keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Legionella chlorination

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072607/presence-of-legionella-spp-in-hot-water-networks-of-different-italian-residential-buildings-a-three-year-survey
#1
Michele Totaro, Paola Valentini, Anna Laura Costa, Lorenzo Frendo, Alessia Cappello, Beatrice Casini, Mario Miccoli, Gaetano Privitera, Angelo Baggiani
Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires' disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analysed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remote tap...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917570/detection-of-viable-but-nonculturable-legionella-in-hospital-water-network-following-monochloramine-disinfection
#2
Beatrice Casini, Angelo Baggiani, Michele Totaro, Antonella Mansi, Anna Laura Costa, Francesco Aquino, Mario Miccoli, Paola Valentini, Fabrizio Bruschi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Gaetano Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis still remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as a good alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: We investigated the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889040/greywater-reuse-assessment-of-the-health-risk-induced-by-legionella-pneumophila
#3
Marina Blanky, Yehonatan Sharaby, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Malka Halpern, Eran Friedler
Greywater (GW), domestic wastewater excluding the streams generated by toilets and kitchens, can serve as an alternative water source. The main options for GW reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both generating aerosols. These may transmit inhalable pathogens like Legionella and present a potential health risk. This study quantified the health risk that may arise from inhalation of Legionella-contaminated aerosols due to non-potable GW reuse. Data on Legionella concentrations in potable water and GW was collected...
November 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#4
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501787/free-chlorine-and-monochloramine-inactivation-kinetics-of-aspergillus-and-penicillium-in-drinking-water
#5
Xiao Ma, Kyle Bibby
Fungi are near-ubiquitous in potable water distribution systems, but the disinfection kinetics of commonly identified fungi are poorly studied. In the present study, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, and Penicillium purpurogenum by free chlorine and monochloramine. The observed inactivation data were then fit to a delayed Chick-Watson model. Based on the model parameter estimation, the Ct values (integrated product of disinfectant concentration C and contact time t over defined time intervals) for 99...
September 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062459/biofilm-composition-and-threshold-concentration-for-growth-of-legionella-pneumophila-on-surfaces-exposed-to-flowing-warm-tap-water-without-disinfectant
#6
Dick van der Kooij, Geo L Bakker, Ronald Italiaander, Harm R Veenendaal, Bart A Wullings
Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm(-2)) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815848/annual-variations-and-effects-of-temperature-on-legionella-spp-and-other-potential-opportunistic-pathogens-in-a-bathroom
#7
Jingrang Lu, Helen Buse, Ian Struewing, Amy Zhao, Darren Lytle, Nicholas Ashbolt
Opportunistic pathogens (OPs) in drinking water, like Legionella spp., mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and free-living amobae (FLA) are a risk to human health, due to their post-treatment growth in water systems. To assess and manage these risks, it is necessary to understand their variations and environmental conditions for the water routinely used. We sampled premise tap (N cold = 26, N hot = 26) and shower (N shower = 26) waters in a bathroom and compared water temperatures to levels of OPs via qPCR and identified Legionella spp...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704023/legionnaires-disease-outbreak-at-a-resort-in-cozumel-mexico
#8
Lee M Hampton, Laurel Garrison, Jessica Kattan, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Barry Fields, Nicole Fitzpatrick, Luis Sapian, Teresa Martin-Escobar, Stephen Waterman, Lauri A Hicks, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Hugo Lopez-Gatell
Background.  A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods.  Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533856/strategies-for-the-reduction-of-legionella-in-biological-treatment-systems
#9
R Nogueira, K-U Utecht, M Exner, W Verstraete, K-H Rosenwinkel
A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336956/-evaluation-of-chlorine-dioxide-concentrations-needed-to-effectively-control-contamination-by-legionella-spp-in-hospital-hot-water-distribution-systems
#10
Paolo Fusaroli, Cinzia Ravaioli, Giovanni Gabutti, Maria Caroli, Armando Stefanati
This aim of the study was to identify effective levels of ClO2 for control of Legionella spp. contamination in the hot water (45-55 °C.) distribution system of a 579-bed hospital in Ravenna (Italy). Overall, 663 hot water samples were collected from the hospital's sinks and shower taps and were analyzed. Trend line analysis, which describes the trend in the number of positive samples collected according to disinfectant concentration, shows that the lowest number of positive samples was achieved with concentrations of ClO2 between 0...
March 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071320/hospital-acquired-legionella-infections-an-update-on-the-procedures-for-controlling-environmental-contamination
#11
P Borella, A Bargellini, P Marchegiano, E Vecchi, I Marchesi
The waterborne healthcare-associated infections are mainly sustained by Legionella and Pseudomonas spp. Various water factors and plumbing characteristics, and the interaction with other water microorganisms are considered to be predictive of Legionella contamination. It is therefore mandatory to organize plans of surveillance, prevention and control in order to avoid disease appearance in immunosuppressed patients, with higher risk of death. Guidelines for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease have been published, benefiting those who face this problem, but definitive standardized solutions do not exist yet...
