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Legionella chlorination

Lee M Hampton, Laurel Garrison, Jessica Kattan, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Barry Fields, Nicole Fitzpatrick, Luis Sapian, Teresa Martin-Escobar, Stephen Waterman, Lauri A Hicks, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Hugo Lopez-Gatell
Background.  A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods.  Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
R Nogueira, K-U Utecht, M Exner, W Verstraete, K-H Rosenwinkel
A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Paolo Fusaroli, Cinzia Ravaioli, Giovanni Gabutti, Maria Caroli, Armando Stefanati
This aim of the study was to identify effective levels of ClO2 for control of Legionella spp. contamination in the hot water (45-55 °C.) distribution system of a 579-bed hospital in Ravenna (Italy). Overall, 663 hot water samples were collected from the hospital's sinks and shower taps and were analyzed. Trend line analysis, which describes the trend in the number of positive samples collected according to disinfectant concentration, shows that the lowest number of positive samples was achieved with concentrations of ClO2 between 0...
March 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
P Borella, A Bargellini, P Marchegiano, E Vecchi, I Marchesi
The waterborne healthcare-associated infections are mainly sustained by Legionella and Pseudomonas spp. Various water factors and plumbing characteristics, and the interaction with other water microorganisms are considered to be predictive of Legionella contamination. It is therefore mandatory to organize plans of surveillance, prevention and control in order to avoid disease appearance in immunosuppressed patients, with higher risk of death. Guidelines for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease have been published, benefiting those who face this problem, but definitive standardized solutions do not exist yet...
March 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Isabella Marchesi, Greta Ferranti, Antonella Mansi, Anna M Marcelloni, Anna R Proietto, Navneet Saini, Paola Borella, Annalisa Bargellini
Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed...
May 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Darren A Lytle, Jennifer Liggett
Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time...
April 1, 2016: Water Research
Anita Rakić, Nives Štambuk-Giljanović
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp...
February 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Pan Ji, Jeffrey Parks, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
A unique microbiome establishes in the portion of the potable water distribution system within homes and other buildings (i.e., building plumbing). To examine its composition and the factors that shape it, standardized cold water plumbing rigs were deployed at the treatment plant and in the distribution system of five water utilities across the U.S. Three pipe materials (copper with lead solder, CPVC with brass fittings or copper/lead combined pipe) were compared, with 8 hour flush cycles of 10 minutes to simulate typical daily use patterns...
2015: PloS One
Paul B Bartley, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Mitchell Stanton-Cook, Raghuram Muguli, Luis Prado, Vyt Garnys, Katherine Taylor, Timothy C Barnett, Glen Pinna, Jennifer Robson, David L Paterson, Mark J Walker, Mark A Schembri, Scott A Beatson
BACKGROUND: Two proven nosocomial cases of Legionella pneumonia occurred at the Wesley Hospital (Brisbane, Australia) in May 2013. To trace the epidemiology of these cases, whole genome sequence analysis was performed on Legionella pneumophila isolates from the infected patients, prospective isolates collected from the hospital water distribution system (WDS), and retrospective patient isolates available from the Wesley Hospital and other local hospitals. METHODS: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates were cultured from patient sputum (n = 3), endobronchial washings (n = 3), pleural fluid (n = 1), and the Wesley Hospital WDS (n = 39)...
February 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Susan Pearson
Although temperature control has been the UK's longest-serving means of controlling the growth and proliferation of Legionella in hot and cold water systems, there are other factors, including major rises in energy costs, that warrant the use of biocides--including in the healthcare sector. In 2000, the HSE's new 'L8' guidelines took this into account, giving equal weight to both temperature reg~mes and biocides, such as chlorine dioxide, as control methods. Susan Pearson BSc reports on one potentially effective biocide- silver hydrogen peroxide, explains how it 'works' in practice, and highlights the recent 'real-world' evidence of its effectiveness and advantages...
