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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866120/evidence-based-guidelines-on-the-therapeutic-use-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Andrea Antal, Samar S Ayache, David H Benninger, Jérôme Brunelin, Filippo Cogiamanian, Maria Cotelli, Dirk De Ridder, Roberta Ferrucci, Berthold Langguth, Paola Marangolo, Veit Mylius, Michael A Nitsche, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm, Emmanuel Poulet, Alberto Priori, Simone Rossi, Martin Schecklmann, Sven Vanneste, Ulf Ziemann, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Walter Paulus
A group of European experts was commissioned by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology to gather knowledge about the state of the art of the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from studies published up until September 2016, regarding pain, Parkinson's disease, other movement disorders, motor stroke, poststroke aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, depression, schizophrenia, and craving/addiction...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847228/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-neuroimaging-in-schizophrenia
#2
Funda Akkus, Valerie Treyer, Simon M Ametamey, Anass Johayem, Alfred Buck, Gregor Hasler
The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is a promising drug target for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this study, we compared mGluR5 distribution volume ration (DVR) in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Given our previous findings, we matched samples for gender, age, and smoking status. Binding to mGluR5 was determined using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high selectivity. DVR in the 15 individuals with schizophrenia did not differ from that of the 15 controls...
November 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621706/evaluation-of-two-commercially-available-cannabidiol-formulations-for-use-in-electronic-cigarettes
#3
Michelle R Peace, Karen E Butler, Carl E Wolf, Justin L Poklis, Alphonse Poklis
Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600596/the-dopamine-d3-receptor-a-quarter-century-later
#4
Pierre Sokoloff, Bernard Le Foll
This review updates the existing knowledge suggesting a role for the D3 receptor in schizophrenia and drug addiction. The D3 receptor is expressed in brain regions controlling reward, emotions, and motivation. Antipsychotics bind in vitro to the D3 receptor with similar affinity as to the D2 receptor, and occupancy of D3 receptors in vivo by these compounds given acutely at clinical dosage have been demonstrated in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. The D3 receptor modulates glutamatergic pathways from the prefrontal cortex to subcortical areas, either directly by interacting with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the nucleus accumbens, or indirectly by controlling dopamine release from ventral tegmental area neurons...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528587/rgs2-modulates-the-activity-and-internalization-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-neuroblastoma-n2a-cells
#5
Deborah J Luessen, Tyler P Hinshaw, Haiguo Sun, Allyn C Howlett, Glen Marrs, Brian A McCool, Rong Chen
Dysregulated expression and function of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) are implicated in drug addiction, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. In the current study, we examined whether D2Rs are modulated by regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2), a member of the RGS family that regulates G protein signaling via acceleration of GTPase activity. Using neuroblastoma 2a (N2A) cells, we found that RGS2 was immunoprecipitated by aluminum fluoride-activated Gαi2 proteins. RGS2 siRNA knockdown enhanced membrane [(35)S] GTPγS binding to activated Gαi/o proteins, augmented inhibition of cAMP accumulation and increased ERK phosphorylation in the presence of a D2/D3R agonist quinpirole when compared to scrambled siRNA treatment...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372868/chemogenetic-approach-to-model-hypofrontality
#6
Ike Dela Peña, Wei-Xing Shi
Clinical evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is hypofunctional in disorders including schizophrenia, drug addiction, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, hypofrontality has been further suggested to cause both the negative and cognitive symptoms, and overactivity of dopamine neurons that project to subcortical areas. The latter may contribute to the development of positive symptoms of the disorder. Nevertheless, what causes hypofrontality and how it alters dopamine transmission in subcortical structures remain unclear due, in part, to the difficulty in modeling hypofrontality using previous techniques (e...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343365/current-drug-treatments-targeting-dopamine-d3-receptor
#7
Gian Marco Leggio, Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Salvatore Salomone, Filippo Drago
Dopamine receptors (DR) have been extensively studied, but only in recent years they became object of investigation to elucidate the specific role of different subtypes (D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R, D5R) in neural transmission and circuitry. D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D2R and D4R) differ in signal transduction, binding profile, localization in the central nervous system and physiological effects. D3R is involved in a number of pathological conditions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, addiction, anxiety, depression and glaucoma...
September 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317860/lipids-in-psychiatric-disorders-and-preventive-medicine
#8
Miriam Schneider, Beth Levant, Martin Reichel, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity...
June 16, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303609/neurofeedback-a-comprehensive-review-on-system-design-methodology-and-clinical-applications
#9
Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, Marjan Mansourian
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269905/african-specific-variability-in-the-acetylcholine-muscarinic-receptor-m4-association-with-cocaine-and-heroin-addiction
#10
Orna Levran, Matthew Randesi, Einat Peles, Joel Correa da Rosa, Jurg Ott, John Rotrosen, Miriam Adelson, Mary Jeanne Kreek
AIM: This study was designed to determine whether polymorphisms in acetylcholine receptors contribute to opioid dependence and/or cocaine dependence. PATIENTS & METHODS: The sample (n = 1860) was divided by drug and ancestry, and 55 polymorphisms (nine genes) were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 20 SNPs that showed nominally significant associations, the association of the African-specific CHRM4 SNP rs2229163 (Asn417=) with cocaine dependence survived correction for multiple testing (Pcorrected = 0...
