De Waele, Sara Van Aken, Margarita Craen, Claus Vögele, Martine Cools, Ira R Haraldsen
Central precocious puberty (CPP) develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well-researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387293/biological-maturation-and-physical-activity-in-south-korean-adolescent-girls
#17
Eun-Young Lee, Kiyong An, Justin Y Jeon, Wendy M Rodgers, Vicki J Harber, John C Spence
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: To examine whether body fatness (i.e., body mass index and % body fat) and psychosocial correlates of physical activity (PA) mediate the relationships between pubertal status and PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) among South Korean adolescent girls. METHODS: Pubertal status, body fatness, sport competence, perceived barriers to PA, self-efficacy, parental support for PA, self-reported and step-determined PA, and self-reported SB were assessed among 236 South Korean adolescent girls (mean age = 13...
July 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349968/prenatal-maternal-stress-and-wheeze-in-children-novel-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#18
Saskia Trump, Matthias Bieg, Zuguang Gu, Loreen Thürmann, Tobias Bauer, Mario Bauer, Naveed Ishaque, Stefan Röder, Lei Gu, Gunda Herberth, Christian Lawerenz, Michael Borte, Matthias Schlesner, Christoph Plass, Nicolle Diessl, Markus Eszlinger, Oliver Mücke, Horst-Dietrich Elvers, Dirk K Wissenbach, Martin von Bergen, Carl Herrmann, Dieter Weichenhan, Rosalind J Wright, Irina Lehmann, Roland Eils
Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324753/-stress-induced-hyperalgesia-sih-as-a%C3%A2-consequence-of-emotional-deprivation-and-psychosocial-traumatization-in-childhood-implications-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#19
U T Egle, N Egloff, R von Känel
It is now widely recognized that in many chronic pain syndromes the intensity and severity of individually perceived pain does not correlate consistently with the degree of peripheral nervous system tissue damage or with the intensity of primary afferent or spinal nociceptive neurone activity. In particular, stress and anxiety exert modulatory influences on pain depending on the nature, duration and intensity of the stressor and developmental influences on the maturation of the stress as well as the pain system...
June 21, 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246998/developmental-plasticity-in-the-neural-control-of-breathing
#20
Ryan W Bavis, Peter M MacFarlane
The respiratory control system undergoes a diversity of morphological and physiological transformational stages during intrauterine development as it prepares to transition into an air-breathing lifestyle. Following birth, the respiratory system continues to develop and may pass through critical periods of heightened vulnerability to acute environmental stressors. Over a similar time course, however, the developing respiratory control system exhibits substantial capacity to undergo plasticity in response to chronic or repeated environmental stimuli...
May 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
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