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Pulmonary physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548545/mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-why-spirometry-is-not-sufficient
#1
Amany F Elbehairy, Grace Parraga, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - an inflammatory disease of the airways, alveoli and lung microvasculature - is a leading cause of death worldwide. Smokers with milder airway obstruction constitute the majority of patients with this disease. Many studies have shown increased morbidity, activity-related dyspnea, exercise intolerance and mortality in such patients, compared with age-matched healthy populations. Clinical evaluation of symptomatic smokers with ostensibly mild airway obstruction poses a challenge in clinical practice as spirometry can obscure extensive heterogeneous pathophysiological impairment...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546153/impact-of-ventilation-induced-lung-injury-on-the-structure-and-function-of-lamellar-bodies
#2
Scott Milos, Reza Khazaee, Lynda A McCaig, Karen Nygard, Richard B Gardiner, Yi Y Zuo, Cory M Yamashita, Ruud A W Veldhuizen
Alterations to the pulmonary surfactant system have been observed consistently in ventilation-induced lung injury including composition changes and impairments in the surface tension reducing ability of the isolated extracellular surfactant. However, there is limited information about the effects of VILI on the intracellular form of surfactant, the lamellar body. It is hypothesized that VILI leads to alterations of lamellar bodies numbers and function. To test this hypothesis, rats were randomized to one of three groups, non-ventilated controls, control ventilation and high tidal volume ventilation (VILI)...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546068/commentary-on-vascular-distensibilities-have-minor-effects-on-intracardiac-shunt-patterns-in-reptiles-by-filogonio-et-al-2017
#3
Stanley S Hillman, Michael S Hedrick, Zachary F Kohl
The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature...
May 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543987/modified-gap-index-for-prediction-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Haruki Kobayashi, Shota Omori, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Kazushige Wakuda, Akira Ono, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Tateaki Naito, Haruyasu Murakami, Masahiro Endo, Toshiaki Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Predicting the incidence rate of acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and its prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and IPF is difficult. The aim was to study the incidence of IPF-AE during the clinical course of the disease and its prognosis in patients with both NSCLC and IPF. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence rate of AE during the clinical course of the disease as well as the 1-year survival rate and overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC and IPF using a modified gender, age and physiology (mGAP) staging system based on gender, age and percent predicted forced vital capacity...
May 23, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536684/gastrointestinal-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-a-patient-with-pemphigus-vulgaris-treated-with-corticosteroid-and-mycophenolate-mofetil
#5
Luiza Barbosa Oliveira, Celina Wakisaka Maruta, Denise Miyamoto, Fernanda Aburesi Salvadori, Claudia Giuli Santi, Valeria Aoki, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease characterized by the formation of suprabasal intra-epidermal blisters on the skin and mucosal surfaces. Infectious diseases are the main cause of death in patients with pemphigus due to the disrupture of the physiological skin barrier, immune dysregulation, and the use of immunosuppressive medications leaving the patient prone to acquire opportunistic infections. We report the case of a 67-year-old woman diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris, who was irregularly taking prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil...
January 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536424/a-microfluidic-chamber-based-approach-to-map-the-shear-moduli-of-vascular-cells-and-other-soft-materials
#6
Béla Suki, Yingying Hu, Naohiko Murata, Jasmin Imsirovic, Jarred R Mondoñedo, Claudio L N de Oliveira, Niccole Schaible, Philip G Allen, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki
There is growing interest in quantifying vascular cell and tissue stiffness. Most measurement approaches, however, are incapable of assessing stiffness in the presence of physiological flows. We developed a microfluidic approach which allows measurement of shear modulus (G) during flow. The design included a chamber with glass windows allowing imaging with upright or inverted microscopes. Flow was controlled gravitationally to push culture media through the chamber. Fluorescent beads were conjugated to the sample surface and imaged before and during flow...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535764/in-smokers-sonic-hedgehog-modulates-pulmonary-endothelial-function-through-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#7
Priscilla Henno, Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Emeline Belle, Marion Brollo, Emmanuel Naline, Edouard Sage, Philippe Devillier, Dominique Israël-Biet
BACKGROUND: Tobacco-induced pulmonary vascular disease is partly driven by endothelial dysfunction. The Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is involved in vascular physiology. We sought to establish whether the SHH pathway has a role in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers. METHODS: The ex vivo endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach) was compared in 34 current or ex-smokers and 8 never-smokers. The results were expressed as a percentage of the contraction with phenylephrine...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535744/leukocyte-filtration-of-the-cardiotomy-suction-does-it-affect-systemic-leukocyte-activation-or-pulmonary-function
#8
Richard Issitt, Jon Ball, Indie Bilkhoo, Adnan Mani, Bronagh Walsh, David Voegeli
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass is thought to propagate a global systemic response through contact with the non-physiological surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit, leading to the stimulation of leukocytes, their adherence to endothelial cells and the release of cytotoxic molecules. This, in turn, has been shown to accelerate pulmonary injury. This study tested a new leukocyte-filtration system (RemoweLL) against a conventional system with no leukocyte-depleting capacity to determine the efficacy of the filtration system and its effects on pulmonary function...
