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Drug addiction, schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888304/early-life-adversity-facilitates-acquisition-of-cocaine-self-administration-and-induces-persistent-anhedonia
#1
Jessica L Bolton, Christina M Ruiz, Neggy Rismanchi, Gissell A Sanchez, Erik Castillo, Jeff Huang, Christopher Cross, Tallie Z Baram, Stephen V Mahler
Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN). Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884164/using-niatx-strategies-to-implement-integrated-services-in-routine-care-a-study-protocol
#2
James H Ford, Eric L Osborne, Mehret T Assefa, Amy M McIlvaine, Ahney M King, Kevin Campbell, Mark P McGovern
BACKGROUND: Access to integrated services for individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders is a long-standing public health issue. Receiving integrated treatment services are both more effective and preferred by patients and families versus parallel or fragmented care. National policy statements and expert consensus guidelines underscore the benefits of integrated treatment. Despite decades of awareness, adequate treatment for individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders occurs infrequently...
June 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800604/blockade-and-reversal-of-swimming-induced-paralysis-in-c-elegans-by-the-antipsychotic-and-d2-type-dopamine-receptor-antagonist-azaperone
#3
Osama Refai, Randy D Blakely
The catecholamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) exerts powerful modulatory control of physiology and behavior across phylogeny. Perturbations of DA signaling in humans are associated with multiple neurodegenerative and behavioral disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction and schizophrenia. In the nematode C. elegans, DA signaling regulates mating behavior, learning, food seeking and locomotion. Previously, we demonstrated that loss of function mutations in the dat-1 gene that encodes the presynaptic DA transporter (DAT-1) results in a rapid cessation of movement when animals are placed in water, termed Swimming Induced Paralysis (Swip)...
May 22, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680151/vmat2-inhibitors-and-the-path-to-ingrezza-valbenazine
#4
Nicole D Harriott, John P Williams, Evan B Smith, Haig P Bozigian, Dimitri E Grigoriadis
The dopaminergic system plays a key role in the central nervous system, regulating executive function, arousal, reward, and motor control. Dysregulation of this critical monoaminergic system has been associated with diseases of the central nervous system including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and addiction. Drugs that modify the dopaminergic system by modulating the activity of dopamine have been successful in demonstrating clinical efficacy by providing treatments for these diseases...
2018: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674240/the-impact-of-antipsychotics-as-a-risk-factor-for-thromboembolism
#5
REVIEW
Ewa A Ogłodek, Marek J Just, Anna D Grzesińska, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Adam R Szromek
Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed toward developing cardiovascular disease. Although neuroleptics affect the cardiovascular system, it is also important to consider the consequences of the disease itself such as lower physical activity due to living on disability pension, inadequate nutrition, and/or nicotine addiction, being more common among patients with schizophrenia versus the general population. All these factors combined lead to an increased risk of death caused by cardiovascular conditions in schizophrenic patients...
June 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668421/factors-associated-with-unplanned-early-discharges-from-a-dual-diagnosis-inpatient-detoxification-unit-in-israel
#6
Menachem M Sofer, Alexander Kaptsan, Jonathan Anson
OBJECTIVES: Currently, Israel has a single governmental inpatient dual diagnosis detoxification unit. We provide a cross-section of patient profiles in this study as well as explore possible associations between clinical/demographic factors and the unplanned early discharge of patients from the unit, aiming at improving rehabilitation success rates. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients admitted to the unit between January 1, 2012, and July 1, 2013, were examined (N = 323)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602521/animal-models-of-addiction-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-and-their-role-in-drug-discovery-honoring-the-legacy-of-athina-markou
#7
REVIEW
Paul J Kenny, Daniel Hoyer, George F Koob
Each of the co-authors worked with Athina Markou, at different stages of our careers and in different capacities, to develop, optimize, and use animal models of drug addiction and, more generally, mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Here, we briefly summarize some of our work with Athina, primarily involving the use of the intracranial self-stimulation and intravenous drug self-administration procedures. This work established that excessive consumption of addictive drugs can induce profound dysfunction in brain reward circuits...
June 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559947/tobacco-use-decreases-visual-sensitivity-in-schizophrenia
#8
Thiago M P Fernandes, Michael J Oliveira de Andrade, Jessica B Santana, Renata M Toscano Barreto Lyra Nogueira, Natanael A Dos Santos
Smoking prevalence in patients who are diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) is higher than in the general population. Chronic tobacco use in SCZ patients may reduce the side effects of antipsychotic drugs, thus serving as a self-medication for such side effects. Understanding the ways in which chronic tobacco use influences visual sensitivity has clinical implications, which may serve as a tool for non-invasively diagnosing early-stage visual processing deficits. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic tobacco use on visual sensitivity in SCZ patients...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466326/structure-of-the-d2-dopamine-receptor-bound-to-the-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone
#9
Sheng Wang, Tao Che, Anat Levit, Brian K Shoichet, Daniel Wacker, Bryan L Roth
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has been implicated in processes as diverse as reward, addiction, control of coordinated movement, metabolism and hormonal secretion. Correspondingly, dysregulation of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and nausea and vomiting. The actions of dopamine are mediated by a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors. The D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) is the primary target for both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs, and for drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease...
