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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030286/peptides-acting-as-cognitive-enhancers
#1
Diego Asua, Ghassen Bougamra, María Calleja-Felipe, Miguel Morales, Shira Knafo
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of three peptides that, by improving synaptic function, enhance learning and memory in laboratory rodents. We summarize their structure, their mechanisms of action, and their effects on synaptic and cognitive function. First we describe FGL, a peptide derived from the neural cell adhesion molecule which improves cognition by the activation of the PKC pathway that triggers an activity-dependent delivery of AMPA receptors to the synapses. Then we describe PTD4-PI3KAc peptide that by activating PI3K signaling pathway it promotes synapse and spine formation and enhances hippocampal dependent memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708281/cooperation-of-hif-and-ncam-mediated-mechanisms-in-cell-viability-of-hippocampal-cultures-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#2
Iryna Lushnikova, Yelyzaveta Nikandrova, Galyna Skibo
Neurodegenerative diseases of different genesis are the result of cellular damages including those caused by oxygen and glucose deficit. Neuronal survival or death in brain pathologies depends on a variety of interrelated molecular mechanisms. A key role in modulation of neuron viability belongs to HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) and NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecules) signaling pathways. In this work, we used organotypic and dissociated hippocampal cultures to analyze cell viability and HIF-1α immunopositive (HIF-1α(+) ) signal after 30 min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 24 h of reoxygenation in the presence of FGL (synthetic NCAM-derived mimetic peptide)...
July 14, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706490/effects-of-6-weeks-high-intensity-interval-training-in-schoolchildren-with-insulin-resistance-influence-of-biological-maturation-on-metabolic-body-composition-cardiovascular-and-performance-non-responses
#3
Cristian Alvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
Background: Previous studies have observed significant heterogeneity in the magnitude of change in measures of metabolic response to exercise training. There are a lack of studies examining the prevalence of non-responders (NRs) in children while considering other potential environmental factors involved such as biological maturation. Aim: To compare the effects and prevalence of NRs to improve the insulin resistance level (by HOMA-IR), as well as to other anthropometric, cardiovascular, and performance co-variables, between early (EM) and normal maturation (NM) in insulin-resistance schoolchildren after 6-weeks of HIIT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403356/fluoxetine-effects-on-periodontogenesis-histomorphometrical-and-immunohistochemical-analyses-in-rats
#4
Luciana Silva Regueira, Priscylla Gonçalves Correia Leite de Marcelos, Isabela Maria Santiago-Jaegger, Danyel Elias da Cruz Perez, Joaquim Evêncio, Liriane Baratella-Evêncio
Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the formation of the periodontal ligament during pregnancy and lactation in rat pups. Material and Methods: Twelve pregnant rats of Wistar lineage were divided into four study groups. In the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was administered orally, throughout the entire period of the 21 days of pregnancy (CG group) and in the CGL group, it was administrated during pregnancy and lactation (from day 1 of pregnancy to the 21st day after birth)...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328021/novel-archaeal-tetraether-lipids-with-a-cyclohexyl-ring-identified-in-fayetteville-green-lake-ny-and-other-sulfidic-lacustrine-settings
#5
Xiao-Lei Liu, Ana De Santiago Torio, Tanja Bosak, Roger Everett Summons
RATIONALE: The meromictic Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL) is of significant geobiological interest because of microbial cycling of sulfur within and below the permanent chemocline and in the euxinic deep waters. Studies of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) may help shed light on understanding the activity of archaeal communities in these habitats. METHODS: Normal-phase and reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis on total lipid extracts of environmental samples revealed series of GDGTs with different biphytane structures...
May 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087821/selection-of-first-line-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-risk-benefit-decision-analysis
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
David Bargiela, Matthew T Bianchi, M Brandon Westover, Lori B Chibnik, Brian C Healy, Philip L De Jager, Zongqi Xia
OBJECTIVE: To integrate long-term measures of disease-modifying drug efficacy and risk to guide selection of first-line treatment of multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We created a Markov decision model to evaluate disability worsening and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk in patients receiving natalizumab (NTZ), fingolimod (FGL), or glatiramer acetate (GA) over 30 years. Leveraging publicly available data, we integrated treatment utility, disability worsening, and risk of PML into quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)...
February 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078486/two-nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-por-isoforms-play-distinct-roles-in-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#7
Choon-Tak Kwon, Suk-Hwan Kim, Giha Song, Dami Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
BACKGROUND: NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717876/programmed-death-pd-1-attenuates-macrophage-activation-and-brain-inflammation-via-regulation-of-fibrinogen-like-protein-2-fgl-2-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#8
Bangqing Yuan, Shaokuan Huang, Shuangfeng Gong, Feihong Wang, Li Lin, Tonggang Su, Hanchao Sheng, Hui Shi, Kunlong Ma, Zhao Yang
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury in ICH. Macrophage is the major executor in the neuroinflammation and initiates neurological defects. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) delivers inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. PD-1 expression by macrophages plays a pathologic role in the innate inflammatory response. However, the exact role of PD-1 on inflammatory responses following ICH has not been well identified. In this experiment, PD-1 KO (PD-1 -/-) ICH mice and Wild-type (WT) ICH mice were caused by intracranial injection of type IV collagenase...
