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Non celiac

Maria Teresa Bardella, Luca Elli, Francesca Ferretti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A new syndrome responding to gluten-free diet and defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity entered the spectrum of gluten-related disorders, together with celiac disease and wheat allergy. However, its definition, prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and follow up are still controversial. The purpose of the review is to summarize the evidence and problems emerging from the current literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct implication of gluten in the onset of symptoms is often unproved as a low fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols diet or other components of cereals as wheat amylase trypsin inhibitor could be similarly involved...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Francesco Esposito, Evelina Fasano, Gelsomina Scognamiglio, Antonio Nardone, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Pravin M Rathi, Vinay G Zanwar
There has been increasing interest in the entity "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity" in recent years which was first of its in 1980s. This "re-discovered" disorder is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms which occur after ingestion of gluten containing food. The number of such patients who neither have celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to benefit from gluten withdrawal is increasing substantially. However it still remains a controversial and its pathogenesis is not well understood...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Magdalena Lang, Roi Treister, Anne Louise Oaklander
Small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) causes non-specific symptoms including chronic pain, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and sweating complaints. Diagnosis is made from history and exam in patients with known risk factors such as diabetes, but objective test confirmation is recommended for patients without known risks. If tests confirm SFPN, and it is "initially idiopathic" (iiSFPN), screening for occult causes is indicated. This study's aim was to evaluate the 21 widely available, recommended blood tests to identify the most cost-effective ones and to learn about occult causes of iiSFPN...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Christian Barmeyer, Michael Schumann, Tim Meyer, Christina Zielinski, Torsten Zuberbier, Britta Siegmund, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Severin Daum, Reiner Ullrich
PURPOSE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common but therapies are unsatisfactory. Food is often suspected as cause by patients, but diagnostic procedures, apart from allergy testing, are limited. Based on the hypothesis of non-celiac wheat sensitivity (WS) in a subgroup of IBS patients, we tested the long-term response to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and investigated HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 expression as a diagnostic marker for WS in diarrhea-dominant (IBS-D) and mixed-type IBS (IBS-M). METHODS: The response to a GFD served as reference test for WS and HLA-DQ2/8 expression was determined as index test...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Martina Filippelli, Maria Teresa Garozzo, Antonino Capizzi, Massimo Spina, Sara Manti, Lucia Tardino, Carmelo Salpietro, Salvatore Leonardi
AIM: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine response and correlation with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and/or gluten intake in celiac patients at diagnosis. METHODS: Fifty-one patients affected by celiac disease, diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics of the University of Catania (Italy), were recruited. All patients were tested at admission for immunization against HBV, according to findings from analysis of quantitative HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs)...
September 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria, Amaia Jauregi-Miguel, Irati Romero-Garmendia, Leticia Plaza-Izurieta, Maria Legarda, Iñaki Irastorza, Jose Ramon Bilbao
To identify candidate genes in celiac disease (CD), we reanalyzed the whole Immunochip CD cohort using a different approach that clusters individuals based on immunoancestry prior to disease association analysis, rather than by geographical origin. We detected 636 new associated SNPs (P<7.02 × 10(-07)) and identified 5 novel genomic regions, extended 8 others previously identified and also detected 18 isolated signals defined by one or very few significant SNPs. To test whether we could identify putative candidate genes, we performed expression analyses of several genes from the top novel region (chr2:134533564-136169524), from a previously identified locus that is now extended, and a gene marked by an isolated SNP, in duodenum biopsies of active and treated CD patients, and non-celiac controls...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ilaria Ruffilli, Giusy Elia, Marco Biricotti, Roberto Vita, Salvatore Benvenga, Alessandro Antonelli
We have evaluated prospectively the prevalence of other autoimmune disorders in outpatient clinic in 3069 consecutive patients with diagnosed chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), with respect to two age- and sex-matched control groups: a) a control group of 1023 subjects, extracted from a random sample of the general population without thyroid disorders; b) 1023 patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter extracted from the same random sample of the general population, with similar iodine intake. The results of our study demonstrate a significant increase of the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in AT patients (with respect to both controls), for the following diseases: chronic autoimmune gastritis (CAG), vitiligo (Vit), rheumatoid arthritis, polymialgia rheumatica (Polym), celiac disease, diabetes, sjogren disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, alopecia, psoriathic arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and HCV-related cryoglobulinemia...
