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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#1
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901187/interactions-between-prolactin-and-kisspeptin-to-control-reproduction
#2
Jose Donato, Renata Frazão
Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883923/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene
#3
Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Gesa Loeber, Alexandra Kotsiari, Linda Müller-Engling, Helge Frieling
Several lines of evidence support a "dopaminergic hypothesis" in the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time epigenetic changes in DNA methylation in different dopamine genes in adult patients with TS. We included 51 well characterized adult patients with TS (41 males, 10 females, mean age = 35 ± 12.6 years, range, 18-71 years) and compared results with data from a group of 51 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Bisulfite sequencing was used to measure peripheral DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883326/renal-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-and-kidney-failure
#4
Dimitrios S Goumenos, Evangelos Papachristou, Marios Papasotiriou
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is high as CKD and CHF share underlying risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Cardiac failure leads to renal hypoperfusion and dysfunction and then fluid overload and need for aggressive diuretic therapy. However, development of diuretic resistance represents a significant problem in the management of these patients. The role of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is important for patients who do not response to conservative management of fluid overload facilitating the failing heart to restore function...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881168/loss-of-porin-function-in-dopaminergic-neurons-of-drosophila-is-suppressed-by-buffy
#5
P Githure M'Angale, Brian E Staveley
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial porin, also known as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), is a multi-functional channel protein that shuttles metabolites between the mitochondria and the cytosol and implicated in cellular life and death decisions. The inhibition of porin under the control of neuronal Ddc-Gal4 result in short lifespan and in an age-dependent loss in locomotor function, phenotypes that are strongly associated with Drosophila models of Parkinson disease. METHODS: Loss of porin function was achieved through exploitation of RNA interference while derivative lines were generated by homologous recombination and tested by PCR...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866991/parkinson-s-disease-like-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-in-rotenone-treated-zebrafish
#6
Yali Wang, Wenwen Liu, Jing Yang, Fen Wang, Sima Yizhen, Zhao-Min Zhong, Han Wang, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
The pesticide rotenone is widely used to produce Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms in rodents, but few studies have examined whether rotenone-treated zebrafish can serve as an animal model of PD. Here, we report that 4 weeks of rotenone treatment induced motor and non-motor PD-like symptoms in adult zebrafish. Compared with control fish, rotenone-treated fish spent less time swimming at a fast speed, indicating a deficit in motor function. In the light-dark box test, rotenone-treated fish exhibited longer latencies to enter the dark compartment and spent more time in the light compartment, reflecting anxiety- and depression-like behavior...
November 17, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865867/d1-like-dopamine-receptor-dysfunction-in-the-lateral-habenula-nucleus-increased-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rat
#7
Jiangping Chan, Yiling Ni, Pengyue Zhang, Yanmei Chen, Jichuan Zhang
Lateral habenula (LHb) is important for emotional processing. It is a link node between forebrain and midbrain. LHb is reciprocally connected with ventral tegmental area, acting as a regulatory center for the dopaminergic system. However, the role of dopamine receptors in the LHb in emotional processing is less clear. In the present study, the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in LHb was testified by western blot. In addition, D1- or D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist was bilaterally administered into the LHb, anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were tested 15min later in rats...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864352/single-cell-transcriptomes-identify-human-islet-cell-signatures-and-reveal-cell-type-specific-expression-changes-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Nathan Lawlor, Joshy George, Mohan Bolisetty, Romy Kursawe, Lili Sun, Sivakamasundari V, Ina Kycia, Paul Robson, Michael L Stitzel
Blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of at least four cell types constituting pancreatic islets. Changes in the proportion and/or function of these cells are associated with genetic and molecular pathophysiology of monogenic, type 1, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cellular heterogeneity impedes precise understanding of the molecular components of each islet cell type that govern islet dysfunction, particularly the less abundant delta and gamma/pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. Here, we report single cell transcriptomes for 638 cells from non-diabetic (ND) and T2D human islet samples...
