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Automatic CPR devices 

Lukasz Szarpak, Zenon Truszewski, Jacek Smereka, Paweł Krajewski, Marcin Fudalej, Piotr Adamczyk, Lukasz Czyzewski
UNLABELLED: Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable.The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christian Werner Busch, Mohammed Qalanawi, Jan Felix Kersten, Tobias Johannes Kalwa, Norman Alexander Scotti, Wikhart Reip, Christoph Doehn, Stefan Maisch, Rainer Nitzschke
BACKGROUND: Medical teams with limited experience in performing advanced life support (ALS) or with a low frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while on duty, often have difficulty complying with CPR guidelines. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether the quality of CPR of trained medical students, who served as an example of teams with limited experience in ALS, could be improved with device assistance. The primary outcome was the hands-off time (i.e...
October 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jason E Buick, Katherine S Allan, Joel G Ray, Alexander Kiss, Paul Dorian, Peter Gozdyra, Laurie J Morrison
BACKGROUND: Traditional variables used to explain survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) account for only 72% of survival, suggesting that other unknown factors may influence outcomes. Research on other diseases suggests that neighbourhood factors may partly determine health outcomes. Yet, this approach has rarely been used for OHCA. This work outlines a methodology to investigate multiple neighbourhood factors as determinants of OHCA outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study design will be used...
May 2015: CJEM
Mariana Gonzalez, Marion Leary, Audrey L Blewer, Marisa Cinousis, Kelsey Sheak, Michael Ward, Raina M Merchant, Lance B Becker, Benjamin S Abella
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) strikes over 40,000 people in the public environment annually in the U.S., but despite evidence-based interventions such as prompt CPR and defibrillation, less than 25% of patients survive public SCA events. Effective use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), especially by lay bystanders, represents an important strategy to improve survival rates. Previous investigations in Europe and Asia have demonstrated variable public awareness of AEDs; layperson knowledge of AEDs in the U...
July 2015: Resuscitation
Elaine Catrin Schubert, Karl-Georg Kanz, Ulrich Linsenmaier, Viktoria Bogner, Stefan Wirth, Matthias Angstwurm
Precise therapeutic decision-making is vital in managing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We present an interesting approach where suspected pulmonary embolism could be confirmed by early computed tomography in cardiac arrest. Chest compressions were performed automatically by mechanical devices also during the acquisition of computed tomography data and subsequent thrombolysis.
January 2016: CJEM
Guang Zhang, Taihu Wu, Zhenxing Song, Haitao Wang, Hengzhi Lu, Yalin Wang, Dan Wang, Feng Chen
Chest compression (CC) is a significant emergency medical procedure for maintaining circulation during cardiac arrest. Although CC produces the necessary blood flow for patients with heart arrest, improperly deep CC will contribute significantly to the risk of chest injury. In this paper, an optimal CC closed-loop controller for a mechanical chest compressor (OCC-MCC) was developed to provide an effective trade-off between the benefit of improved blood perfusion and the risk of ribs fracture. The trade-off performance of the OCC-MCC during real automatic mechanical CCs was evaluated by comparing the OCC-MCC and the traditional mechanical CC method (TMCM) with a human circulation hardware model based on hardware simulations...
June 2015: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Matthias Helm, Benedikt Haunstein, Thomas Schlechtriemen, Matthias Ruppert, Lorenz Lampl, Michael Gäßler
BACKGROUND: Intraosseous access (IO) is a rapid and safe alternative when peripheral venous access is difficult. Our aim was to summarize the first three years experience with the use of a semi-automatic IO device (EZ-IO(®)) in German Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS). METHODS: Included were all patients during study period (January 2009-December 2011) requiring an IO access performed by HEMS team. Outcome variables were IO rate, IO insertion success rates, site of IO access, type of EZ-IO(®) needle set used, strategy of vascular access, procedure related problems and operator's satisfaction...
March 2015: Resuscitation
M Fischer, M Breil, M Ihli, M Messelken, S Rauch, J-C Schewe
In Germany 100,000-160,000 people suffer from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) annually. The incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after OHCA varies between emergency ambulance services but is in the range of 30-90 CPR attempts per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Basic life support (BLS) involving chest compressions and ventilation is the key measure of resuscitation. Rapid initiation and quality of BLS are the most critical factors for CPR success. Even healthcare professionals are not always able to ensure the quality of CPR measures...
March 2014: Der Anaesthesist
P Schober, R Krage, V Lagerburg, D Van Groeningen, S A Loer, L A Schwarte
BACKGROUND: Current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-guidelines recommend an increased chest compression depth and rate compared to previous guidelines, and the use of automatic feedback devices is encouraged. However, it is unclear whether this compression depth can be maintained at an increased frequency. Moreover, the underlying surface may influence accuracy of feedback devices. We investigated compression depths over time and evaluated the accuracy of a feedback device on different surfaces...
April 2014: Minerva Anestesiologica
Xudong Hu, Andrew Ramadeen, Gabriel Laurent, Petsy Pui-Sze So, Ehtesham Baig, Gregory M T Hare, Paul Dorian
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest is an important cause of mortality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival, however, delivery of effective CPR can be challenging and combining effective chest compressions with ventilation, while avoiding over-ventilation is difficult. We hypothesized that ventilation with a pneumatically powered, automatic ventilator (Oxylator(®)) can provide adequate ventilation in a model of cardiac arrest and improve the consistency of ventilations during CPR...
