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Legionella chlorination

Daniel Gerrity, Mayara Arnold, Eric Dickenson, Duane Moser, Joshua D Sackett, Eric C Wert
Microbial community structure in the ozone-biofiltration systems of two drinking water and two wastewater treatment facilities was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Collectively, these datasets enabled comparisons by facility, water type (drinking water, wastewater), pre-oxidation (ozonation, chlorination), media type (anthracite, activated carbon), media depth, and backwash dynamics. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in drinking water filters, whereas Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were differentially abundant in wastewater filters...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
F Carinci, L Scapoli, M Contaldo, R Santoro, A Palmieri, F Pezzetti, D Lauritano, V Candotto, D Mucchi, L Baggi, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
Legionella spp. are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines. Surveys have shown that the percentage of samples taken at different dental sites that were positive for Legionella spp. were highly variable and ranged from 0% to 100%. Cultivation is the principal approach to evaluating bacterial contamination employed in the past, but applying this approach to testing for Legionella spp. may result in false-negative data or underestimated bacterial counts...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Sammy Zahran, Shawn P McElmurry, Paul E Kilgore, David Mushinski, Jack Press, Nancy G Love, Richard C Sadler, Michele S Swanson
The 2014-2015 Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak in Genesee County, MI, and the outbreak resolution in 2016 coincided with changes in the source of drinking water to Flint's municipal water system. Following the switch in water supply from Detroit to Flint River water, the odds of a Flint resident presenting with LD increased 6.3-fold (95% CI: 2.5, 14.0). This risk subsided following boil water advisories, likely due to residents avoiding water, and returned to historically normal levels with the switch back in water supply...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Luanfeng Hou, Qin Zhou, Qingping Wu, Qihui Gu, Ming Sun, Jumei Zhang
To gain insight into the bacterial dynamics present in drinking water treatment (DWT) systems, the microbial community and activity in a full-scale DWT plant (DWTP) in Guangzhou, South China, were investigated using Illumina Hiseq sequencing analyses combined with cultivation-based techniques during the wet and dry seasons. Illumina sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a large shift in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes during the treatment process, with the proportion of Actinobacteria decreased sharply, whereas that of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased and predominated in treated water...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Haibo Wang, Yi Shen, Chun Hu, Xueci Xing, Dan Zhao
Effects of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin on the occurrence of free-living and particle-associated opportunistic pathogens in bulk water of simulated drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) were investigated. It was found that sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin greatly promoted the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium and its broader genus Mycobacterium spp., as well as the amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmanella vermiformis, in bulk water of DWDSs...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Michele Totaro, Paola Valentini, Anna Laura Costa, Lorenzo Frendo, Alessia Cappello, Beatrice Casini, Mario Miccoli, Gaetano Privitera, Angelo Baggiani
Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires' disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analysed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remote tap...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
B Casini, A Baggiani, M Totaro, A Mansi, A L Costa, F Aquino, M Miccoli, P Valentini, F Bruschi, P L Lopalco, G Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as an alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: To investigate the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Marina Blanky, Yehonatan Sharaby, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Malka Halpern, Eran Friedler
Greywater (GW), domestic wastewater excluding the streams generated by toilets and kitchens, can serve as an alternative water source. The main options for GW reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both generating aerosols. These may transmit inhalable pathogens like Legionella and present a potential health risk. This study quantified the health risk that may arise from inhalation of Legionella-contaminated aerosols due to non-potable GW reuse. Data on Legionella concentrations in potable water and GW was collected...
November 15, 2017: Water Research
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
Xiao Ma, Kyle Bibby
Fungi are near-ubiquitous in potable water distribution systems, but the disinfection kinetics of commonly identified fungi are poorly studied. In the present study, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, and Penicillium purpurogenum by free chlorine and monochloramine. The observed inactivation data were then fit to a delayed Chick-Watson model. Based on the model parameter estimation, the Ct values (integrated product of disinfectant concentration C and contact time t over defined time intervals) for 99...
September 1, 2017: Water Research
Dick van der Kooij, Geo L Bakker, Ronald Italiaander, Harm R Veenendaal, Bart A Wullings
Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm-2 ) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jingrang Lu, Helen Buse, Ian Struewing, Amy Zhao, Darren Lytle, Nicholas Ashbolt
Opportunistic pathogens (OPs) in drinking water, like Legionella spp., mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and free-living amobae (FLA) are a risk to human health, due to their post-treatment growth in water systems. To assess and manage these risks, it is necessary to understand their variations and environmental conditions for the water routinely used. We sampled premise tap (N cold = 26, N hot = 26) and shower (N shower = 26) waters in a bathroom and compared water temperatures to levels of OPs via qPCR and identified Legionella spp...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lee M Hampton, Laurel Garrison, Jessica Kattan, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Barry Fields, Nicole Fitzpatrick, Luis Sapian, Teresa Martin-Escobar, Stephen Waterman, Lauri A Hicks, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Hugo Lopez-Gatell
Background.  A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods.  Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
R Nogueira, K-U Utecht, M Exner, W Verstraete, K-H Rosenwinkel
A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Paolo Fusaroli, Cinzia Ravaioli, Giovanni Gabutti, Maria Caroli, Armando Stefanati
This aim of the study was to identify effective levels of ClO2 for control of Legionella spp. contamination in the hot water (45-55 °C.) distribution system of a 579-bed hospital in Ravenna (Italy). Overall, 663 hot water samples were collected from the hospital's sinks and shower taps and were analyzed. Trend line analysis, which describes the trend in the number of positive samples collected according to disinfectant concentration, shows that the lowest number of positive samples was achieved with concentrations of ClO2 between 0...
March 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
P Borella, A Bargellini, P Marchegiano, E Vecchi, I Marchesi
The waterborne healthcare-associated infections are mainly sustained by Legionella and Pseudomonas spp. Various water factors and plumbing characteristics, and the interaction with other water microorganisms are considered to be predictive of Legionella contamination. It is therefore mandatory to organize plans of surveillance, prevention and control in order to avoid disease appearance in immunosuppressed patients, with higher risk of death. Guidelines for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease have been published, benefiting those who face this problem, but definitive standardized solutions do not exist yet...
March 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Isabella Marchesi, Greta Ferranti, Antonella Mansi, Anna M Marcelloni, Anna R Proietto, Navneet Saini, Paola Borella, Annalisa Bargellini
Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed...
May 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Darren A Lytle, Jennifer Liggett
Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time...
April 1, 2016: Water Research
Anita Rakić, Nives Štambuk-Giljanović
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp...
February 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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