September 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Pinar Altiaylik Ozer, Emrah Utku Kabatas, Gokce Tasdemir Ertugrul, Bengi Ece Kurtul, Umut Kaygusuz, Selmin Karatayli Ozgursoy
PURPOSE: To investigate types and frequencies of ocular disorders in children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and to emphasize the importance of ophthalmological examination in these children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the examination records of children examined in our instutititon between January 2011 and September 2014 was performed. Ocular disorders of children with SHNL were selectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among 55340 patients, SNHL was present in 110 (0...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Barbara Frossi, Claudio Tripodo, Carla Guarnotta, Antonio Carroccio, Marco De Carli, Stefano De Carli, Marco Marino, Antonino Calabrò, Carlo E Pucillo
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by an accumulation of immune cells in the duodenal mucosa as a consequence of both adaptive and innate immune responses to undigested gliadin peptides. Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that are a major source of costimulatory signals and inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. Although MCs have previously been associated with CD, functional studies have never been performed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at evaluating the role of MCs in the pathogenesis of CD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Natalie Swergold, Steven Kozusko, Carlos Rivera, Cindy Sturt
INTRODUCTION: To our knowledge the most recent article on celiac dissection was published in 2015 and reported 24 known cases of spontaneous isolated celiac trunk dissection [2]. While some of those cases reported hypertension as a risk factor, no other case presents as hypertensive emergency with an isolated celiac artery dissection. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 43 year-old man with a past medical history of uncontrolled hypertension, for which he had reportedly been non-compliant with follow-up, presented with complaints of severe, sudden-onset epigastric pain which was non-radiating and constant for 1 hour prior to arrival...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
C Montén, Å Torinsson Naluai, D Agardh
Neurotensin (NT) is a gut hormone functioning proinflammatory through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion or anti-inflammatory through epidermal growth factor receptors. NT mRNA is down-regulated in duodenal biopsies of children with untreated coeliac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if plasma pro-NT levels correlated with the degree of intestinal mucosal damage and tissue transglutaminase autoantibody (tTGA) levels in children with coeliac disease. Fasting plasma samples from 96 children with coeliac disease and 89 non-coeliac disease controls were analysed for NT precursor fragment pro-NT 1-117 by a chemiluminometric immunoassay...
September 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Michael Gadermayr, Hubert Kogler, Maximilian Karla, Dorit Merhof, Andreas Uhl, Andreas Vécsei
AIM: To further improve the endoscopic detection of intestinal mucosa alterations due to celiac disease (CD). METHODS: We assessed a hybrid approach based on the integration of expert knowledge into the computer-based classification pipeline. A total of 2835 endoscopic images from the duodenum were recorded in 290 children using the modified immersion technique (MIT). These children underwent routine upper endoscopy for suspected CD or non-celiac upper abdominal symptoms between August 2008 and December 2014...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jan Petersen, Yvonne Kooy-Winkelaar, Khai Lee Loh, Mai Tran, Jeroen van Bergen, Frits Koning, Jamie Rossjohn, Hugh H Reid
In HLA-DQ8-associated celiac disease, TRAV26-2(+)-TRBV9(+) and TRAV8-3(+)-TRBV6(+) T cells recognize the immunodominant DQ8-glia-α1 epitope, whereupon a non-germline-encoded arginine residue played a key role in binding HLA-DQ8-glia-α1. Whether distinct T cell receptor (TCR) recognition modes exist for gliadin epitopes remains unclear. TCR repertoire analysis revealed populations of HLA-DQ8-glia-α1 and HLA-DQ8.5-glia-γ1 restricted TRAV20(+)-TRBV9(+) T cells that did not possess a non-germline-encoded arginine residue...
October 4, 2016: Structure
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Fabiana Zingone, Chiara Bartalini, Monica Siniscalchi, Monica Ruotolo, Cristina Bucci, Ivonne Morra, Paola Iovino, Carolina Ciacci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is evidence that food components beyond gluten cause symptoms in patients with gluten sensitivity without celiac disease (nonceliac gluten sensitivity [NCGS]). We investigated the diets and nutritional characteristics of patients with NCGS. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 29 patients with NCGS seen at the outpatient clinic for celiac disease and other food intolerances of the University of Salerno in Italy from September 2015 through April 2016...
August 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Marco Sazzini, Sara De Fanti, Anna Cherubini, Andrea Quagliariello, Giuseppe Profiti, Pier Luigi Martelli, Rita Casadio, Chiara Ricci, Massimo Campieri, Alberto Lanzini, Umberto Volta, Giacomo Caio, Claudio Franceschi, Enzo Spisni, Donata Luiselli
BACKGROUND: Non-celiac wheat sensitivity is an emerging wheat-related syndrome showing peak prevalence in Western populations. Recent studies hypothesize that new gliadin alleles introduced in the human diet by replacement of ancient wheat with modern varieties can prompt immune responses mediated by the CXCR3-chemokine axis potentially underlying such pathogenic inflammation. This cultural shift may also explain disease epidemiology, having turned European-specific adaptive alleles previously targeted by natural selection into disadvantageous ones...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
Fabiana Ziberna, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Valentina Schiavon, Francesca Arnoldi, Sara Quaglia, Luigina De Leo, Serena Vatta, Stefano Martelossi, Oscar R Burrone, Alessandro Ventura, Tarcisio Not
New data suggest the involvement of Rotavirus (RV) in triggering autoimmunity in celiac disease (CD) by molecular mimicry between the human-transglutaminase protein and the dodecapeptide (260-271 aa) of the RV protein VP7 (pVP7). To assess the role of RV in the onset of CD, we measured the anti-pVP7 antibodies in the sera of children with CD and of control groups. We analysed serum samples of 118 biopsy proven CD patients and 46 patients with potential-CD; 32 children with other gastrointestinal diseases; 107 no-CD children and 107 blood donors...
August 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Oana Mocan, Dan L Dumitraşcu
The celiac disease is an immune chronic condition with genetic transmission, caused by the intolerance to gluten. Gluten is a protein from cereals containing the following soluble proteins: gliadine, which is the most toxic, and the prolamins. The average prevalence is about 1% in USA and Europe, but high in Africa: 5.6% in West Sahara. In the pathogenesis several factors are involved: gluten as external trigger, genetic predisposition (HLA, MYO9B), viral infections, abnormal immune reaction to gluten. Severity is correlated with the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, cryptic hyperplasia and villous atrophy, as well as with the length of intestinal involvement...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
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