March 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440730/analyzing-the-genes-related-to-nicotine-addiction-or-schizophrenia-via-a-pathway-and-network-based-approach
#10
Ying Hu, Zhonghai Fang, Yichen Yang, Dekai Rohlsen-Neal, Feng Cheng, Ju Wang
The prevalence of tobacco use in people with schizophrenia is much higher than in general population, which indicates a close relationship between nicotine addiction and schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the high comorbidity of tobacco smoking and schizophrenia remains largely unclear. In this study, we conducted a pathway and network analysis on the genes potentially associated with nicotine addiction or schizophrenia to reveal the functional feature of these genes and their interactions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357198/inactivation-of-nucleus-reuniens-impairs-spatial-working-memory-and-behavioral-flexibility-in-the-rat
#11
Tatiana D Viena, Stephanie B Linley, Robert P Vertes
The hippocampal formation (HF) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) play critical roles in spatial working memory (SWM). The nucleus reuniens (RE) of the ventral midline thalamus is an important anatomical link between the HF and mPFC, and as such is crucially involved in SWM functions that recruit both structures. Little is known, however, regarding the role of RE in other behaviors mediated by this circuit. In the present study, we examined the role of RE in spatial working memory and executive functioning following reversible inactivation of RE with either muscimol or procaine...
April 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352477/benzodiazepines-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#12
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Paranthaman S Bhoopathi, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment. However, benzodiazepines are very addictive. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other chronic mental illnesses...
January 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338492/genetic-variation-of-gria3-gene-is-associated-with-vulnerability-to-methamphetamine-dependence-and-its-associated-psychosis
#13
Sri-Arun Iamjan, Samur Thanoi, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug commonly leading to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Disturbances in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been proposed as neurobiological mechanisms and the α-amino-3 hydroxy-5 methyl-4 isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor has been implicated in these processes. Moreover, genetic variants in GRIAs, genes encoding AMPA receptor subunits, have been observed in association with both drug dependence and psychosis. We hypothesized that variation of GRIA genes may be associated with METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis...
March 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315577/bidirectional-variation-in-glutamate-efflux-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-selective-positive-and-negative-allosteric-mglur5-modulators
#14
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Dysregulation of prefrontal cortical glutamatergic signalling via NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and impaired inhibitory control in such neuropsychiatric disorders as schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Although NMDA receptors functionally interact with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), the consequence of this interaction for glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation on changes in extracellular glutamate efflux in the medial PFC (mPFC) induced by systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (or MK801) in rats...
April 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301614/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-2-and-3-as-targets-for-treating-nicotine-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Alan J Cross, Robert Anthenelli, Xia Li
Tobacco smoking, driven by the addictive properties of nicotine, continues to be a worldwide health problem. Based on the well-established role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in drug addiction, novel medication development strategies seek to halt nicotine consumption and prevent relapse to tobacco smoking by modulating glutamate transmission. The presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) are key autoreceptors on glutamatergic terminals that maintain glutamate homeostasis...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214080/hint1-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases-a-potential-neuroplastic-mediator
#16
REVIEW
Peng Liu, Zhongwei Liu, Jiabei Wang, Xiancang Ma, Yonghui Dang
Although many studies have investigated the functions of histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), its roles in neurobiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. As a member of the histidine triad (HIT) enzyme superfamily, HINT1 is distributed in almost every organ and has both enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity. Accumulating clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that HINT1 may play an important role as a neuroplastic mediator in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, inherited peripheral neuropathies, mood disorders, and drug addiction...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168271/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-co-agonist-availability-affects-behavioral-and-neurochemical-responses-to-cocaine-insights-into-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse
#17
Matthew D Puhl, Rajeev I Desai, Shunsuke Takagi, Kendall T Presti, Michelle R Doyle, Rachel J Donahue, Samantha M Landino, Jack Bergman, William A Carlezon, Joseph T Coyle
Both schizophrenia (SZ) and substance abuse (SA) exhibit significant heritability. Moreover, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both SZ and SA. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of comorbid SA in SZ is due to dysfunction of NMDARs caused by shared risk genes. We used transgenic mice with a null mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine and an established risk gene for SZ, to recreate the pathology of SZ...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#18
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
January 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131734/yoga-therapy-in-japan
#19
Keishin Kimura
This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health...
November 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#20
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
December 2017: L'Encéphale
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