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A Nowakiewicz, G Ziółkowska, A Trościańczyk, P Zięba, S Gnat
The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from poultry and to carry out genotypic characterization thereof with the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method (amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites) and analysis of the genetic relatedness between the isolates with different resistance and virulence determinants. Samples were collected from 70 4-week-old chickens and tested for Enterococcus Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 11 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
N B Petrov, I P Vladychenskaya, A L Drozdov, O S Kedrova
A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of several echinoderm species was sequenced. The isolates were from three species of starfish from the Asteriidae family (Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica collected in the Sea of Japan and Asterias rubens collected in the White Sea) and from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (family Loveniidae) collected in the Sea of Japan. Additionally, regions including internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) were sequenced for the three studied starfish species...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Reza Mirnejad, Nikta Sajjadi, Sara Masoumi Zavaryani, Vahhab Piranfar, Maryam Hajihosseini, Maliheh Roshanfekr
Early detection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci is an important part of patient treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance patterns and simultaneously identify and characterise the resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. using a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all, 150 consecutive Enterococcus spp were collected from several hospitals in Tehran (Iran) from January to December 2015. The Enterococcus species were identified by standard phenotypic/biochemical tests and PCR...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Hannu Pöysä, Kaisa Jalava, Antti Paasivaara
The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests...
December 2016: Oecologia
Tingting Meng, Jingwen Liu, Lijuan Wen, Ming Yuan, Bolin Cheng, Yingwen Hu, Yun Zhu, Xuan Liu, Hong Yuan, Fuqiang Hu
Multi-cycle chemotherapy is commonly used in the clinic, while the phenomena of enrichment of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and enhanced multi-drug resistance (MDR) are commonly involved. This research was designed for evaluating this successive administration. Chitosan oligosaccharide-g-stearic acid (CSOSA) polymer was used as the drug delivery system (DDS) to perform tri-cycle chemotherapy on a new tumor model induced by mammosphere cells. In vitro, on CSCs enriched mammospheres model, the doxorubicin-loaded CSOSA (CSOSA/DOX) displayed an improved growth inhibition effect measured by acid phosphatase assay (APH)...
September 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Nadia Leban, Elise Kaplan, Laurent Chaloin, Sylvain Godreuil, Corinne Lionne
BACKGROUND: Bacterial antibiotic resistance often leads to treatment failure which may have serious consequences, especially in critically sick patients. Resistance to aminoglycosides is mainly due to the expression of antibiotic-modifying enzymes. One important mechanism of aminoglycoside modification is the ATP/GTP-dependent O-phosphorylation catalyzed by aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, APHs. The aim of this study is to identify specific inhibitors of APHs that could restore bacterial susceptibility to aminoglycosides...
September 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Emily Breeze, Natasha Dzimitrowicz, Verena Kriechbaumer, Rhiannon Brooks, Stanley W Botchway, Jacob P Brady, Chris Hawes, Ann M Dixon, Jason R Schnell, Mark D Fricker, Lorenzo Frigerio
Reticulons (RTNs) are a class of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that are capable of maintaining high membrane curvature, thus helping shape the ER membrane into tubules. The mechanism of action of RTNs is hypothesized to be a combination of wedging, resulting from the transmembrane topology of their conserved reticulon homology domain, and scaffolding, arising from the ability of RTNs to form low-mobility homo-oligomers within the membrane. We studied the plant RTN isoform RTN13, which has previously been shown to locate to ER tubules and the edges of ER cisternae and to induce constrictions in ER tubules when overexpressed, and identified a region in the C terminus containing a putative amphipathic helix (APH)...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Selina Y L Holbrook, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Aminoglycosides (AGs) are broad-spectrum antibiotics famous for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as mycobacteria. In the United States, the most prescribed AGs, including amikacin (AMK), gentamicin (GEN), and tobramycin (TOB), are vital components of the treatment for resistant bacterial infections. Arbekacin (ABK), a semisynthetic AG, is widely used for the treatment of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Asia...
October 11, 2016: Biochemistry
Raoudha Dziri, Carmen Lozano, Leila Ben Said, Ridha Bellaaj, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres, Naouel Klibi
INTRODUCTION: The role of the hospital environment as a reservoir of resistant bacteria in Tunisia has been poorly investigated; however, it could be responsible for the transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective was to study the prevalence of Enterococcus in the environment of a Tunisian hospital and the antibiotic resistance phenotype/genotype in recovered isolates, with special reference to vancomycin resistance. METHODOLOGY: A total of 300 samples were taken (March-June, 2013) and inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented or not supplemented with 8 µg/mL of vancomycin...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Na Sun, Yong Jun Wen, Shu Qin Zhang, Hong Wei Zhu, Li Guo, Feng Xue Wang, Qiang Chen, Hong Xia Ma, Shi Peng Cheng
There were 4 Acinetobacter lwoffii obtained from soil samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains to 16 antimicrobial agents was investigated using K-B method. Three isolates showed the multi-drug resistance. The presence of resistance genes and integrons was determined using PCR. The aadA1, aac(3')-IIc, aph(3')-VII, aac(6')-Ib, sul2, cat2, floR, and tet(K) genes were detected, respectively. Three class 1 integrons were obtained. The arr-3-aacA4 and blaPSE-1 gene cassette, which cause resistance to aminoglycoside and beta-lactamase antibiotics...
