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Ewa Szczuka, Lucyna Jabłońska, Adam Kaznowski
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15%), aminoglycosides aac(6')/aph(2'') (11%), aph (3')-IIIa (15%), ant(4')-Ia (19%) and MLSB erm(A) (4%), erm(B) (13%), erm(C) (41%), msr(A) (11%) antibiotics...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Vajihe Sheikhalizadeh, Alka Hasani, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Akbar Hasani, Reza Ghotaslou, Hamid Reza Goli
Therapeutic resistance towards most of the current treatment regime by Acinetobacter baumannii has reduced the prescribing antibiotic pattern and option is being re-shifted towards more toxic agents including aminoglycosides. The present investigation aimed at to study various mechanisms towards aminoglycoside non-susceptibility in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The bacteria were subjected to genetic basis assessment for the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME), 16S rRNA methylase encoding genes and relative expression of AdeABC and AbeM efflux pumps in relation to their susceptibility to five aminoglycosides...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Steven E Fiester, Brock A Arivett, Robert E Schmidt, Amber C Beckett, Tomislav Ticak, Mary V Carrier, Rajarshi Ghosh, Emily J Ohneck, Maeva L Metz, Marlo K Sellin Jeffries, Luis A Actis
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen that causes a wide range of infections including pneumonia, septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis and severe wound and urinary tract infections. Analysis of A. baumannii representative strains grown in Chelex 100-treated medium for hemolytic activity demonstrated that this pathogen is increasingly hemolytic to sheep, human and horse erythrocytes, which interestingly contain increasing amounts of phosphatidylcholine in their membranes. Bioinformatic, genetic and functional analyses of 19 A...
2016: PloS One
Iman Tabatabaei, Stephanie Ruf, Ralph Bock
A new selectable marker gene for stable transformation of the plastid genome was developed that is similarly efficient as the aadA, and produces no background of spontaneous resistance mutants. More than 25 years after its development for Chlamydomonas and tobacco, the transformation of the chloroplast genome still represents a challenging technology that is available only in a handful of species. The vast majority of chloroplast transformation experiments conducted thus far have relied on a single selectable marker gene, the spectinomycin resistance gene aadA...
November 17, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Schuyler C Nardelli, Michael S Twardowski
The relationship between absorption at 676 nm normalized to chlorophyll-a, i.e., specific absorption aph*(676), and various optical and environmental properties is examined in extensive data sets from Case I and Case II waters found globally to assess drivers of variability such as pigment packaging. A better understanding of this variability could lead to more accurate estimates of chlorophyll concentrations from in situ optical measurements that may be made autonomously. Values of aph*(676) ranged from 0...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
Seyed Mohsen Mahdiyoun, Hossein Kazemian, Mohammad Ahanjan, Hamidreza Houri, Mehdi Goudarzi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causative agents in community- and hospital-acquired infections. Aminoglycosides are powerful bactericidal drugs that are often used in combination with beta-lactams or glycopeptides to treat staphylococcal infections. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in hospitalized patients in Sari and Tehran, Iran...
August 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Anna Zadernowska, Łucja Łaniewska-Trokenheim
The objective of the study was to answer the question of whether the ready-to-eat meat products can pose indirect hazard for consumer health serving as reservoir of Enterococcus strains harboring tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides resistance genes. A total of 390 samples of ready-to-eat meat products were investigated. Enterococcus strains were found in 74.1% of the samples. A total of 302 strains were classified as: Enterococcus faecalis (48.7%), Enterococcus faecium (39.7%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
A Nowakiewicz, G Ziółkowska, A Trościańczyk, P Zięba, S Gnat
The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from poultry and to carry out genotypic characterization thereof with the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method (amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites) and analysis of the genetic relatedness between the isolates with different resistance and virulence determinants. Samples were collected from 70 4-week-old chickens and tested for Enterococcus Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 11 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
N B Petrov, I P Vladychenskaya, A L Drozdov, O S Kedrova
A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of several echinoderm species was sequenced. The isolates were from three species of starfish from the Asteriidae family (Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica collected in the Sea of Japan and Asterias rubens collected in the White Sea) and from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (family Loveniidae) collected in the Sea of Japan. Additionally, regions including internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) were sequenced for the three studied starfish species...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Reza Mirnejad, Nikta Sajjadi, Sara Masoumi Zavaryani, Vahhab Piranfar, Maryam Hajihosseini, Maliheh Roshanfekr
Early detection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci is an important part of patient treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance patterns and simultaneously identify and characterise the resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. using a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all, 150 consecutive Enterococcus spp were collected from several hospitals in Tehran (Iran) from January to December 2015. The Enterococcus species were identified by standard phenotypic/biochemical tests and PCR...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Hannu Pöysä, Kaisa Jalava, Antti Paasivaara
The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests...
