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dopamine dysfunction

Eric N Beck, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs control of well-learned movements. Movement control improvements are found when individuals complete tasks while focusing attention externally on manipulating an object, which is argued to occur due to automatic processing associated with well-learned movements. Focusing attention internally (on movements of ones' limbs) is believed to involve conscious control networks, and hinders movement performance. Previous work has found that an external focus of attention improved postural stability in individuals with PD (compared to internal), but this was when patients were taking dopamine medication, which modulates basal ganglia functioning responsible for well-learned movements...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Elisa Straulino, Tomaso Scaravilli, Maria Bulgheroni, Enrico D'Amico, Umberto Castiello
Increasing evidence suggests that a dysfunctional dopaminergic system affects the ability to socially interact. Since Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a model for assessing dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans, our study was designed to investigate social interactions in PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy controls. We focused on the kinematics of one action, reaching to grasp a wooden block, which was performed within the context of two basic modes of social cognition, namely cooperation and competition...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Anna Górska, Zofia Rogóż, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms often accompanied by depression and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms, like delusions and hallucinations are caused by an excess of dopamine (DA) signaling and are treated with the second generation antipsychotic drugs. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are represented by social withdrawal, apathy and blunted emotional response. It was demonstrated that co-administration of risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alleviated depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia...
September 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Paul Cumming, Jürgen Gallinat
This Editorial highlights a study by Bagga and coworkers (2016) in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry entitled "Mapping the alteration in brain glutamate with glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) magnetic resonance imaging in mice with MPTP-induced parkinsonism, a model of dopamine deficiency." Using their spectroscopic procedure, Bagga et al. discern unexpected relative increases in the cortical glutamate content of parkinsonian mice. Their results suggest the occurrence of a simple relationship between striatal astrogliosis and tissue glutamate content, presumably in relation to enhanced glutamate/glutamine cycling...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Giuseppe Lanza, Cornelius G Bachmann, Imad Ghorayeb, Yuping Wang, Raffale Ferri, Walter Paulus
Neurophysiological techniques have been applied in restless legs syndrome (RLS) to obtain direct and indirect measures of central and peripheral nervous system excitability, as well as to probe different neurotransmission pathways. Data converge on the hypothesis that, from a pure electrophysiological perspective, RLS should be regarded as a complex sensorimotor disorder in which cortical, subcortical, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve generators are all involved in a network disorder, resulting in an enhanced excitability and/or decreased inhibition...
August 27, 2016: Sleep Medicine
Andrew Vo, Ken N Seergobin, Penny A MacDonald
Dopaminergic therapy has been shown to worsen some cognitive functions, particularly learning, in Parkinson's disease (PD). This has been attributed to dopamine overdose of brain regions that are relatively dopamine replete. Dopamine dosages are titrated to the severely depleted dorsal striatum (DS). According to this account, dopaminergic therapy should worsen cognitive functions in healthy young adults who have normal dopamine levels. As a critical test of the dopamine overdose hypothesis, we tested the effect of levodopa on learning stimulus-response associations and on performing stimulus-specific responses once these associations were learned...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Aimee Zisner, Theodore P Beauchaine
Trait impulsivity, which is often defined as a strong preference for immediate over delayed rewards and results in behaviors that are socially inappropriate, maladaptive, and short-sighted, is a predisposing vulnerability to all externalizing spectrum disorders. In contrast, anhedonia is characterized by chronically low motivation and reduced capacity to experience pleasure, and is common to depressive disorders. Although externalizing and depressive disorders have virtually nonoverlapping diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, heterotypic comorbidity between them is common...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Nathaniel B Bone, Zhongyu Liu, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
Catecholamines, including β-adrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters, have an essential role in regulating the "fight or flight" reflex and also affects immune cell proinflammatory action. However, little is known about whether catecholamines prevent dysfunction of metabolic pathways associated with inflammatory organ injury, including development of acute lung injury (ALI). We hypothesize that selected catecholamines may reduce metabolic alterations in LPS-stimulated macrophages and in the lungs of mice subjected to endotoxin-induced ALI, a situation characterized by diminished activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Nivedita Bhattacharjee, Anupom Borah
Homocysteine (Hcy) when injected intranigrally in rat caused parkinsonian behavioural phenotypes and loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons but the underlying mechanisms of neurotoxicity remains elusive. In the present study, we focused on oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity in Hcy-induced hemiparkinsonian rat model. Unilateral intranigral infusion of Hcy (1.0 μmol in 2 μl) caused inhibition of mitochondrial complex-I activity, decrease in the level of striatal dopamine, loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and motor abnormalities...