May 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533754/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-pleiotropic-roles-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Juanjuan Xu, Jinshuo Fan, Feng Wu, Qi Huang, Mengfei Guo, Zhilei Lv, Jieli Han, Limin Duan, Guorong Hu, Lian Chen, Tingting Liao, Wanli Ma, Xiaonan Tao, Yang Jin
Cancer remains one of the most common causes of death and disability and represents a major economic burden in industrialized nations. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been well-recognized as one of the most important regulators of both normal and pathological physiological processes in the brain, kidney, heart, and blood vessels. The activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial assembly receptor [ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR] axis, which is one component of the RAS, has recently been identified as a critical component of pulmonary systems, gastric mucosa, and cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529485/hydrostatin-sn1-a-sea-snake-derived-bioactive-peptide-reduces-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#10
Guosheng Wu, Junjie Wang, Pengfei Luo, An Li, Song Tian, Hailong Jiang, Yongjun Zheng, Feng Zhu, Yiming Lu, Zhaofan Xia
Snake venom has been used for centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine. Hydrostatin-SN1 (H-SN1), a bioactive peptide extracted from the Hydrophis cyanocinctus venom gland T7 phage display library, was reported to have the ability to reduce inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis model. In this study, we sought to investigate the inhibitory potential of H-SN1 on inflammation in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528061/real-time-computed-tomography-highlights-pulmonary-parenchymal-evolution-during-ex%C3%A2-vivo-lung-reconditioning
#11
Edouard Sage, Julien De Wolf, Philippe Puyo, Pierre Bonnette, Matthieu Glorion, Nicolas Salley, Antoine Roux, Ngai Liu, Alain Chapelier
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has been developed as a method to reassess and recondition marginal lungs. However, evaluation during procedures is limited to a combination of physiologic variables such as gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of real-time computed tomographic (CT) imaging to improve the evaluation of the lung during EVLP procedures.
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#12
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526710/gbt1118-a-potent-allosteric-modifier-of-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity-increases-tolerance-to-severe-hypoxia-in-mice
#13
Kobina Dufu, Ozlem Yalcin, Eilleen Sy Ao-Ieong, Athiwat Hutchaleelala, Qing Xu, Zhe Li, Nicholas Vlahakis, Donna Oksenberg, Josh Lehrer-Graiwer, Pedro Cabrales
Adaptation to hypoxia requires compensatory mechanisms that affect oxygen (O2) transport and utilization. Decreased hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity is considered part of the physiological adaptive process to chronic hypoxia. This manuscript explores the hypothesis that increased Hb-O2 affinity can complement acute physiological responses to hypoxia by increasing O2 uptake and delivery when compared to normal Hb-O2 affinity during acute severe hypoxia. To test this hypothesis, mice Hb-O2 affinity was increased via oral administration of 70 or 140 mg/kg GBT1118...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#14
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526615/lung-inflammation-after-bleomycin-treatment-in-mice-selection-of-an-accurate-normalization-strategy-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-an-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-model
#15
Veronica Della Latta, Manuela Cabiati, Silvia Burchielli, Giada Frenzilli, Margherita Bernardeschi, Antonella Cecchettini, Federica Viglione, Maria-Aurora Morales, Silvia Del Ry
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the most common and aggressive interstitial lung disease, characterized by a patchy development of fibrosis leading to progressive destruction of the normal lung architecture which is preceded by an inflammatory process. Gene expression studies are important to understand the development of PF but the accuracy and reproducibility of Real-Time PCR depend on appropriate normalization strategies. This study aimed to analyze the expression variability of eight commonly used reference genes during the initial inflammatory phase of bleomycin-induced PF in a mouse model and to verify whether the selected reference genes could be applied to an in-vitro model of BLM-treated primary murine lung fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524025/-effect-of-esmolol-on-hemodynamics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-septic-shock
#16
Shupeng Wang, Min Li, Jun Duan, Li Yi, Xu Huang, Desheng Chen, Gang Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of heart rate control with esmolol on hemodynamics, inflammatory cytokines and clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The patients with septic shock admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from August 2014 to October 2016 were enrolled. After 24 hours of resuscitation and other therapy, they were randomly divided into two groups by sealed envelope...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520537/anomalous-origin-of-right-coronary-artery-from-left-coronary-sinus-13-cases-treated-with-the-reimplantation-technique
#17
Alain Cubero, Alejandro Crespo, Gadah Hamzeh, Andrés Cortes, Daniel Rivas, José Ignacio Aramendi
OBJECTIVES: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is uncommon but potentially clinically significant. Manifestations vary from asymptomatic patients to those who present with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, syncope, arrhythmias, and sudden death. We describe our experience with surgical reimplantation and results at midterm follow-up. METHODS: Between February 2003 and July 2016, a total of 13 patients with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left sinus underwent surgical reimplantation...
May 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518124/direct-re-implantation-of-left-coronary-artery-into-the-aorta-in-adults-with-anomalous-origin-of-left-coronary-artery-from-the-pulmonary-artery-alcapa
#18
Reza Tavakoli, Peiman Jamshidi, Nassrin Yamani, Max Gassmann
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly which is one of leading causes of myocardial ischemia and infarction in children. If left untreated, it results in a 90% mortality rate in the first year of life. In patients who survive to the adulthood, the coronary steal phenomenon and retrograde left-sided coronary flow provide a substrate for chronic subendocardial ischemia, which may lead to left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic mitral regurgitation, malignant ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514950/lung-function-imaging-methods-in-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-disease
#19
REVIEW
Magdalena Kołodziej, Michael J de Veer, Marian Cholewa, Gary F Egan, Bruce R Thompson
Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis...
May 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510483/improvement-in-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-after-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-quantitative-image-analysis
#20
Sei Won Lee, Sang Min Lee, So Youn Shin, Tai Sun Park, Sang Young Oh, Namkug Kim, Yoonki Hong, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Joon Beom Seo
Purpose To evaluate whether bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) increases ventilation and therefore improves ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. Materials and Methods All patients provided written informed consent to be included in this study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board (2013-0368) of Asan Medical Center. The physiologic changes that occurred after BLVR were measured by using xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Patients with severe emphysema plus hyperinflation who did not respond to usual treatments were eligible...
May 16, 2017: Radiology
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