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Legionella maldi

Katarína Trnková, Martina Kotrbancová, Margita Špaleková, Miriam Fulová, Jana Boledovičová, Matej Vesteg
Legionellae, i.e. Legionella pneumophila, are human bacterial hydrophilic facultative pathogens causing pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease). Free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as natural hosts and thus as reservoirs of many amoebae-resistant bacteria. An encysted amoeba can contribute to the resistance of intracellular L. pneumophila to various chemical and physical treatments. Humans can be infected by droplets containing bacteria from an environmental source or human-made devices such as shower heads, bathtubs, air-conditioning units or whirlpools...
January 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Thorsten Dilger, Holger Melzl, André Gessner
Legionellae constitute a frequent contamination of warm water systems and can lead to serious infections. Therefore, in many countries it is mandatory to monitor warm water systems for their presence. The method of examination in Germany is regulated by guideline ISO 11731 and DIN EN ISO 11731-2, and the results are reported as concentration of Legionella spp. Only limited information is available on the presence of individual species of Legionellae in the examined systems, since most investigations and research focus solely on Legionella pneumophila as the most important human pathogen...
March 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
M Kotrbancová, M Špaleková, M Fulová, K Trnková, J Perželová
The diagnosis of legionellosis, especially of its severe, life-threatening form, Legionnaires' disease, is complicated, primarily because of non-typical symptoms of the infection, not always dominating atypical pneumonia, and often a very dramatic septic course of the disease with multiorgan failures. The diagnosis of the acute phase of the disease can be established by the detection of Legionella antigen in urine and by PCR/real-time PCR detection of Legionella DNA in serum and lower respiratory tract and urine samples...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Thorsten Dilger, Holger Melzl, André Gessner
Detection and enumeration of Legionella bacteria in drinking water is regulated in Germany by ISO 11731-2. The mandatory method for species identification employs parallel subculturing of suspicious colonies on selective media requiring the handling of a large number of cultivation plates. After changes to the drinking water quality regulation in Germany in 2012 the demand for Legionella contamination testing increased drastically. A more reliable, faster and less laborious method for species identification is therefore desirable...
August 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
N Dione, S Khelaifia, B La Scola, J C Lagier, D Raoult
In the mid-19th century, the dichotomy between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was introduced. Nevertheless, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacterial species such as Ruminococcus gnavus and Fusobacterium necrophorum, in a culture medium containing antioxidants, was recently demonstrated. We tested aerobically the culture of 623 bacterial strains from 276 bacterial species including 82 strictly anaerobic, 154 facultative anaerobic, 31 aerobic and nine microaerophilic bacterial species as well as ten fungi...
January 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
S L Collins, B Afshar, J T Walker, H Aird, F Naik, F Parry-Ford, N Phin, T G Harrison, V J Chalker, S Sorrell, T Cresswell
In June 2014 Public Health England confirmed a case of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in a neonate following birth at home in a hired birthing pool incorporating a heater and a recirculation pump which had been filled in advance of labour. The case triggered a public health investigation and a microbiological survey of an additional ten heated birthing pools hired or recently hired to the general public across England. The birthing pool used by the parent of the confirmed case was identified as the source of the neonate's infection following detection of Legionella pneumophila ST48 in both patient and environmental samples...
March 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Jonas Ehrhardt, Abraham S Alabi, Thorsten Kuczius, Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Karsten Becker, Peter G Kremsner, Frieder Schaumburg, Meral Esen
Aquatic environments are the most important source for Legionella spp. infections such as Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. The reservoirs of Legionella spp. are mostly unclear in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study, conducted in 2013, was to identify geographical areas of an increased risk for exposure to Legionella spp., and to describe the population structure of Legionella spp. from different water sources in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. Fresh water samples (n = 200) were cultured on Legionella selective agar; species were confirmed by MALDI-TOF, a Legionella pneumophila specific real-time PCR and 16S RNA gene sequencing...
July 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sophie Jarraud, Ghislaine Descours, Christophe Ginevra, Gerard Lina, Jerome Etienne
Currently, several methods are used for the detection of Legionella in clinical samples, and these methods constitute part of the criteria for defining legionellosis cases. Urinary antigen detection is the first-line diagnostic test, although this test is limited to L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) (Helbig et al., J Clin Microbiol 41:838-840, 2003). The use of molecular techniques can improve Legionaire's disease (LD) diagnosis by detecting other serogroups and species (Diederen et al., J Clin Microbiol 46:671-677, 2008)...
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
M Drevinek, J Dresler, J Klimentova, L Pisa, M Hubalek
AIMS: To propose a universal workflow of sample preparation method for the identification of highly pathogenic bacteria by MALDI-TOF MS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen bacterial species, including highly virulent Gram-positive (Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum) and Gram-negative bacteria (Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Francisella tularensis, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis and Legionella pneumophila), were employed in the comparative study of four sample preparation methods compatible with MALDI-TOF MS...
July 2012: Letters in Applied Microbiology
C W Svarrer, S A Uldum
In Denmark, several laboratories use PCR as a routine diagnostic method for Legionnaires' disease, and almost all PCR-positive samples are investigated by culture. From 1993 to 2010, isolates of Legionella species other than Legionella pneumophila were obtained from respiratory samples from 33 patients, and from 1997 to 2010, 42 isolates of Legionella non-pneumophila species were obtained and saved from water samples from 39 different sites in Denmark. Macrophage infectivity potentiator gene (mip) sequencing was used as a reference method to identify the Legionella non-pneumophila species...