October 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis" by Katrin Starcke and Matthias Brand (Psychological Bulletin, Advanced Online Publication, May 23, 2016, np). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided...
September 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Chi Wang Ip, Ioannis U Isaias, Burak B Kusche-Tekin, Dennis Klein, Janos Groh, Aet O'Leary, Susanne Knorr, Takahiro Higuchi, James B Koprich, Jonathan M Brotchie, Klaus V Toyka, Andreas Reif, Jens Volkmann
Isolated generalized dystonia is a central motor network disorder characterized by twisted movements or postures. The most frequent genetic cause is a GAG deletion in the Tor1a (DYT1) gene encoding torsinA with a reduced penetrance of 30-40 % suggesting additional genetic or environmental modifiers. Development of dystonia-like movements after a standardized peripheral nerve crush lesion in wild type (wt) and Tor1a+/- mice, that express 50 % torsinA only, was assessed by scoring of hindlimb movements during tail suspension, by rotarod testing and by computer-assisted gait analysis...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Zhongheng Zhang, Kun Chen
The article describes some commonly used vasoactive agents in patients with septic shock. Depending on their distinct pharmacological properties, their effects on vascular bed and cardiac function are different. For example, dopamine has equivalent effect on heart and vasculature, which can result in increases in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Dobutamine is considered as inodilator because it has potent effect on cardiac systole and vasculature. Patients with sepsis and septic shock sometimes have coexisting cardiac dysfunction that justifies the use of dobutamine...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Zhiling Zou, Hongwen Song, Yuting Zhang, Xiaochu Zhang
Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Seon Joo Park, Seung Hwan Lee, Heehong Yang, Chul Soon Park, Chang-Soo Lee, Oh Seok Kwon, Tai Hyun Park, Jyongsik Jang
In the brain and central nervous system, dopamine plays a crucial function as a neurotransmitter or a local chemical messenger for interneuronal communication. Dopamine is associated with renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Additionally, dopamine dysfunction is known to cause serious illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, dopamine detection is essential for medical diagnosis and disease prevention, which require a novel strategy with high sensitivity and selectivity, and with a rapid response...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shuo Kang, Mariah M Wu, Roberto Galvez, Joshua M Gulley
Non-medical use of amphetamine (AMPH) among adolescents is prevalent, which is problematic given the potential consequences of developmental drug exposure on brain function and behavior. Previously we found in adult male rats that AMPH exposure starting before puberty induces a persistent decrease in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here we investigated if this dysfunction was associated with changes in D1R expression in the mPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We also determined if starting drug exposure well before or near the onset of puberty would influence AMPH-induced changes in D1R expression and behavior...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
C Tessier, K Sweers, A Frajerman, H Bergaoui, F Ferreri, C Delva, N Lapidus, A Lamaziere, J P Roiser, M De Hert, P Nuss
Schizophrenia is a severe mental condition in which several lipid abnormalities-either structural or metabolic-have been described. We tested the hypothesis that an abnormality in membrane lipid composition may contribute to aberrant dopamine signaling, and thereby symptoms and cognitive impairment, in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. Antipsychotic-medicated and clinically stable SCZ outpatients (n=74) were compared with matched healthy subjects (HC, n=40). A lipidomic analysis was performed in red blood cell (RBC) membranes examining the major phospholipid (PL) classes and their associated fatty acids (FAs)...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Hong-Ji Sun, Yan Wang, Tong Hao, Chang-Yong Wang, Qi-Yu Wang, Xiao-Xia Jiang
Glutathione (GSH) depletion has been an important contributor to the dysfunction of dopamine neurons. Polyamidoamine-GSH (PAMAM-GSH) was synthesized and the delivery effect of GSH into PC12 cells was tested. MTT assessment for cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as nitrite oxide (NO) and intracelluar superoxide dismutase (SOD) detection for antioxidative ability were performed. Furthermore, the antiapoptotic ability was analysed by assessing caspase-3, JNK1/2 and Erk1/2 expression. Our data indicated that PAMAM-GSH is an effective agent to replenish GSH into PC12 cells...
October 2016: Regenerative Biomaterials
Ulrich Sauerzopf, Roberto Sacco, Gaia Novarino, Marco Niello, Ana Weidenauer, Nicole Praschak-Rieder, Harald Sitte, Matthäus Willeit
Since 2006, reprogrammed cells have increasingly been used as a biomedical research technique in addition to neuro-psychiatric methods. These rapidly evolving techniques allow for the generation of neuronal sub-populations, and have sparked interest not only in monogenetic neuro-psychiatric diseases, but also in poly-genetic and poly-etiological disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD). This review provides a summary of 19 publications on reprogrammed adult somatic cells derived from patients with SCZ, and 5 publications using this technique in patients with BPD...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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