August 2013: Resuscitation
Christopher John Acott
Basic life support (BLS) in a diving bell (DB) or deck decompression chamber (DDC) is difficult due to the confined space and limited equipment. Retrieval of the unconscious diver into the DB requires the use of a pulley system. Once inside the bell, space limitations dictate that any resuscitative efforts are attempted with the victim (diver) either suspended in the upright position by the pulley system or lying against the DB's curved side in a semi-supine position. BLS at best achieves a carotid artery systolic blood pressure of 40 mmHg or 30% of cardiac output in the supine position and, therefore, would be ineffective for a diver suspended on a pulley due to inadequate cerebral perfusion...
June 2008: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Hichem Chenaitia, Marc Fournier, Jean Paul Brun, Pierre Michelet, Jean Pierre Auffray
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause of sudden death; the use of prehospital thrombolysis is currently a last-resort option and requires a prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Novel mechanical devices have recently been introduced that provides automatic mechanical chest compression (AMCC) according to the guidelines and continually without decrease efficiency throughout prolonged resuscitation. A 54 year-old woman with a history of breast cancer experienced sudden chest pain and severe dyspnea...
July 2012: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kathryn Zeitz, Hugh Grantham, Robert Elliot, Chris Zeitz
INTRODUCTION: Sudden, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has an annual incidence of approximately 50 per 100,000 population. Public access defibrillation is seen as one of the key strategies in the chain-of-survival for OHCA. Positioning of these devices is important for the maximization of public health outcomes. The literature strongly advocates widespread public access to automated external defibrillatiors (AEDs). The most efficient placement of AEDs within individual communities remains unclear...
November 2010: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Hendrik Bonnemeier, Gregor Simonis, Göran Olivecrona, Britta Weidtmann, Matthias Götberg, Gunther Weitz, Ivana Gerling, Ruth Strasser, Norbert Frey
UNLABELLED: Survival after in-hospital pulseless electrical activity (PEA) cardiac arrest is poor and has not changed during the last 10 years. Effective chest compressions may improve survival after PEA. We investigated whether a mechanical device (LUCAS™-CPR) can ensure chest compressions during cardiac arrest according to guidelines and without interruption during transport, diagnostic procedures and in the catheter laboratory. METHODS: We studied mechanical chest compression in 28 patients with PEA (pulmonary embolism (PE) n=14; cardiogenic shock/acute myocardial infarction; n=9; severe hyperkalemia; n=2; sustained ventricular arrhythmias/electrical storm; n=3) in a university hospital setting...
February 2011: Resuscitation
Bakhtiar Ali, Heather Bloom, Emir Veledar, Dorothy House, Robert Norvel, Samuel C Dudley, A Maziar Zafari
BACKGROUND: In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events is pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). Early defibrillation is an independent predictor of survival in CPR events caused by VT/VF. The automated external cardioverter defibrillator (AECD) is a device attached by pads to the chest wall that monitors, detects, and within seconds, automatically delivers electric countershock to an appropriate tachyarrhythmia...
2008: Trials
H Jäntti, M Kuisma, A Uusaro
AIM OF THE STUDY: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines changed in 2005. We investigated the impact of these changes on no flow time and on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Simulated cardiac arrest (CA) scenarios were managed randomly in manikins using ERC 2000 or 2005 guidelines. Pairs of paramedics/paramedic students treated 34 scenarios with 10min of continuous ventricular fibrillation. The rhythm was analysed and defibrillation shocks were delivered with a semi-automatic defibrillator, and breathing was assisted with a bag-valve-mask; no intravenous medication was given...
November 2007: Resuscitation
Ronald D Berger, James Palazzolo, Henry Halperin
BACKGROUND: Due to motion artifact in the ECG caused by chest compressions automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) have difficulty recognizing ventricular fibrillation (VF) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Frequent interruption of CPR is required for artifact-free ECG interpretation, but these interruptions reduce the efficacy of CPR. We developed a motion artifact reduction system (MARS), based on adaptive noise cancellation techniques, for use during CPR. We hypothesized that this system would allow for automated rhythm discrimination during uninterrupted CPR...
October 2007: Resuscitation
Stig Steen, Trygve Sjöberg, Paul Olsson, Marie Young
Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System (LUCAS) is a new gas-driven CPR device providing automatic chest compression and active decompression. This is a report of the first 100 consecutive cases treated with LUCAS due to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (58% asystole, 42% ventricular fibrillation (VF)). Safety aspects were also investigated and it was found that LUCAS can be used safely regarding noise levels and oxygen concentrations within the ambulance. A crash test (10G) showed no displacement of the device from the manikin...
October 2005: Resuscitation
L J Williamson, P D Larsen, Y C Tzeng, D C Galletly
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) audio prompts in an automatic external defibrillator in 24 lay subjects, before and after CPR training. METHODS: Untrained subjects were asked to perform CPR on a manikin with and without the assistance of audio prompts. All subjects were then trained in CPR, and retested them eight weeks later. RESULTS: Untrained subjects who performed CPR first without audio prompts performed poorly, with only (mean (SD)) 24...
February 2005: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
G J Noordergraaf, P J van Dun, B P Kramer, M P Schors, H P Hornman, W de Jong, A Noordergraaf
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capability of first responders to ensure an airway and ventilate the lungs of a patient employing a bag-valve device and two oxygen-driven resuscitators. METHODS: Prospective, controlled, blinded, single-centre clinical trial using a bag-valve device and one of two FR-300 devices, with 20 cmH2O working pressure, flows of 24 and 30 L min(-1). One-hundred-and-four patients were analysed. Induction of anaesthesia was followed by ventilation of the lungs with a bag-valve device and an Oxylator (CPR Medical Devices Corp...
May 2004: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
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