March 2015: Health Estate
Sílvia Cervero-Aragó, Sarah Rodríguez-Martínez, Antoni Puertas-Bennasar, Rosa M Araujo
Chlorine and thermal treatments are the most commonly used procedures to control and prevent Legionella proliferation in drinking water systems of large buildings. However, cases of legionellosis still occur in facilities with treated water. The purpose of this work was to model the effect of temperature and free chlorine applied in similar exposure conditions as in drinking water systems on five Legionella spp. strains and two amoebal strains of the genera Acanthamoeba. Inactivation models obtained were used to determine the effectiveness of the treatments applied which resulted more effective against Legionella than Acanthamoeba, especially those in cystic stages...
2015: PloS One
Marina Blanky, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Malka Halpern, Eran Friedler
Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella...
November 15, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Hong Wang, Sheldon Masters, Joseph O Falkinham, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Illustrative distribution system operation and management practices shaped the occurrence and persistence of Legionella spp., nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two amoebae host (Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis) gene markers in the effluent of standardized simulated household water heaters (SWHs). The interplay between disinfectant type (chlorine or chloramine), water age (2.3-5.7 days) and materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement or iron) in upstream simulated distribution systems (SDSs) profoundly influenced levels of pathogen gene markers in corresponding SWH bulk waters...
July 21, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Michiko Hamatake, Rie Aoki, Mitsugu Yamazaki, Kenjiro Ohnishi, Kazutoshi Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Water mist is usually generated using equipment directly connected to the water tap, as its installation is relatively easy. However, there is no legal regulation regarding the maintenance of this equipment, and the quality of the mist has not been sufficiently well investigated. In this study, we sought to establish methods that allow the hygienic maintenance of this equipment. METHODS: We monitored the use of the mist generating equipment in five of the 61 institutions in the jurisdiction of Ichinomiya Health Center, examined the resulting water quality, and tested for Legionella bacteria in the mist...
2015: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Mohammad Rafiee, Alireza Mesdaghinia, Homa Hajjaran, Mohammad Hajaghazadeh, Abolfazl Miahipour, Mahsa Jahangiri-Rad
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of legionellosis may be a side effect of institution-water treatment. However, the long-term outcomes and the predictive factors of Legionella prevalence in such systems have still not been fully studied. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and to evaluate the role of bacteriological water quality parameters on its prevalence and removal in hospital water systems. METHODS: A total of 45 samples were collected from distinct sites at seven hospitals in Tehran, Iran...
May 2014: Iranian Journal of Public Health
D D'Alessandro, M Fabiani, F Cerquetani, G B Orsi
BACKGROUND: In many nosocomial Legionella outbreaks water distribution systems are the most frequent source of infection. OBJECTIVES: Considering the hospital waterline old age, an investigation on colonization by Legionella spp was carried out in order to evaluate the pipeline system weaknesses and to implement environmental preventive measures. METHODS: From 2004 to 2010, overall 97 samples from the water line were collected. The samples were analyzed according to the italian Legionella spp standard methods; water temperature, pH and residual free chlorine were determined at the time of collection...
March 2015: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
H Whiley, A Keegan, H Fallowfield, R Bentham
Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively...
June 2015: Journal of Water and Health
Emilie Fouque, Yann Héchard, Philippe Hartemann, Philippe Humeau, Marie-Cécile Trouilhé
Vermamoeba vermiformis is a free-living amoeba (FLA) widely distributed in the environment, known to colonize hot water networks and to be the reservoir of pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila. FLA are partly resistant to biocides, especially in their cyst form. The control of V. vermiformis in hot water networks represents an important health issue, but there are very few data on their resistance to disinfection treatments. The sensitivity of cysts of two strains of V. vermiformis to three disinfectants frequently used in hot water networks (chlorine, heat shock, peracetic acid (PAA) mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) was investigated...
June 2015: Journal of Water and Health
Scott Duda, Julianne L Baron, Marilyn M Wagener, Radisav D Vidic, Janet E Stout
This investigation compared biological quantification of potable and non-potable (cooling) water samples using pour plate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) methods and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration measurement using bioluminescence. The relationship between these measurements and the presence of Legionella spp. was also examined. HPC for potable and non-potable water were cultured on R2A and PCA, respectively. Results indicated a strong correlation between HPC and ATP measurements in potable water (R = 0...
July 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David Otto Schwake, Absar Alum, Morteza Abbaszadegan
To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L...
2015: Pathogens
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