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Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Muhammad Atif, Arslan Bashir, Nafees Ahmad, Razia Kaneez Fatima, Sehar Saba, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Interim treatment outcomes at 6-months for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment are among the most basic performance monitoring and key evaluation indicators in the Stop and End TB strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the interim treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients in Pakistan. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Programmatic Management Unit for Drug-resistance TB (PMDT) site of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), Pakistan...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
T Tupasi, A M C G Garfin, J M Mangan, R Orillaza-Chi, L C Naval, G I Balane, R Basilio, A Golubkov, E S Joson, W-J Lew, V Lofranco, M Mantala, S Pancho, J N Sarol, A Blumberg, D Burt, E V Kurbatova
SETTING: Patients who initiated treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at 15 Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) health facilities in the Philippines between July and December 2012. OBJECTIVES: To describe patients' views of current interventions, and suggest changes likely to reduce MDR-TB loss to follow-up. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between April and July 2014 with MDR-TB patients who were undergoing treatment, had finished treatment at the time of the interview (controls), or had been lost to follow-up (LTFU)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Irfan Ullah, Aamer Ali Shah, Anila Basit, Mazhar Ali, Afsar Khan, Ubaid Ullah, Muhammad Ihtesham, Sumaira Mehreen, Anita Mughal, Arshad Javaid
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem especially in developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to simultaneously detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of MDR-TB in patients suspected to have drug resistance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The frequency of probes for various rpoB gene mutations using Xpert MTB/RIF assay within 81 bp RRDR (Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region) was the secondary objective...
August 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Carole D Mitnick, Carly A Rodriguez, Marita L Hatton, Grania Brigden, Frank Cobelens, Martin P Grobusch, Robert Horsburgh, Christoph Lange, Christian Lienhardt, Eyal Oren, Laura J Podewils, Barbara Seaworth, Susan van den Hof, Charles L Daley, Agnes C Gebhard, Fraser Wares
INTRODUCTION: There are numerous challenges in delivering appropriate treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the evidence base to guide those practices remains limited. We present the third updated Research Agenda for the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT), assembled through a literature review and survey. METHODS: Publications citing the 2008 research agenda and normative documents were reviewed for evidence gaps. