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Pulmonary physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723304/the-quest-for-durable-lesions-in-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-technological-advances-in-radiofrequency-catheters-and-balloon-devices
#1
Tilman Maurer, Karl-Heinz Kuck
Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and represents a growing clinical, social and economic challenge. Catheter ablation for symptomatic atrial fibrillation has evolved from an experimental procedure into a widespread therapy and offers a safe and effective treatment option. A prerequisite for durable PVI are transmural and contiguous circumferential lesions around the pulmonary veins. However, electrical reconnection of initially isolated pulmonary veins remains a primary concern and is a dominant factor for arrhythmia recurrence during long-term follow up...
July 19, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720711/gene-expression-networks-in-the-murine-pulmonary-myocardium-provide-insight-into-the-pathobiology-of-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Jordan K Boutilier, Rhonda L Taylor, Tracy Mann, Elyshia McNamara, Gary J Hoffman, Jacob Kenny, Rodney J Dilley, Peter Henry, Grant Morahan, Nigel G Laing, Kristen J Nowak
The pulmonary myocardium is a muscular coat surrounding the pulmonary and caval veins. Although its definitive physiological function is unknown, it may have a pathological role as the source of ectopic beats initiating atrial fibrillation. How the pulmonary myocardium gains pacemaker function is not clearly defined, although recent evidence indicates that changed transcriptional gene expression networks are at fault. The gene expression profile of this distinct cell type in situ was examined to investigate underlying molecular events that might contribute to atrial fibrillation...
July 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719441/fourteen-day-in-vivo-testing-of-a-compliant-thoracic-artificial-lung
#3
David J Skoog, Joshua R Pohlmann, David S Demos, Christopher N Scipione, Amit Iyengar, Rebecca E Schewe, Ahmed B Suhaib, Kelly L Koch, Keith E Cook
The compliant thoracic artificial lung (cTAL) has been studied in acute in vivo and in vitro experiments. The cTAL's long-term function and potential use as a bridge to lung transplantation are assessed presently. The cTAL without anticoagulant coatings was attached to sheep (n = 5) via the pulmonary artery and left atrium for 14 days. Systemic heparin anticoagulation was used. Compliant thoracic artificial lung resistance, cTAL gas exchange, hematologic parameters, and organ function were recorded. Two sheep were euthanized for nondevice-related issues...
July 14, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711443/regional-distribution-of-pulmonary-blood-volume-with-dual-energy-computed-tomography-results-in-42-subjects
#4
Paul Felloni, Alain Duhamel, Jean-Baptiste Faivre, Jessica Giordano, Suonita Khung, Valérie Deken, Jacques Remy, Martine Remy-Jardin
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The noninvasive approach of lung perfusion generated from dual-energy computed tomography acquisitions has entered clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the regional distribution of iodine within distal portions of the pulmonary arterial bed on dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography examinations in a cohort of subjects without cardiopulmonary pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 42 patients without cardiorespiratory disease, enabling quantitative and qualitative analysis of pulmonary blood volume after administration of a 40% contrast agent...
July 12, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711381/effectiveness-assessment-of-a-guideline-based-protocol-for-ventilatory-support-management-of-copd-exacerbations-in-an-emergency-department
#5
Franciele Plachi, Fernando Nataniel Vieira, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Marli Knorst, Alexandre Simões Dias, Fernanda Machado Balzan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate clinical outcomes according to ventilatory support indication in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in a "real-life" Emergency Department and to analyze potential predictors of successful noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: Retrospective cohort performed over an 18-month period, comparing the following patient groups with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: Group A composed of patients initially selected to receive noninvasive positive pressure ventilation without the subsequent need for invasive mechanical ventilation (successful-noninvasive positive pressure ventilation); Group B composed of patients transitioning from noninvasive positive pressure ventilation to invasive mechanical ventilation (failed-noninvasive positive pressure ventilation); and Group C composed of patients who presented with immediate need for invasive mechanical ventilation (without prior noninvasive positive pressure ventilation)...
July 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707108/clinical-and-biological-insights-from-the-university-of-california-san-francisco-prospective-and-longitudinal-cohort
#6
Bryan S Benn, Zoe Lehman, Sharon A Kidd, Melissa Ho, Sara Sun, Joris Ramstein, Nicholas K Arger, Christine P Nguyen, Robert Su, Antonio Gomez, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Laura L Koth
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by non-necrotizing granulomas in involved organs, most commonly the lung. Description of patient characteristics in the Western United States is limited. Furthermore, blood-based measures that relate to clinical sarcoidosis phenotypes are lacking. We present an analysis of a prospective, longitudinal sarcoidosis cohort at a Northern Californian academic medical center. METHODS: We enrolled 126 sarcoidosis subjects and 64 healthy controls and recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics...
July 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706270/comprehensive-multi-dimensional-mri-for-the-simultaneous-assessment-of-cardiopulmonary-anatomy-and-physiology
#7
Joseph Y Cheng, Tao Zhang, Marcus T Alley, Martin Uecker, Michael Lustig, John M Pauly, Shreyas S Vasanawala
Diagnostic testing often assesses the cardiovascular or respiratory systems in isolation, ignoring the major pathophysiologic interactions between the systems in many diseases. When both systems are assessed currently, multiple modalities are utilized in costly fashion with burdensome logistics and decreased accessibility. Thus, we have developed a new acquisition and reconstruction paradigm using the flexibility of MRI to enable a comprehensive exam from a single 5-15 min scan. We constructed a compressive-sensing approach to pseudo-randomly acquire highly subsampled, multi-dimensionally-encoded and time-stamped data from which we reconstruct volumetric cardiac and respiratory motion phases, contrast-agent dynamics, and blood flow velocity fields...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704507/regular-moist-snuff-dipping-does-not-affect-endurance-exercise-performance
#8
Frida Björkman, Fredrik Edin, C Mikael Mattsson, Filip Larsen, Björn Ekblom
Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702716/can-the-pulmonary-artery-wedge-pressure-be-used-reliably-as-a-surrogate-for-the-left-atrial-mean-pressure-in-pre-fontan-evaluation
#9
Bassel Mohammad Nijres, Ra-Id Abdulla, Sawsan Awad, Joshua Murphy
The correlation between mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) and left atrial mean pressure (LAMP) has been poorly studied in patients with single ventricle (SV) physiology (Bernstein et al. in Pediatr Cardiol 33: 15-20 2012). The aim of this study is to determine if the PAWP can be used safely as a surrogate to the LAMP to calculate the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during the pre-Fontan evaluation. Also, we aimed to understand if the presence of significant systemic-to-pulmonary collaterals (SPCs) is a confounding factor for accurate estimation of the LAMP...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699237/evaluation-of-visual-and-computer-based-ct-analysis-for-the-identification-of-functional-patterns-of-obstruction-and-restriction-in-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#10
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Anne Laure Brun, Ryoko Egashira, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ronald Karwoski, Vasileios Kouranos, Maria Kokosi, David M Hansell, Athol U Wells
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether computer-based quantification (CALIPER software) is superior to visual computed tomography (CT) scoring in the identification of CT patterns indicative of restrictive and obstructive functional indices in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). METHODS: A total of 135 consecutive HP patients had CT parenchymal patterns evaluated quantitatively by both visual scoring and CALIPER. Results were evaluated against: forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and a composite physiological index (CPI) to identify which CT scoring method better correlated with functional indices...
July 11, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697936/radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-approaches-and-outcomes
#11
REVIEW
Manish Kalla, Prashanthan Sanders, Jonathan M Kalman, Geoffrey Lee
Catheter ablation is now at the forefront of the management of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Its role in paroxysmal AF is well defined with considerable data supporting its role. Catheter ablation in persistent AF has been less effective and the subject of considerable debate. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated the critical role of pulmonary vein physiology in paroxysmal AF, whereas the mechanisms that sustain persistent AF are not well understood. Additional substrate ablation in persistent AF has not improved long-term outcomes and the use of novel mapping technologies to assess rotor activity remains controversial...
June 13, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696852/imaging-of-pregnancy-related-vascular-complications
#12
R Scooter Plowman, Cylen Javidan-Nejad, Constantine A Raptis, Douglas S Katz, Vincent M Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Patricia Cornejo, Christine O Menias
Pregnancy results in substantial hemodynamic and prothrombotic changes that form the foundation for downstream vascular complications, both during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In addition, several important risk factors, including older patient age, diabetes, and smoking, can increase the risk for vascular-related pregnancy complications. Because radiologists often play an important role in evaluation of the pregnant patient, understanding the pathophysiology of vascular-related complications in pregnancy and their imaging appearances is essential for diagnostic accuracy...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695674/foetal-pulmonary-maturity-in-dogs-estimated-from-bubble-tests-in-amniotic-fluid-obtained-via-amniocentesis
#13
T Bonte, A Del Carro, J Paquette, A Charlot Valdieu, S Buff, E Rosset
The goal of this study was to evaluate the reliability of amniocentesis during late pregnancy to assess lung maturity in puppies using a bubble test as described by Gunston and Davey (South African Medical Journal, 54, 1978, 495). Thirty-five bitches from eight different breeds were followed during late pregnancy before undergoing elective Caesarean (C)-section on days 61-62 after ovulation. Bubble tests were performed the day before the C-section (n = 11 bitches) and before the administration of aglepristone on amniotic fluid samples obtained via amniocentesis and were repeated the day of the surgery on amniotic fluid samples collected via puncture of the amniotic bags before they were opened (n = 35 bitches)...
