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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893245/the-quest-for-identity-in-adolescence-heterogeneity-in-daily-identity-formation-and-psychosocial-adjustment-across-5-years
#1
Andrik I Becht, Stefanie A Nelemans, Susan J T Branje, Wilma A M Vollebergh, Hans M Koot, Jaap J A Denissen, Wim H J Meeus
Identity formation is one of the key developmental tasks in adolescence. According to Erikson (1968) experiencing identity uncertainty is normative in adolescence. However, empirical studies investigating identity uncertainty on a daily basis are lacking. Hence, studying individual differences in daily certainty (i.e., identity commitment levels) and uncertainty (i.e., identity commitment fluctuations and identity reconsideration) in the identity formation process may advance our knowledge about the extent to which adolescents' identity uncertainty is part of normative identity development...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893243/adolescent-psychosocial-development-a-review-of-longitudinal-models-and-research
#2
Wim Meeus
This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple developmental domains; (2) heterogeneous continuity of personal relationships; (3) good goes together with good, and bad with bad, across time in adolescence; (4) parents transmit values and behaviors to their adolescent children over time; (5) adolescent psychopathology leads to erosion of personal relationships with parents and peers; (6) adolescent psychopathology prevents adolescent independence from parents; (7) parental interference in personal issues of adolescents has counterproductive effects over time; (8) mood variability and (social and personal) uncertainty are mechanisms that maintain psychopathology in adolescence...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#3
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870579/evidence-base-update-of-psychosocial-treatments-for-child-and-adolescent-depression
#4
V Robin Weersing, Megan Jeffreys, Minh-Chau T Do, Karen T G Schwartz, Carl Bolano
Depression in youth is prevalent and disabling and tends to presage a chronic and recurrent course of illness and impairment in adulthood. Clinical trial research in youth depression has a 30-year history, and evidence-based treatment reviews appeared in 1998 and 2008. The current review of 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) updates these reviews to include RCTs published between 2008 and 2014 (N = 14) and reevaluates previously reviewed literature. Given the growing maturity of the field, this review utilized a stringent set of methodological criteria for trial inclusion, most notable for excluding trials based in subclinical samples of youth that had been included in previous reviews (N = 12) and including well-designed RCTs with null and negative findings (N = 8)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#5
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629365/psychoneuroimmunology-of-early-life-stress-the-hidden-wounds-of-childhood-trauma
#6
Andrea Danese, Stephanie J Lewis
The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600751/longitudinal-effects-of-self-report-pubertal-timing-and-menarcheal-age-on-adolescent-psychological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-female-youths-from-northern-taiwan
#7
Chih-Ting Lee, Meng-Che Tsai, Chung-Ying Lin, Carol Strong
BACKGROUND: Early puberty is linked to adverse developmental outcomes in adolescents in Western societies. However, little is known about this relationship in an East Asian context. In addition, whether the impact of subjective pubertal timing (PT) and menarcheal age (MA) on adolescent psychosocial development persists into early adulthood remains unclear and is worthy of investigation. METHODS: A subset of data was retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project, which recruited and followed a longitudinal cohort of 7(th)- and 9(th)-grade female Taiwanese students from 2000 to 2007...
July 26, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515021/trajectories-of-cannabis-use-disorder-risk-factors-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#8
Derek B Kosty, John R Seeley, Richard F Farmer, Joseph J Stevens, Peter M Lewinsohn
AIMS: To estimate cannabis use disorder (CUD) trajectory classes from ages 14 to 30 years and compare classes on clinical characteristics, risk factors and psychosocial outcomes. DESIGN: Four waves (T1-T4) of data from an epidemiological study of psychopathology among a regionally representative sample. Trajectory classes described risk for CUD as a function of age. The number of classes was determined by model fit. SETTING: Participants were selected randomly from nine high schools in western Oregon, USA...
August 12, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462292/cognitive-emotional-and-psychosocial-functioning-of-girls-treated-with-pharmacological-puberty-blockage-for-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty
#9
Slawomir Wojniusz, Nina Callens, Stefan Sütterlin, Stein Andersson, Jean De Schepper, Inge Gies, Jesse Vanbesien, Kathleen De Waele, Sara Van Aken, Margarita Craen, Claus Vögele, Martine Cools, Ira R Haraldsen
Central precocious puberty (CPP) develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well-researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387293/biological-maturation-and-physical-activity-in-south-korean-adolescent-girls
#10
Eun-Young Lee, Kiyong An, Justin Y Jeon, Wendy M Rodgers, Vicki J Harber, John C Spence
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: To examine whether body fatness (i.e., body mass index and % body fat) and psychosocial correlates of physical activity (PA) mediate the relationships between pubertal status and PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) among South Korean adolescent girls. METHODS: Pubertal status, body fatness, sport competence, perceived barriers to PA, self-efficacy, parental support for PA, self-reported and step-determined PA, and self-reported SB were assessed among 236 South Korean adolescent girls (mean age = 13...