November 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709492/c5a-c5ar-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-brain-inflammatory-injury-via-initiating-fgl-2-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Bangqing Yuan, Fenlan Fu, Shaokuan Huang, Chuangan Lin, Guang Yang, Kunlong Ma, Hui Shi, Zhao Yang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious emergency with high mortality and morbidity. Up to date, a limited understanding of ICH pathogenesis is difficult to implement effective therapeutic strategy. Much evidence demonstrates that the complement cascade is activated after experimental ICH. However, the exact mechanism has not been well studied in ICH. In the current study, C57BL/6J mice were injected with autologous whole blood. C5a/C5aR levels, microglia infiltration, inflammatory cytokine, and fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl-2) expression in the perihematomal region were analyzed following ICH...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507539/structural-basis-for-myf-and-psa-fimbriae-mediated-tropism-of-pathogenic-strains-of-yersinia-for-host-tissues
#10
Natalia Pakharukova, Saumendra Roy, Minna Tuittila, Mohammad M Rahman, Sari Paavilainen, Anna-Karin Ingars, Maksym Skaldin, Urpo Lamminmäki, Torleif Härd, Susann Teneberg, Anton V Zavialov
Three pathogenic species of the genus Yersinia assemble adhesive fimbriae via the FGL-chaperone/usher pathway. Closely related Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis elaborate the pH6 antigen (Psa), which mediates bacterial attachment to alveolar cells of the lung. Y. enterocolitica, instead, assembles the homologous fimbriae Myf of unknown function. Here, we discovered that Myf, like Psa, specifically recognizes β1-3- or β1-4-linked galactose in glycosphingolipids, but completely lacks affinity for phosphatidylcholine, the main receptor for Psa in alveolar cells...
November 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352075/the-neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-derived-ncam-peptide-fg-loop-fgl-mobilizes-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-and-promotes-endogenous-regenerative-capacity-after-stroke
#11
Rebecca Klein, Nicolas Mahlberg, Maurice Ohren, Anne Ladwig, Bernd Neumaier, Rudolf Graf, Mathias Hoehn, Morten Albrechtsen, Stephen Rees, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Maria Adele Rueger, Michael Schroeter
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-derived peptide FG loop (FGL) modulates synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, and stem cell proliferation, enhances cognitive capacities, and conveys neuroprotection after stroke. Here we investigated the effect of subcutaneously injected FGL on cellular compartments affected by degeneration and regeneration after stroke due to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), namely endogenous neural stem cells (NSC), oligodendrocytes, and microglia. In addition to immunohistochemistry, we used non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the tracer [(18)F]-fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) to visualize endogenous NSC in vivo...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132874/functional-organization-of-the-fusiform-gyrus-revealed-with-connectivity-profiles
#12
Wen Zhang, Jiaojian Wang, Lingzhong Fan, Yuanchao Zhang, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang
Within the object recognition-related ventral visual stream, the human fusiform gyrus (FG), which topographically connects the striate cortex to the inferior temporal lobe, plays a pivotal role in high-level visual/cognitive functions. However, though there are many previous investigations of distinct functional modules within the FG, the functional organization of the whole FG in its full functional heterogeneity has not yet been established. In the current study, a replicable functional organization of the FG based on distinct anatomical connectivity patterns was identified...
August 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113684/utsa-74-a-mof-74-isomer-with-two-accessible-binding-sites-per-metal-center-for-highly-selective-gas-separation
#13
Feng Luo, Changsheng Yan, Lilong Dang, Rajamani Krishna, Wei Zhou, Hui Wu, Xinglong Dong, Yu Han, Tong-Liang Hu, Michael O'Keeffe, Lingling Wang, Mingbiao Luo, Rui-Biao Lin, Banglin Chen
A new metal-organic framework Zn2(H2O)(dobdc)·0.5(H2O) (UTSA-74, H4dobdc = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid), Zn-MOF-74/CPO-27-Zn isomer, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. It has a novel four coordinated fgl topology with one-dimensional channels of about 8.0 Å. Unlike metal sites in the well-established MOF-74 with a rod-packing structure in which each of them is in a five coordinate square pyramidal coordination geometry, there are two different Zn(2+) sites within the binuclear secondary building units in UTSA-74 in which one of them (Zn1) is in a tetrahedral while another (Zn2) in an octahedral coordination geometry...