June 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266391/distinct-alterations-in-motor-reward-seeking-behavior-are-dependent-on-the-gestational-age-of-exposure-to-lps-induced-maternal-immune-activation
#11
Megan E Straley, Wesley Van Oeffelen, Sarah Theze, Aideen M Sullivan, Siobhain M O'Mahony, John F Cryan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
The dopaminergic system is involved in motivation, reward and the associated motor activities. Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate motivation and reward, whereas those in the substantia nigra (SN) are essential for motor control. Defective VTA dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in schizophrenia, drug addiction and depression whereas dopaminergic neurons in the SN are lost in Parkinson's disease. Maternal immune activation (MIA) leading to in utero inflammation has been proposed to be a risk factor for these disorders, yet it is unclear how this stimulus can lead to the diverse disturbances in dopaminergic-driven behaviors that emerge at different stages of life in affected offspring...
June 3, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223864/reactivity-to-addictive-drugs-in-the-methylazoxymethanol-mam-model-of-schizophrenia-in-male-and-female-rats
#12
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Petra Amchova, Tibor Stark, Filippo Drago, Alexandra Sulcova, Vincenzo Micale
OBJECTIVES: Patients with schizophrenia suffer comorbid substance abuse regardless of gender. However, the vast majority of studies are only conducted in male subjects. Therefore, the aim of these experiments is to assess addictive behaviors of both sexes in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure. METHODS: MAM was administered intraperitoneally (22 mg/kg on gestational day 17). Two studies were performed in the offspring: (1) alcohol drinking procedure to assess daily intake of 20% alcohol and relapse-like behavior after a period of forced abstinence...
May 25, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206718/diversity-matters-heterogeneity-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-mesencephalon-and-its-relation-to-parkinson-s-disease
#13
D M Vogt Weisenhorn, F Giesert, W Wurst
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon (= the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex) are known for their role in a multitude of behaviors, including cognition, reward, addiction and voluntary movement. Dysfunctions of these neurons are the underlying cause of various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, addiction and schizophrenia. In addition, Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common degenerative disease in developed countries, is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, leading to the core motor symptoms of the disease...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145766/dimensional-psychiatry-mental-disorders-as-dysfunctions-of-basic-learning-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf, Anne Beck, Carolin Wackerhagen
It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109962/liver-transplantation-and-abuse-of-drugs-and-alcohol-a-correlation-between-scales-of-the-mmpi-2
#15
M Rocco, G Prinzi, E Campagna, T Battaglia, T Barucco, S Polchi, A Kisialiou, M Colasanti, E Felli, P Lepiane, R Santoro, G Vennarecci, G M Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice requires an accurate psychological assessment of subjects with clinical history of alcohol abuse and/or substance abuse (abuse history [AH]) for therapeutic choice. This study aims to identify significant correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 scales in patients awaiting liver transplantation. METHODS: We evaluated a personality questionnaire containing MMPI-2 scales in the sample of 308 patients (81...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079641/prefrontal-cortical-neuregulin-erbb-modulation-of-inhibitory-control-in-rats
#16
Maarten Loos, Dustin Schetters, Myrthe Hoogeland, Sabine Spijker, Taco J de Vries, Tommy Pattij
Impulse control disturbances are key features of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. Whereas over the last years accumulating evidence has highlighted monoaminergic modulation of the processes underlying impulse control, investigating novel mechanisms beyond monoamines may provide new intervention strategies to ameliorate impulse control disturbances. Recent work has associated the neuregulin (Nrg)-ErbB pathway with several neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as indicated its involvement in murine measures of impulse control...
June 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048272/inhibitors-of-glycine-transporter-1-potential-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-cns-disorders
#17
Christopher L Cioffi, Peter R Guzzo
Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses and as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, where it facilitates neuronal excitation. Two high-affinity and substrate selective transporters, glycine transporter-1 and glycine transporter-2 (GlyT-1 and GlyT-2), regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS and as such, play critical roles in maintaining a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. GlyT-1 inhibition has been extensively examined as a potential means by which to treat several CNS disorders that include schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013075/serotonergic-modulation-of-the-activity-of-mesencephalic-dopaminergic-systems-therapeutic-implications
#18
Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Since their discovery in the mammalian brain, it has been apparent that serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) interactions play a key role in normal and abnormal behavior. Therefore, disclosure of this interaction could reveal important insights into the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, depression and drug addiction or neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome. Unfortunately, this interaction remains difficult to study for many reasons, including the rich and widespread innervations of 5-HT and DA in the brain, the plethora of 5-HT receptors and the release of co-transmitters by 5-HT and DA neurons...
March 21, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972290/neuroinflammation-a-therapeutic-target-of-cotinine-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders
#19
Valentina Echeverria, J Alex Grizzell, George E Barreto
Neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of several mental health conditions such as major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ). Inflammatory processes trigger and/or further deteriorate mental functions and are regarded as targets for therapeutic drug development. Cotinine is an alkaloid present in tobacco leaves and the main metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is safe, non-addictive and has pharmacokinetic properties adequate for therapeutic use. Research has shown that cotinine has antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties and modulates the serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944284/a-tale-of-the-good-and-bad-remodeling-of-the-microtubule-network-in-the-brain-by-cdk5
#20
Kavita Shah, Debomoy K Lahiri
Cdk5, a cyclin-dependent kinase family member, is a global orchestrator of neuronal cytoskeletal dynamics. During embryogenesis, Cdk5 is indispensable for brain development. In adults, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes, including higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation, drug addiction, pain signaling, and long-term behavior changes through long-term potentiation and long-term depression, all of which rely on rapid alterations in the cytoskeleton. Cdk5 activity becomes deregulated in various brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and ischemic stroke; these all result in profound remodeling of the neuronal cytoskeleton...
March 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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