July 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349968/prenatal-maternal-stress-and-wheeze-in-children-novel-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#11
Saskia Trump, Matthias Bieg, Zuguang Gu, Loreen Thürmann, Tobias Bauer, Mario Bauer, Naveed Ishaque, Stefan Röder, Lei Gu, Gunda Herberth, Christian Lawerenz, Michael Borte, Matthias Schlesner, Christoph Plass, Nicolle Diessl, Markus Eszlinger, Oliver Mücke, Horst-Dietrich Elvers, Dirk K Wissenbach, Martin von Bergen, Carl Herrmann, Dieter Weichenhan, Rosalind J Wright, Irina Lehmann, Roland Eils
Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324753/-stress-induced-hyperalgesia-sih-as-a%C3%A2-consequence-of-emotional-deprivation-and-psychosocial-traumatization-in-childhood-implications-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#12
U T Egle, N Egloff, R von Känel
It is now widely recognized that in many chronic pain syndromes the intensity and severity of individually perceived pain does not correlate consistently with the degree of peripheral nervous system tissue damage or with the intensity of primary afferent or spinal nociceptive neurone activity. In particular, stress and anxiety exert modulatory influences on pain depending on the nature, duration and intensity of the stressor and developmental influences on the maturation of the stress as well as the pain system...
June 21, 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246998/developmental-plasticity-in-the-neural-control-of-breathing
#13
Ryan W Bavis, Peter M MacFarlane
The respiratory control system undergoes a diversity of morphological and physiological transformational stages during intrauterine development as it prepares to transition into an air-breathing lifestyle. Following birth, the respiratory system continues to develop and may pass through critical periods of heightened vulnerability to acute environmental stressors. Over a similar time course, however, the developing respiratory control system exhibits substantial capacity to undergo plasticity in response to chronic or repeated environmental stimuli...
May 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198075/-psychopathology-related-to-women-pubertal-precocity
#14
D Purper-Ouakil, A Didillon
INTRODUCTION: Puberty is a developmental process characterized by hormonal and physical changes leading to the ability of reproduction. Precocious puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with an increased incidence of emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescence is a life stage influenced both by the biological changes of puberty and the emergence of new social challenges. In individuals facing these developmental issues at a younger age than expected, the exposure to internal and external stress factors may be greater than in other young people...
May 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174149/effects-of-early-life-stress-on-amygdala-and-striatal-development
#15
REVIEW
Dominic S Fareri, Nim Tottenham
Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life...
June 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170082/medical-student-satisfaction-coping-and-burnout-in-direct-entry-versus-graduate-entry-programmes
#16
Dawn DeWitt, Benedict J Canny, Michael Nitzberg, Jennifer Choudri, Sarah Porter
CONTEXT: There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use...
June 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151706/etiological-factors-associated-with-temporomandibular-joint-disorder-study-on-animal-model
#17
Andrea Maria Chisnoiu, Radu Chisnoiu, Marioara Moldovan, Liana Maria Lascu, Alina Monica Picoş
The etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is multidimensional: biomechanical, neuromuscular, bio-psychosocial and biological factors may contribute to the disorder. The main objectives of our study were investigation and analysis of the degree of involvement for several presumptive etiological factors of TMD: biomechanical stress (BS), estrogen hormones (EH) and emotional stress (ES). Six groups (n=10) of mature female Wistar rats were included in the study. Single presumptive etiological factor was applied in three groups (BS, EH and ES groups) and also association of presumptive etiological factors were applied in two groups (BSEH and BSES groups)...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127350/reconstructive-surgery-for-hypospadias-a-systematic-review-of-long-term-patient-satisfaction-with-cosmetic-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Julie Adams, Aivar Bracka
INTRODUCTION: Research on long-term results of hypospadias has focused on surgical techniques and functional outcomes, and it is only recently that patient satisfaction with appearance and psychosocial outcomes have been considered. The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based systematic review of adolescent and adult patient perceptions of cosmetic outcomes following childhood surgery for hypospadias. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA and PICO guidelines, and studies assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine system...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125145/a-review-of-mentorship-measurement-tools
#19
Yanhua Chen, Roger Watson, Andrea Hilton
OBJECTIVES: To review mentorship measurement tools in various fields to inform nursing educators on selection, application, and developing of mentoring instruments. DESIGN: A literature review informed by PRISMA 2009 guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Six databases: CINHAL, Medline, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, Business premier resource. REVIEW METHODS: Search terms and strategies used: mentor* N3 (behav* or skill? or role? or activit? or function* or relation*) and (scale or tool or instrument or questionnaire or inventory)...
May 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116937/issues-around-childhood-disclosure-of-hiv-status-findings-from-a-qualitative-study-in-west-bengal-india
#20
A Das, R Detels, M Javanbakht, S Panda
INTRODUCTION: Informing the children living with HIV (CLH) about their disease (disclosure) is important from the perspective of disease treatment and overall psychosocial development. There are no published studies that qualitatively explored HIV disclosure-related issues among CLH in India. Our aim was to provide insights into the perceptions of informal caregivers of CLH regarding childhood disclosure. METHODS: Children were defined as those aged <16 years...
July 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
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