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Drug addiction, schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440730/analyzing-the-genes-related-to-nicotine-addiction-or-schizophrenia-via-a-pathway-and-network-based-approach
#1
Ying Hu, Zhonghai Fang, Yichen Yang, Dekai Rohlsen-Neal, Feng Cheng, Ju Wang
The prevalence of tobacco use in people with schizophrenia is much higher than in general population, which indicates a close relationship between nicotine addiction and schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the high comorbidity of tobacco smoking and schizophrenia remains largely unclear. In this study, we conducted a pathway and network analysis on the genes potentially associated with nicotine addiction or schizophrenia to reveal the functional feature of these genes and their interactions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357198/inactivation-of-nucleus-reuniens-impairs-spatial-working-memory-and-behavioral-flexibility-in-the-rat
#2
Tatiana D Viena, Stephanie B Linley, Robert P Vertes
The hippocampal formation (HF) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) play critical roles in spatial working memory (SWM). The nucleus reuniens (RE) of the ventral midline thalamus is an important anatomical link between the HF and mPFC, and as such is crucially involved SWM functions that recruit both structures. Little is known, however, regarding the role of RE in other behaviors mediated by this circuit. In the present study, we examined the role of RE in spatial working memory and executive functioning following reversible inactivation of RE with either muscimol or procaine...
January 22, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352477/benzodiazepines-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#3
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Paranthaman S Bhoopathi, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment. However, benzodiazepines are very addictive. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other chronic mental illnesses...
January 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338492/genetic-variation-of-gria3-gene-is-associated-with-vulnerability-to-methamphetamine-dependence-and-its-associated-psychosis
#4
Sri-Arun Iamjan, Samur Thanoi, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug commonly leading to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Disturbances in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been proposed as neurobiological mechanisms and the α-amino-3 hydroxy-5 methyl-4 isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor has been implicated in these processes. Moreover, genetic variants in GRIAs, genes encoding AMPA receptor subunits, have been observed in association with both drug dependence and psychosis. We hypothesized that variation of GRIA genes may be associated with METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315577/bidirectional-variation-in-glutamate-efflux-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-selective-positive-and-negative-allosteric-mglur5-modulators
#5
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Dysregulation of prefrontal cortical glutamatergic signalling via NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and impaired inhibitory control in such neuropsychiatric disorders as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Although NMDA receptors functionally interact with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), the consequence of this interaction for glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation on changes in extracellular glutamate efflux in the medial PFC (mPFC) induced by systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (or MK801) in rats...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301614/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-2-and-3-as-targets-for-treating-nicotine-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Alan J Cross, Robert Anthenelli, Xia Li
Tobacco smoking, driven by the addictive properties of nicotine, continues to be a worldwide health problem. Based on the well-established role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in drug addiction, novel medication development strategies seek to halt nicotine consumption and prevent relapse to tobacco smoking by modulating glutamate transmission. The presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) are key autoreceptors on glutamatergic terminals that maintain glutamate homeostasis...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214080/hint1-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases-a-potential-neuroplastic-mediator
#7
REVIEW
Peng Liu, Zhongwei Liu, Jiabei Wang, Xiancang Ma, Yonghui Dang
Although many studies have investigated the functions of histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), its roles in neurobiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. As a member of the histidine triad (HIT) enzyme superfamily, HINT1 is distributed in almost every organ and has both enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity. Accumulating clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that HINT1 may play an important role as a neuroplastic mediator in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, inherited peripheral neuropathies, mood disorders, and drug addiction...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168271/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-co-agonist-availability-affects-behavioral-and-neurochemical-responses-to-cocaine-insights-into-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse
#8
Matthew D Puhl, Rajeev I Desai, Shunsuke Takagi, Kendall T Presti, Michelle R Doyle, Rachel J Donahue, Samantha M Landino, Jack Bergman, William A Carlezon, Joseph T Coyle
Both schizophrenia (SZ) and substance abuse (SA) exhibit significant heritability. Moreover, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both SZ and SA. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of comorbid SA in SZ is due to dysfunction of NMDARs caused by shared risk genes. We used transgenic mice with a null mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine and an established risk gene for SZ, to recreate the pathology of SZ...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#9
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131734/yoga-therapy-in-japan
#10
Keishin Kimura
This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health...