May 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095082/pharmacological-approach-for-targeting-dysfunctional-brain-plasticity-focus-on-neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-ncam
#14
REVIEW
Anu Aonurm-Helm, Külli Jaako, Monika Jürgenson, Alexander Zharkovsky
Brain plasticity refers to the ability of the brain to undergo functionally relevant adaptations in response to external and internal stimuli. Alterations in brain plasticity have been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, and current theories suggest that dysfunctions in neuronal circuits and synaptogenesis have a major impact in the development of these diseases. Among the molecules that regulate brain plasticity, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form PSA-NCAM have been of particular interest for years because alterations in NCAM and PSA-NCAM levels have been associated with memory impairment, depression, autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia...
November 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073463/preparation-of-a-novel-composite-nanofiber-gel-encapsulated-human-placental-extract-through-layer-by-layer-self-assembly
#15
Guohui Liu, X I Chen, W U Zhou, Shuhua Yang, Shunan Ye, Faqi Cao, Y I Liu, Yuan Xiong
Aqueous human placenta extract (HPE) has been previously used to treat chronic soft tissue ulcer; however, the optimal dosage of HPE has yet to be elucidated. The present study investigated a novel nanofiber gel composed through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly, in which HPE was encapsulated. IKVAV, RGD, RAD16 and FGL-PA were screened and combined to produce an optimal vehicle nanofiber gel through LbL assembly. Subsequently, the aqueous HPE was encapsulated into this nanofiber at the appropriate concentration, and the morphology, particle size, drug loading efficacy, encapsulation rate, release efficiency and structure validation were detected...
April 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862043/ameliorative-effects-of-curcumin-on-fibrinogen-like-protein-2-gene-expression-some-oxido-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-l-arginine-induced-acute-pancreatitis
#16
Noha M Shafik, Ghada M Abou-Fard
The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of curcumin on fibrinogen like protein-2 (fgl-2), some oxido-inflammatory and apoptotic markers in rat-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Seventy-five albino rats were divided into control group, l-arginine (l-Arg)-induced AP group, curcumin pre-treated group before AP induction, curcumin post-treated group after AP induction, and curcumin injected group only. AP group showed severe necrotizing pancreatitis confirmed by histopathological changes and elevations in serum amylase and lipase activities, levels of epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78, tissue content of protein carbonyls, levels of tumor necrosis factor α, and caspase-3 as well as myeloperoxidase activity...
June 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26513739/identification-of-the-fgl-amide-allatostatin-gene-of-the-primitive-termite-mastotermes-darwiniensis-and-the-woodroach-cryptocercus-darwini
#17
Franziska Wende, Martina Meyering-Vos, Klaus H Hoffmann
Allatostatins with the C-terminal ending Tyr/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly-Leu/Ile-amide (FGLa/ASTs) are widespread neuropeptides with multiple functions. The gene encoding the FGLa/AST polypeptide precursor was first isolated from cockroaches and since then could be identified in many insects and crustaceans. With its strictly conserved regions in combination with variable regions the gene seems to be a good candidate for phylogenetic analyses between closely and distantly related species. Here, the structure of the FGLa/AST gene of the most primitive termite, the giant northern termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, was identified...
February 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279369/forced-degradation-of-fingolimod-effect-of-co-solvent-and-characterization-of-degradation-products-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms-ms-and-1h-nmr
#18
Prinesh N Patel, Pradipbhai D Kalariya, S Gananadhamu, R Srinivas
Fingolimod (FGL), an immunomodulator drug for treating multiple sclerosis, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic, alkaline and neutral), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per International Conference on Harmonization specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under base hydrolysis, however, it was stable under all other conditions. A total of three degradation products (DPs) were observed. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products was achieved on a Fortis C18 (100×2...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26135459/unravelling-the-evolution-of-the-allatostatin-type-a-kiss-and-galanin-peptide-receptor-gene-families-in-bilaterians-insights-from-anopheles-mosquitoes
#19
Rute C Felix, Marlene Trindade, Isa R P Pires, Vera G Fonseca, Rute S Martins, Henrique Silveira, Deborah M Power, João C R Cardoso
UNLABELLED: Allatostatin type A receptors (AST-ARs) are a group of G-protein coupled receptors activated by members of the FGL-amide (AST-A) peptide family that inhibit food intake and development in arthropods. Despite their physiological importance the evolution of the AST-A system is poorly described and relatively few receptors have been isolated and functionally characterised in insects. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origin and comparative evolution of the AST-A system...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25967873/effects-of-synthetic-neural-adhesion-molecule-mimetic-peptides-and-related-proteins-on-the-cardiomyogenic-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Ruodan Xu, Sureshkumar Perumal Srinivasan, Poornima Sureshkumar, Erastus Nembu Nembo, Christoph Schäfer, Judith Semmler, Matthias Matzkies, Morten Albrechtsen, Jürgen Hescheler, Filomain Nguemo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pluripotent stem cells differentiating into cardiomyocyte-like cells in an appropriate cellular environment have attracted significant attention, given the potential use of such cells for regenerative medicine. However, the precise mechanisms of lineage specification of pluripotent stem cells are still largely to be explored. Identifying the role of various small synthetic peptides involved in cardiomyogenesis may provide new insights into pathways promoting cardiomyogenesis...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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