December 2016: Oecologia
Tingting Meng, Jingwen Liu, Lijuan Wen, Ming Yuan, Bolin Cheng, Yingwen Hu, Yun Zhu, Xuan Liu, Hong Yuan, Fuqiang Hu
Multi-cycle chemotherapy is commonly used in the clinic, while the phenomena of enrichment of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and enhanced multi-drug resistance (MDR) are commonly involved. This research was designed for evaluating this successive administration. Chitosan oligosaccharide-g-stearic acid (CSOSA) polymer was used as the drug delivery system (DDS) to perform tri-cycle chemotherapy on a new tumor model induced by mammosphere cells. In vitro, on CSCs enriched mammospheres model, the doxorubicin-loaded CSOSA (CSOSA/DOX) displayed an improved growth inhibition effect measured by acid phosphatase assay (APH)...
September 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Nadia Leban, Elise Kaplan, Laurent Chaloin, Sylvain Godreuil, Corinne Lionne
BACKGROUND: Bacterial antibiotic resistance often leads to treatment failure which may have serious consequences, especially in critically sick patients. Resistance to aminoglycosides is mainly due to the expression of antibiotic-modifying enzymes. One important mechanism of aminoglycoside modification is the ATP/GTP-dependent O-phosphorylation catalyzed by aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, APHs. The aim of this study is to identify specific inhibitors of APHs that could restore bacterial susceptibility to aminoglycosides...
September 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Emily Breeze, Natasha Dzimitrowicz, Verena Kriechbaumer, Rhiannon Brooks, Stanley W Botchway, Jacob P Brady, Chris Hawes, Ann M Dixon, Jason R Schnell, Mark D Fricker, Lorenzo Frigerio
Reticulons (RTNs) are a class of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that are capable of maintaining high membrane curvature, thus helping shape the ER membrane into tubules. The mechanism of action of RTNs is hypothesized to be a combination of wedging, resulting from the transmembrane topology of their conserved reticulon homology domain, and scaffolding, arising from the ability of RTNs to form low-mobility homo-oligomers within the membrane. We studied the plant RTN isoform RTN13, which has previously been shown to locate to ER tubules and the edges of ER cisternae and to induce constrictions in ER tubules when overexpressed, and identified a region in the C terminus containing a putative amphipathic helix (APH)...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Selina Y L Holbrook, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Aminoglycosides (AGs) are broad-spectrum antibiotics famous for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as mycobacteria. In the United States, the most prescribed AGs, including amikacin (AMK), gentamicin (GEN), and tobramycin (TOB), are vital components of the treatment for resistant bacterial infections. Arbekacin (ABK), a semisynthetic AG, is widely used for the treatment of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Asia...
October 11, 2016: Biochemistry
Raoudha Dziri, Carmen Lozano, Leila Ben Said, Ridha Bellaaj, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres, Naouel Klibi
INTRODUCTION: The role of the hospital environment as a reservoir of resistant bacteria in Tunisia has been poorly investigated; however, it could be responsible for the transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective was to study the prevalence of Enterococcus in the environment of a Tunisian hospital and the antibiotic resistance phenotype/genotype in recovered isolates, with special reference to vancomycin resistance. METHODOLOGY: A total of 300 samples were taken (March-June, 2013) and inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented or not supplemented with 8 µg/mL of vancomycin...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Na Sun, Yong Jun Wen, Shu Qin Zhang, Hong Wei Zhu, Li Guo, Feng Xue Wang, Qiang Chen, Hong Xia Ma, Shi Peng Cheng
There were 4 Acinetobacter lwoffii obtained from soil samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains to 16 antimicrobial agents was investigated using K-B method. Three isolates showed the multi-drug resistance. The presence of resistance genes and integrons was determined using PCR. The aadA1, aac(3')-IIc, aph(3')-VII, aac(6')-Ib, sul2, cat2, floR, and tet(K) genes were detected, respectively. Three class 1 integrons were obtained. The arr-3-aacA4 and blaPSE-1 gene cassette, which cause resistance to aminoglycoside and beta-lactamase antibiotics...
July 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
N Perumal, S Murugesan, P Krishnan
The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The presence of SCCmec types and AME genes, namely, aac (6')-Ie-aph (2''), aph (3')-IIIa and ant (4')-Ia was determined using two different multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The most encountered AME genes were aac (6')-Ie-aph (2'') (55...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Maria Julia Altube, Solange Mailen Selzer, Marcelo Alexandre de Farias, Rodrigo Villares Portugal, Maria Jose Morilla, Eder Lilia Romero
AIM: To increase the subcellular delivery of dexamethasone phosphate (DP) and stability to nebulization stress, pH-sensitive nanoliposomes (LpH) exhibiting archaeolipids, acting as ligands for scavenger receptors (pH-sensitive archaeosomes [ApH]), were prepared. MATERIALS & METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect of 0.18 mg DP/mg total lipid, 100-150 nm DP-containing ApH (dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine: Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar archaeolipids:cholesteryl hemisuccinate 4...
August 2016: Nanomedicine
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