November 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#11
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125116/emerging-roles-of-histidine-triad-nucleotide-binding-protein-1-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#12
Yong-Hui Dang, Zhong-Wei Liu, Peng Liu, Jia-Bei Wang
The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1(HINT1),which belongs to the histidine triad(HIT) enzyme superfamily,exerts its enzymic activities as hydrolase or transferase. Its physiological functions are still unclear. HINT1 protein is expressed in various tissues and plays an important role in transcription and signal transduction. Earlier studies have identified HINT1 as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor. Other evidences indicate that HINT1 is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes,some of which are irrelevant with its basic enzymic activities...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071300/dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-paraventricular-thalamus-attenuate-cocaine-locomotor-sensitization
#13
Abigail M Clark, Felix Leroy, Kelly M Martyniuk, Wendy Feng, Erika McManus, Matthew R Bailey, Jonathan A Javitch, Peter D Balsam, Christoph Kellendonk
Alterations in thalamic dopamine (DA) or DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) have been measured in drug addiction and schizophrenia, but the relevance of thalamic D2Rs for behavior is largely unknown. Using in situ hybridization and mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the Drd2 promoter, we found that D2R expression within the thalamus is enriched in the paraventricular nucleus (PVT) as well as in more ventral midline thalamic nuclei. Within the PVT, D2Rs are inhibitory as their activation inhibits neuronal action potentials in brain slices...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061151/comparison-of-health-related-quality-of-life-among-men-with-different-co-existing-severe-mental-disorders-in-treatment-for-substance-use
#14
Ana Adan, Julia E Marquez-Arrico, Gail Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Patient-perceived health-related quality of life has become an important outcome in health care as an indicator of treatment effectiveness and recovery for patients with substance use disorder. As no study has assessed health-related quality of life among male patients with substance use disorder and co-existing severe mental illness, we compared health-related quality of life among patients with substance use disorder and the following severe mental illness diagnosis in Barcelona, Spain: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and examined the associations with clinically related variables...
October 23, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989099/astroglial-correlates-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-from-astrocytopathy-to-astrogliosis
#15
REVIEW
Ronald Kim, Kati L Healey, Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kathryn J Reissner
Complex roles for astrocytes in health and disease continue to emerge, highlighting this class of cells as integral to function and dysfunction of the nervous system. In particular, escalating evidence strongly implicates a range of changes in astrocyte structure and function associated with neuropsychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These changes can range from astrocytopathy, degeneration, and loss of function, to astrogliosis and hypertrophy, and can be either adaptive or maladaptive...
October 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766989/sixty-years-in-psychiatry
#16
John Bradley
The author, who has spent over 60 years working in a variety of mental health settings, shares his personal perspective of the way psychiatry has evolved. Treatments, both physical and psychological, have come and some have been discarded. There have been radical changes in the delivery of care, from the 2000-bed Victorian asylum to community care, and the on the whole beneficial impact of legislation such as mental health Acts and Acts dealing with suicide, abortion and sexual offences. His experience has warned him of the folly of overenthusiasm for some treatments - such as deep insulin for schizophrenia, psycho surgery, and even classical psychoanalysis which can become as addictive as any drug or a promise of salvation as convincing as a religion...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763261/yoga-therapy-in-japan
#17
By Keishin Kimura
This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757154/the-central-serotonin2b-receptor-as-a-new-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-dopamine-related-neuropsychiatric-disorders-rationale-and-current-status-of-research
#18
REVIEW
Céline Devroye, Adeline Cathala, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Umberto Spampinato
The serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR), which was first cloned and characterized in the rat stomach fundus, is the most recent addition to the 5-HT2R family. While its involvement in the regulation of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and cardiac physiology has been widely investigated, its functional role within the central nervous system (CNS) has received much less attention. Nevertheless, when considering the data available in the literature with regards to the regulatory control exerted by the central 5-HT2BR on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity, a very interesting picture emerges and highlights the key role of these receptors for future therapeutic strategies of DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders...
July 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723415/pharmacology-of-human-trace-amine-associated-receptors-therapeutic-opportunities-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Mark D Berry, Raul R Gainetdinov, Marius C Hoener, Mohammed Shahid
The discovery in 2001 of a G protein-coupled receptor family, subsequently termed trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), triggered a resurgence of interest in so-called trace amines. Initial optimism quickly faded, however, as the TAAR family presented a series of challenges preventing the use of standard medicinal chemistry and pharmacology technologies. Consequently the development of basic tools for probing TAAR and translating findings from model systems to humans has been problematic. Despite these challenges the last 5years have seen considerable advances, in particular with respect to TAAR1, which appears to function as an endogenous rheostat, maintaining central neurotransmission within defined physiological limits, in part through receptor heterodimerization yielding biased signaling outputs...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710498/gene-network-dysregulation-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-of-humans-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#20
Efrain A Ribeiro, Joseph R Scarpa, Susanna P Garamszegi, Andrew Kasarskis, Deborah C Mash, Eric J Nestler
Metabolic and functional alterations of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are thought to contribute to impulsivity, which is a hallmark of addictive behaviors that underlie compulsive drug seeking and taking in humans. To determine if there is a transcriptional signature in dlPFC neurons of humans with cocaine use disorder, we performed total RNA-sequencing on neuronal nuclei isolated from post-mortem dlPFC of cocaine addicts and healthy controls. Our results point toward a transcriptional mechanism whereby cocaine alters specific gene networks in dlPFC neurons...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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