October 2012: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ying He, Tsung C Chang, Haijing Li, Gongyi Shi, Yi-Wei Tang
More than 20 species of Legionella have been identified in relation to human infections. Rapid detection and identification of Legionella isolates is clinically useful to differentiate between infection and contamination and to determine treatment regimens. We explored the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Biotyper system (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany) for the identification of Legionella species. The MALDI MS spectra were generated and compared with the Biotyper database, which includes 25 Legionella strains covering 22 species and four Legionella pneumophila serogroups...
July 2011: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Valeria Gaia, Simona Casati, Mauro Tonolla
A set of reference strains representing 38 different Legionella species were submitted to Whole Cell Mass Spectrometry (WCMS) with MALDI-TOF. The dendrogram computed from strain mass spectral patterns obtained by WCMS was compared to the phylogenetic tree obtained from macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) sequences. The trees inferred from these two methods revealed significant homologies. Using 453 Legionella isolates previously characterized by genotyping, it was possible to create species-specific SuperSpectra, using appropriate sets of spectral masses, allowing unambiguous differentiation and identification of the most frequently isolated Legionella species...
February 2011: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Masahiro Nakamichi, Hirotaka Naitou, Norio Ohashi, Yasuyuki Imai, Masaki Miyake
Legionella pneumophila, which is a causative pathogen of Legionnaires' disease, expresses its virulent traits in response to growth conditions. In particular, it is known to become virulent at a post-exponential phase in vitro culture. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the exponential phase and post-exponential phase to identify candidates associated with L. pneumophila virulence using 2-Dimentional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
2010: PloS One
Yoshihito Fujinami, Hitomi S Kikkawa, Yohei Kurosaki, Koichi Sakurada, Mineo Yoshino, Jiro Yasuda
Molecular typing is an important tool in the surveillance and investigation of human Legionella infection outbreaks. In this study, two molecular typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), were used to discriminate 23 Legionella pneumophila strains. The usefulness of MALDI-TOF-MS was demonstrated. The MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprinting with filtered small acid-soluble molecules gave different molecular profiles among strains, and the clustal analysis with MALDI-TOF-MS showed a high discrimination of strains the same as that with PFGE...
February 20, 2011: Microbiological Research
Xaviera Pennanec, Alain Dufour, Dominique Haras, Karine Réhel
Concerns with water quality have increased in recent years, in part due to the more frequent contamination of water by pathogens like E. coli and L. pneumophila. Current methods for the typing of bacteria in water samples are based on culture of samples on specific media. These techniques are time-consuming, subject to the impact of interferents and do not totally meet all the requirements of prevention. There is a need for accurate and rapid identification of these microorganisms. This report deals with the detection of bacteria, more precisely of Legionella spp...
February 2010: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Claire Moliner, Christophe Ginevra, Sophie Jarraud, Christophe Flaudrops, Marielle Bedotto, Carine Couderc, Jerome Etienne, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Legionella species are facultative, intracellular bacteria that infect macrophages and protozoa, with the latter acting as transmission vectors to humans. These fastidious bacteria mostly cause pulmonary tract infections and are routinely identified by various molecular methods, mainly PCR targeting the mip gene and sequencing, which are expensive and time-consuming. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has emerged as a rapid and inexpensive method for identification of bacterial species...
March 2010: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Olga Shevchuk, Christoph Batzilla, Sonja Hägele, Harald Kusch, Susanne Engelmann, Michael Hecker, Albert Haas, Klaus Heuner, Gernot Glöckner, Michael Steinert
Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly within specialized phagosomes of human macrophages and amoebae. In this study, we have developed a protocol for the isolation of Legionella-containing phagosomes from Dictyostelium discoideum. Cell fractionation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS combined with genomic data identified 157 phagosome host proteins. In addition to proteins with an evident role in phagosome maturation, we identified proteins for which a function remains to be elucidated...
November 2009: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
O Kooistra, E Lüneberg, B Lindner, Y A Knirel, M Frosch, U Zähringer
A putative gene encoding an O-acetyl transferase, lag-1, is involved in biosynthesis of the O-polysaccharide (polylegionaminic acid) in some Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. To study the effect of the presence and absence of the gene on the O-polysaccharide O-acetylation, lag-1 from strain Philadelphia 1 was expressed in trans in the naturally lag-1-negative OLDA strain RC1, and immunoblot analysis revealed that the lag-1-encoded O-acetyl transferase is active. O-Polysaccharides of different size were prepared from the lipopolysaccharides of wild-type and transformant strains by mild acid degradation followed by gel-permeation chromatography...
June 26, 2001: Biochemistry
G B Hurst, M J Doktycz, A A Vass, M V Buchanan
Accurate monitoring and identification of Legionella species, the causative agents of Legionnaires' and other diseases, in environmental water sources is an important public health issue. Traditional culture methods often lack the sensitivity and specificity that can be attained using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify targeted regions of the bacterial genome. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization combined with time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is shown to be useful for detection of 108- and 168-base PCR products specific to Legionella...
1996: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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