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Pulmonary physiology

Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Julio Sandoval
Despite advances in drug therapy, pulmonary hypertension-particularly arterial hypertension (PAH)-remains a fatal disease. Untreatable right heart failure (RHF) from PAH eventually ensues and remains a significant cause of death in these patients. Lowering pulmonary input impedance with different PAH-specific drugs is the obvious therapeutic target in RHF due to chronically increased afterload. However, potential clinical gain can also be expected from attempts to unload the right heart and increase systemic output...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
S Arques
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Conceptually, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory status and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of most cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease and heart failure. Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, has many physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation activity. It also plays an essential role in the fluid exchange across the capillary membrane...
March 12, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Aekaansh Verma, Mahdi Esmaily, Jessica Shang, Richard Figliola, Jeffrey A Feinstein, Tain-Yen Hsia, Alison L Marsden
BACKGROUND: First-stage single-ventricle palliation is challenging to manage, and significant interstage morbidity and mortality remain. Prior computational and in vitro studies of the assisted bidirectional Glenn (ABG), a novel first-stage procedure that has shown potential for early conversion to a more stable augmented Glenn physiology, demonstrated increased pulmonary flow and oxygen delivery while decreasing cardiac work, as compared to conventional stage-1 alternatives. This study aims to identify optimal shunt designs for the ABG to improve pulmonary flow while maintaining or decreasing superior vena caval (SVC) pressure...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Glenn A Jacobson, Sharanne Raidal, Kate Robson, Christian K Narkowicz, David S Nichols, E Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol (a long acting beta2-agonist) is a chiral molecule. (RR)-salmeterol is responsible for pharmacological effect, but basic knowledge of enantioselective pulmonary pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol remains unknown. There are safety concerns with (S)-enantiomers of beta2-agonists, with suggestions that these enantiomers may increase bronchial hyperresponsivneness in asthma patients. METHODOLOGY: Horses (n = 12) received racemic (rac-) salmeterol 250 μg via inhalation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sarah Soo-Hoo, Samantha Nemeth, Onur Baser, Michael Argenziano, Paul Kurlansky
Objective: To explore the impact of racial and ethnic diversity on the performance of cardiac surgical risk models, the Chinese SinoSCORE was compared with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk model in a diverse American population. Methods: The SinoSCORE risk model was applied to 13 969 consecutive coronary artery bypass surgery patients from twelve American institutions. SinoSCORE risk factors were entered into a logistic regression to create a 'derived' SinoSCORE whose performance was compared with that of the STS risk model...
2018: Heart Asia
Robert T Mankowski, Victor M Niemeijer, Jasper P Jansen, Lotte Spraakman, Henk J Stam, Stephan F E Praet
Purpose: It is still equivocal whether oxygen uptake recovery kinetics are limited by oxygen delivery and can be improved by supplementary oxygen. The present study aimed to investigate whether measurements of muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics can be used to assess oxygen delivery limitations in healthy subjects. Methods: Sixteen healthy young adults performed three sub-maximal exercise tests (6 min at 40% Wmax ) under hypoxic (14%O2 ), normoxic (21%O2 ) and hyperoxic (35%O2 ) conditions on separate days in randomized order...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Antonio G Cabrera, Kathleen K Kibler, R Blaine Easley, Michelle Goldsworthy, Lara S Shekerdemian, Dean B Andropoulos, Jeffrey Heinle, Erin A Gottlieb, Eric Vu, Ken M Brady
BACKGROUND: Elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP) is common after superior bidirectional cavo-pulmonary anastomosis (BCPA). The effects of elevated ABP after BCPA on cerebrovascular hemodynamics are unknown. We sought to determine the relationship between elevated ABP and cerebrovascular autoregulation after BCPA. METHODS: Prospective, observational study on infants with single-ventricle physiology after BCPA surgery. Continuous recordings of mean ABP, mean cavo-pulmonary pressure (PAP), near-infrared spectroscopy measures of cerebral oximetry (rSO2), and relative cerebral blood volume index (BVI) were obtained from admission to extubation...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Swapna Upadhyay, Lena Palmberg
Air pollution leads to inhalation of several pulmonary stimulants that includes particulate matter (PM), and gaseous substances contributing significantly to the development of chronic lung diseases. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of air pollutant mediated pulmonary toxicity remains unclear. This is primarily due to the lack of efficient test systems, mimicing human inhalation exposure scenarios to air pollutants. The majority of the pulmonary in vitro-studies have been conducted using cell lines in submerged cell culture conditions and thereby overlooking the pulmonary physiology...