July 10, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694199/initiation-of-non-invasive-ventilation-for-sleep-related-hypoventilation-disorders-advanced-modes-and-devices
#14
REVIEW
Bernardo J Selim, Lisa Wolfe, John M Coleman, Naresh Dewan
Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used since the 1960's in the polio epidemic, the development of modern bilevel PAP devices did not become a reality until the 1990's. Over the last 25 years bilevel PAP technology options have exponentially increased. The number of patients receiving this treatment both in the acute setting as well as at home is steadily growing. However, a knowledge gap exists in the way these device settings are adjusted to achieve synchrony and match patient's unique respiratory failure physiology...
July 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693885/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reverses-early-and-advanced-symptoms-in-macaques-exposed-to-sarin-vapor
#15
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets...
July 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693357/effect-of-acute-ambient-temperature-exposure-on-cardio-pulmonary-and-respiratory-kinetics-in-men
#16
U Drescher, J Koschate, U Hoffmann, S Schneider, A Werner
PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR) and pulmonary (V'O2pulm) and muscular (V'O2musc) oxygen uptake during dynamic leg exercise across different acute ambient temperature conditions in a climatic chamber. METHODS: Thirteen physically healthy, active male volunteers performed pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) changes between 30 W and 80 W at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C, respectively. HR was measured beat-to-beat by echocardiogram and V'O2pulm by breath-by-breath gas exchange, and V'O2musc estimations were assessed by applying a circulatory model and cross-correlation functions based on the approach of Hoffmann et al...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691283/a-soft-total-artificial-heart-first-concept-evaluation-on-a-hybrid-mock-circulation
#17
Nicholas H Cohrs, Anastasios Petrou, Michael Loepfe, Maria Yliruka, Christoph M Schumacher, A Xavier Kohll, Christoph T Starck, Marianne Schmid Daners, Mirko Meboldt, Volkmar Falk, Wendelin J Stark
The technology of 3D-printing has allowed the production of entirely soft pumps with complex chamber geometries. We used this technique to develop a completely soft pneumatically driven total artificial heart from silicone elastomers and evaluated its performance on a hybrid mock circulation. The goal of this study is to present an innovative concept of a soft total artificial heart (sTAH). Using the form of a human heart, we designed a sTAH, which consists of only two ventricles and produced it using a 3D-printing, lost-wax casting technique...
July 10, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690872/physiological-and-lipid-profile-response-to-acute-exercise-at-different-intensities-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Eduardo S Alves, Ronaldo Vt Santos, Francieli S Ruiz, Fabio S Lira, Alexandre A Almeida, Giscard Lima, Thatiana Cs Goni, Lila Oyama, Kate M Edwards, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio De Mello
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental and cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate effect of exercise on heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), pulmonary ventilation (PV), oxygen pulse (OP), glucose and lipids of wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Center of Studies in Psychobiology and Exercise-São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: In all, nine wheelchair basketball players with SCI and nine able-bodied controls (C) performed three exercise sessions at different intensities: ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1), 15% below VT1 and 15% above VT1 with a duration of ~24-34 min...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688479/physiological-closed-loop-control-in-intelligent-oxygen-therapy-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Sanchez-Morillo, Osama Olaby, Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero, Antonio Leon-Jimenez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oxygen therapy has become a standard care for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other hypoxemic chronic lung diseases. In current systems, manually continuous adjustment of O2 flow rate is a time-consuming task, often unsuccessful, that requires experienced staff. The primary aim of this systematic review is to collate and report on the principles, algorithms and accuracy of autonomous physiological close-loop controlled oxygen devices as well to present recommendations for future research and studies in this area...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687910/ct-findings-associated-with-survival-in-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#20
Jonathan H Chung, Steven M Montner, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Justin M Oldham, Aliya N Husain, Rekha Vij, Imre Noth, Mary E Strek
OBJECTIVES: To identify CT findings in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) associated with survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two thoracic radiologists assessed CT scans for specific imaging findings and patterns in 132 subjects with cHP. Survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: The majority of subjects had an inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis pattern on CT (55.3%,73/132). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) diagnosis on CT was less common in those with fibrosis (66...
July 7, 2017: European Radiology
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