July 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
N Perumal, S Murugesan, P Krishnan
The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The presence of SCCmec types and AME genes, namely, aac (6')-Ie-aph (2''), aph (3')-IIIa and ant (4')-Ia was determined using two different multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The most encountered AME genes were aac (6')-Ie-aph (2'') (55...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Maria Julia Altube, Solange Mailen Selzer, Marcelo Alexandre de Farias, Rodrigo Villares Portugal, Maria Jose Morilla, Eder Lilia Romero
AIM: To increase the subcellular delivery of dexamethasone phosphate (DP) and stability to nebulization stress, pH-sensitive nanoliposomes (LpH) exhibiting archaeolipids, acting as ligands for scavenger receptors (pH-sensitive archaeosomes [ApH]), were prepared. MATERIALS & METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect of 0.18 mg DP/mg total lipid, 100-150 nm DP-containing ApH (dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine: Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar archaeolipids:cholesteryl hemisuccinate 4...
August 2016: Nanomedicine
Masanori Wakizaka, Takeshi Matsumoto, Ryota Tanaka, Ho-Chol Chang
Dehydrogenation of anhydrous methanol is of great importance, given its ubiquity as an intermediate for the production of a large number of industrial chemicals. Since dehydrogenation of methanol is an endothermic reaction, heterogeneous or homogeneous precious-metal-based catalysts and high temperatures are usually required for this reaction to proceed. Here we report the photochemical dehydrogenation of anhydrous methanol at room temperature catalysed by o-aminophenol (apH2), o-aminophenolate (apH(-)) and the non-precious metal complex trans-[Fe(II)(apH)2(MeOH)2]...
2016: Nature Communications
Cemil Kürekci, Sevda Pehlivanlar Önen, Mustafa Yipel, Özkan Aslantaş, Aycan Gündoğdu
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterococci in cheese samples and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance profiles as well as the associated resistance genes. A total of 139 enterococci were isolated from 99 cheese samples, the isolates were identified as E. faecalis (61.2%), E. faecium (15.1%), E. gallinarum (12.9%), E. durans (5.0%), E. casseliflavis (2.9%) and E. avium (2.9%). The most frequent antimicrobial resistance observed in enterococci isolates was to lincomycin (88...
2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
S A Lollai, M Ziccheddu, I Duprè, D Piras
AIMS: Mastitis causes economic losses and antimicrobials are frequently used for mastitis treatment. Antimicrobial resistance surveys are still rare in the ovine field and characterization of strains is important in order to acquire information about resistance and for optimization of therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial pathogens recovered in milk samples from mastitis-affected ewes were characterized for resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides, members of which are frequently used antimicrobials in small ruminants...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Huy X Ngo, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
In a recent issue of Structure, Caldwell et al. (2016) determined crystal structures of APH(2″)-Ia in complex with various combinations of aminoglycosides and nucleosides, which compellingly revealed that the catalytic activity of this resistance enzyme is regulated by a conformational change of the triphosphate of GTP, a mechanism previously unknown for antibiotic kinases.
July 6, 2016: Structure
Mohammad Z Abdelkareem, Mohamed Sayed, Noha A Hassuna, Mahmoud S Mahmoud, Sayed F Abdelwahab
The prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) infections among Egyptians with urinary tract infection (UTI), their antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance are under investigated. In this study, 300 urine samples were collected from UTI patients to identify E. faecalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents was tested. The presence of aac(6)-Ie-aph(2)Ia, erm(B) and mef(A/E) genes was examined by PCR. Fifty-seven (19%) isolates were identified as E. faecalis. All isolates were sensitive to teicoplanin and were completely resistant to nalidixic acid, cefotaxime and cefadroxil...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Iris Mangas, Jorge Estevez, Eugenio Vilanova, Tanos Celmar Costa França
Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are a large and diverse class of chemicals mainly used as pesticides and chemical weapons. People may be exposed to OPs in several occasions, which can produce several distinct neurotoxic effects depending on the dose, frequency of exposure, type of OP, and the host factors that influence susceptibility and sensitivity. These neurotoxic effects are mainly due to the interaction with enzyme targets involved in toxicological or detoxication pathways. In this work, the toxicological relevance of known OPs targets is reviewed...
June 13, 2016: Toxicology
Haiying Niu, Hui Yu, Tangping Hu, Gailin Tian, Lixia Zhang, Xiang Guo, Hai Hu, Zhanli Wang
This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Sonja M Molfenter
Acoustic Pharyngometry (APh) is a method for quantifying oropharyngeal tract configuration using sound wave reflection and is commonly used in diagnostics and research of sleep apnea. The standard preset output of APh (minimal cross-sectional area) has been established as reliable. However, by conducting post-processing measures on specific breathing tasks, APh data can also reveal oral length, oral volume, pharyngeal length, and pharyngeal volume. Given that these measures may have utility in dysphagia research, the reliability of these measures is unknown and is the focus of the current study...
August 2016: Dysphagia
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