November 18, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864139/evening-morning-peroxiredoxin-2-redox-oligomeric-state-changes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-red-blood-cells-correlation-with-polysomnographic-and-metabolic-parameters
#9
Amélia Feliciano, Fátima Vaz, Vukosava M Torres, Cristina Valentim-Coelho, Rita Silva, Vesna Prosinecki, Bruno M Alexandre, Ana S Carvalho, Rune Matthiesen, Atul Malhotra, Paula Pinto, Cristina Bárbara, Deborah Penque
We have examined the effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) on red blood cell (RBC) proteome variation at evening/morning day time to uncover new insights into OSA-induced RBC dysfunction that may lead to OSA manifestations. Dysregulated proteins mainly fall in the group of catalytic enzymes, stress response and redox regulators such as peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2). Validation assays confirmed that at morning the monomeric/dimeric forms of PRDX2 were more overoxidized in OSA RBC compared to evening samples. Six month of positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment decreased this overoxidation and generated multimeric overoxidized forms associated with chaperone/transduction signaling activity of PRDX2...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836486/immunochemical-localization-of-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-2-vmat2-in-mouse-brain
#10
Rachel A Cliburn, Amy R Dunn, Kristen A Stout, Carlie A Hoffman, Kelly M Lohr, Alison I Bernstein, Emily J Winokur, James Burkett, Yvonne Shmitz, William M Caudle, Gary W Miller
Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, SLC18A2) is a transmembrane transporter protein that packages dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine into vesicles in preparation for neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. VMAT2 function and related vesicle dynamics have been linked to susceptibility to oxidative stress, exogenous toxicants, and Parkinson's disease. To address a recent depletion of commonly used antibodies to VMAT2, we generated and characterized a novel rabbit polyclonal antibody generated against a 19 amino acid epitope corresponding to an antigenic sequence within the C-terminal tail of mouse VMAT2...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833323/tc-99m-trodat-uptake-in-an-osteoid-tumor-of-clivus
#11
Sameer Taywade, Madhavi Tripathi, Vivek Tandon, Chandan Jyoti Das, Nishikant Avinash Damle, Shamim Ahmed Shamim, Parul Thukral, Chandrasekhar Bal
Tc-99m TRODAT is cocaine analog and binds to the dopamine transporter in vivo. Tc-99m TRODAT single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. (SPECT/CT) is useful for demonstrating presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in patients with Parkinsonism. However, few reports have shown extrastriatal uptake of Tc-99m TRODAT. We present the case of a 67-year-old male who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT SPECT/CT for evaluation of Parkinsonism. In addition to tracer binding in the striatum, tracer uptake was noted in an osteoid tumor of the clivus...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832841/new-concepts-in-dopamine-d2-receptor-biased-signaling-and-implications-for-schizophrenia-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Nikhil M Urs, Sean M Peterson, Marc G Caron
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is a common target for antipsychotic drugs. Antagonism of D2R signaling in the striatum is thought to be the primary mode of action of antipsychotic drugs in alleviating psychotic symptoms. However, antipsychotic drugs are not clinically effective at reversing cortical-related symptoms, such as cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. While the exact mechanistic underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are largely unknown, deficits in cortical dopamine function likely play a contributing role...
October 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826551/noncoding-rna-regulation-of-dopamine-signaling-in-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
William T Carrick, Brandi Burks, Murray J Cairns, Jannet Kocerha
Dopaminergic neurotransmission mediates a majority of the vital central nervous system functions. Disruption of these synaptic events provokes a multitude of neurological pathologies, including Parkinson's, schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. Growing evidence supports a key role for noncoding RNA (ncRNA) regulation in the synapse. This review will discuss the role of both short and long ncRNAs in dopamine signaling, including bioinformatic examination of the pathways they target. Specifically, we focus on the contribution of ncRNAs to dopaminergic dysfunction in neurodegenerative as well as psychiatric disease...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825784/does-comt-val158met-polymorphism-influence-p50-sensory-gating-eye-tracking-or-saccadic-inhibition-dysfunctions-in-schizophrenia
#14
Caroline Demily, Sandrine Louchart-de-la-Chapelle, Irène Nkam, Nicolas Ramoz, Pierre Denise, Alain Nicolas, Caroline Savalle, Florence Thibaut
Three electrophysiological endophenotypes are routinely studied in schizophrenia (SCZ): smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) dysfunction, deficits in P50 auditory-evoked potential inhibition, and saccadic inhibition deficits. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the COMT val158met polymorphism and these three endophenotypes. One hundred four SCZ patients (DSM-IV-R criteria) and 89 healthy controls were included in this study. P50 auditory-evoked potential inhibition, antisaccade paradigm and SPEM were analyzed...