March 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969696/control-of-legionella-contamination-and-risk-of-corrosion-in-hospital-water-networks-following-various-disinfection-procedures
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Isabella Marchesi, Greta Ferranti, Antonella Mansi, Anna M Marcelloni, Anna R Proietto, Navneet Saini, Paola Borella, Annalisa Bargellini
Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed...
May 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26826646/impact-of-water-quality-on-chlorine-demand-of-corroding-copper
#13
Darren A Lytle, Jennifer Liggett
Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time...
April 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733467/physical-and-chemical-parameter-correlations-with-technical-and-technological-characteristics-of-heating-systems-and-the-presence-of-legionella-spp-in-the-hot-water-supply
#14
Anita Rakić, Nives Štambuk-Giljanović
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp...
February 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495985/impact-of-water-chemistry-pipe-material-and-stagnation-on-the-building-plumbing-microbiome
#15
Pan Ji, Jeffrey Parks, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
A unique microbiome establishes in the portion of the potable water distribution system within homes and other buildings (i.e., building plumbing). To examine its composition and the factors that shape it, standardized cold water plumbing rigs were deployed at the treatment plant and in the distribution system of five water utilities across the U.S. Three pipe materials (copper with lead solder, CPVC with brass fittings or copper/lead combined pipe) were compared, with 8 hour flush cycles of 10 minutes to simulate typical daily use patterns...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26462745/hospital-wide-eradication-of-a-nosocomial-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-outbreak
#16
Paul B Bartley, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Mitchell Stanton-Cook, Raghuram Muguli, Luis Prado, Vyt Garnys, Katherine Taylor, Timothy C Barnett, Glen Pinna, Jennifer Robson, David L Paterson, Mark J Walker, Mark A Schembri, Scott A Beatson
BACKGROUND: Two proven nosocomial cases of Legionella pneumonia occurred at the Wesley Hospital (Brisbane, Australia) in May 2013. To trace the epidemiology of these cases, whole genome sequence analysis was performed on Legionella pneumophila isolates from the infected patients, prospective isolates collected from the hospital water distribution system (WDS), and retrospective patient isolates available from the Wesley Hospital and other local hospitals. METHODS: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates were cultured from patient sputum (n = 3), endobronchial washings (n = 3), pleural fluid (n = 1), and the Wesley Hospital WDS (n = 39)...
February 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26268029/silver-biocide-s-real-world-success
#17
Susan Pearson
Although temperature control has been the UK's longest-serving means of controlling the growth and proliferation of Legionella in hot and cold water systems, there are other factors, including major rises in energy costs, that warrant the use of biocides--including in the healthcare sector. In 2000, the HSE's new 'L8' guidelines took this into account, giving equal weight to both temperature reg~mes and biocides, such as chlorine dioxide, as control methods. Susan Pearson BSc reports on one potentially effective biocide- silver hydrogen peroxide, explains how it 'works' in practice, and highlights the recent 'real-world' evidence of its effectiveness and advantages...
March 2015: Health Estate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26241039/effect-of-common-drinking-water-disinfectants-chlorine-and-heat-on-free-legionella-and-amoebae-associated-legionella
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sílvia Cervero-Aragó, Sarah Rodríguez-Martínez, Antoni Puertas-Bennasar, Rosa M Araujo
Chlorine and thermal treatments are the most commonly used procedures to control and prevent Legionella proliferation in drinking water systems of large buildings. However, cases of legionellosis still occur in facilities with treated water. The purpose of this work was to model the effect of temperature and free chlorine applied in similar exposure conditions as in drinking water systems on five Legionella spp. strains and two amoebal strains of the genera Acanthamoeba. Inactivation models obtained were used to determine the effectiveness of the treatments applied which resulted more effective against Legionella than Acanthamoeba, especially those in cystic stages...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26188406/legionella-pneumophila-from-potable-water-to-treated-greywater-quantification-and-removal-during-treatment
#19
Marina Blanky, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Malka Halpern, Eran Friedler
Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella...
November 15, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26121595/distribution-system-water-quality-affects-responses-of-opportunistic-pathogen-gene-markers-in-household-water-heaters
#20
Hong Wang, Sheldon Masters, Joseph O Falkinham, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Illustrative distribution system operation and management practices shaped the occurrence and persistence of Legionella spp., nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two amoebae host (Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis) gene markers in the effluent of standardized simulated household water heaters (SWHs). The interplay between disinfectant type (chlorine or chloramine), water age (2.3-5.7 days) and materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement or iron) in upstream simulated distribution systems (SDSs) profoundly influenced levels of pathogen gene markers in corresponding SWH bulk waters...
July 21, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
keyword
keyword
91776
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"