March 9, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ehsan Abadi, William P Segars, Gregory M Sturgeon, Justus E Roos, Carl E Ravin, Ehsan Samei
The purpose of this paper was to extend the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) series of computational phantoms to include a detailed lung architecture including airways and pulmonary vasculature. Eleven XCAT phantoms of varying anatomy were used in this paper. The lung lobes and initial branches of the airways, pulmonary arteries, and veins were previously defined in each XCAT model. These models were extended from the initial branches of the airways and vessels to the level of terminal branches using an anatomically-based volume-filling branching algorithm...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Guibo Feng, Xin Tian, Liang Wang, Libo Zhao, Xuefeng Wang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the prognostic value of acute thyroid function in patients with severe encephalitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed information from patients with severe encephalitis from June 2012 to June 2017. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we examined predictors of poor outcomes in these patients after 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients with severe encephalitis were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that patients with good or poor outcomes had significantly different total thyroxine (TT4) (P = 0...
March 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Gali Epstein Shochet, Lutz Wollin, David Shitrit
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. METHODS: IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM)...
March 12, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Janelle Yorke, Christi Deaton, Malcolm Campbell, Linda McGowen, Paul Sephton, David G Kiely, Iain Armstrong
Introduction: The aim of this cohort study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptomatology in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and explore factors that influence its evolution over time. Methods: A prospective longitudinal multisite cohort study. Participants were recruited from specialist UK PH centres and completed a questionnaire pack at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months to assess HRQoL (emPHasis-10), dyspnoea, fatigue, sleep, anxiety and depression...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Silvia G V Alvarez, Angela McBrien
The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a crucial part of the fetal circulation, both in the normal fetus and in critical congenital heart disease (CHD). It allows shunting between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. In physiological prenatal conditions, the DA lets the majority of right ventricular output bypass the fluid-filled, high-resistance lungs. The DA can cause hemodynamic compromise in the fetus and neonate when constricted or absent (in isolation or in patients with CHD) and may lead to pre- or postnatal sequelae within other systems when forming part of a vascular ring...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Georgia Brown, Tilman Humpl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) complicates the course of many cardiovascular, pulmonary and other systemic diseases in children. The physiological sequelae (pulmonary hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance) can overwhelm the right ventricle and lead to circulatory collapse. Despite the common end-point, the preceding pathophysiology is complex and variable and requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and management. In this article, we will review the most recent evidence and explore an approach to current controversies in the diagnosis and management of common or challenging patient subgroups...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yuan Dai, Weijia Luo, Jiang Chang
Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the first discovered RhoA effectors that are now widely known for their effects on actin organization. Recent studies have shown that ROCKs play important roles in cardiac physiology. Abnormal activation of ROCKs participate in multiple cardiovascular pathological processes, including cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, systemic hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension. ROCK inhibitors, fasudil and statins, have shown beneficial cardiovascular effects in many animal studies, clinical trials, and applications...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Jonaz Font, Mathilda Simeon, Christophe Simard, Stéphane Allouche, Anne-Flore Plane, Virginie Ferchaud, Marie Brionne, René Rouet, Marie Nowoczyn, Alain Manrique, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Paul Milliez, Joachim Alexandre
Whether oral anti-coagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOACs) frequently prescribed to atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, do themselves have a pro- or anti-arrhythmic effect have never been addressed. Transmembrane action potentials were recorded in an acute rabbit model of superfused pulmonary veins (PVs) sleeves preparations using standard microelectrode technique. Fluindione 10 μmol/L (n = 6) increased the AP (action potential) duration (APD), induced a significantly Vmax depression (from 95±14 to 53±5 V/s, P < 0...
March 11, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Hyunsuk Frank Roh, Jung Mogg Kim
RATIONALE: A hemodynamic relationship of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) to pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) has not yet been explicitly presented. OBJECTIVE: We employed a logistic-based systolic model with a subtle modification for pulmonary circulation and provided a logical ground for the relationship between systolic PAP and PAcT using transthoracic echocardiography. Additionally, the logistic-based PAP estimation equation was deduced from the model to relate systolic PAP and PAcT...
February 24, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Clément Medrinal, Guillaume Prieur, Yann Combret, Aurora Robledo Quesada, David Debeaumont, Tristan Bonnevie, Francis Edouard Gravier, Elise Dupuis Lozeron, Jean Quieffin, Olivier Contal, Bouchra Lamia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of quadriceps Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-Cycling on exertional VO2 compared with Placebo FES-cycling in patients with COPD. DESIGN: A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial SETTING: Pulmonary Rehabilitation Department PARTICIPANTS: 23 consecutive patients with COPD GOLD stage 2, 3 or 4 (mean FEV1 : 1.4±0.4 L (50.3% pred)) who had recently begun a respiratory rehabilitation program. INTERVENTION: Two consecutive 30-minute sessions were carried out at a constant load with active and placebo FES-Cycling...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Qi Chen, Weidong Tang, Xuebo Shao, Lijun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difference between indirect calorimetry (IC) and predicted energy estimation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and its possible factors affecting the difference, to provide reasonable energy supply basis for COPD patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Twenty-six patients with COPD undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Hangzhou City Fuyang District First People's Hospital in Zhejiang Province from January to December in 2016 were enrolled...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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