October 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818324/the-sigma-1-receptor-mediates-the-beneficial-effects-of-pridopidine-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-disease
#15
Daniel Ryskamp, Jun Wu, Michal Geva, Rebecca Kusko, Iris Grossman, Michael Hayden, Ilya Bezprozvanny
The tri-nucleotide repeat expansion underlying Huntington disease (HD) results in corticostriatal synaptic dysfunction and subsequent neurodegeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). HD is a devastating autosomal dominant disease with no disease-modifying treatments. Pridopidine, a postulated "dopamine stabilizer", has been shown to improve motor symptoms in clinical trials of HD. However, the target(s) and mechanism of action of pridopidine remain to be fully elucidated. As binding studies identified sigma-1 receptor (S1R) as a high-affinity receptor for pridopidine, we evaluated the relevance of S1R as a therapeutic target of pridopidine in HD...
November 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817030/gene-expression-of-proteins-of-the-vesicle-cycle-in-the-striatum-and-motor-cortex-under-functional-failure-of-nigrostriatal-system
#16
E R Mingazov, M V Ugrumov
Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the decrease in the dopamine level in the striatum lead to dysfunctions of motor behavior. This is accompanied by dysregulation of neuro-transmission in glutamatergic neurons of the motor cortex and GABA-ergic neurons of the striatum. It is shown that dysregulation of the gene expression of vesicle cycle proteins in neurons of the motor cortex occurs at an early (presymptomatic) stage of degeneration of the nigrostriatal system, and in more severe degeneration (symptomatic stage) the level of gene expression of vesicle cycle proteins in the striatum decreases...
September 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814639/dopamine-homeostasis-brain-functional-connectivity-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#17
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, David Baron, Panayotis K Thanos, Luis M Colon-Perez, Zsolt Demortrovics, Mark S Gold
Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) was first proposed by Kenneth Blum in 1995 to provide a clinically relevant and predictive term for conditions involving deficits in mesocorticolimbic dopamine function. Genetic, molecular, and neuronal alterations in key components of this circuitry contribute to a reward deficit state that can drive drug-seeking, consumption, and relapse. Among the dysfunctions observed in RDS are dysregulated resting state networks, which recently have been assessed in detail in chronic drug users by, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity analysis...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813530/involvement-of-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-lateral-habenula-in-dopamine-attenuation-after-chronic-mild-stress
#18
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Anthony A Grace
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examine the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)-ie rodent homologue of Brodmann Area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb), in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity...
November 4, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802175/neurotransmitter-alteration-in-a-testosterone-propionate-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-rat-model
#19
Nirja K Chaudhari, Laxmipriya P Nampoothiri
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Also, these neurotransmitters are very crucial for GnRH release...
October 29, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796511/neuromolecular-imaging-a-nanobiotechnology-for-parkinson-s-disease-advancing-pharmacotherapy-for-personalized-medicine
#20
P A Broderick, L Wenning, Y-S Li
Evaluating each patient and animal as its own control achieves personalized medicine, which honors the hippocratic philosophy, explaining that "it is far more important to know what person has the disease than what disease the person has." Similarly, individualizing molecular signaling directly from the patient's brain in real time is essential for providing prompt, patient-based treatment as dictated by the point of care. Fortunately, nanotechnology effectively treats many neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the new medicinal frontier for the discovery of therapy for Parkinson's disease is nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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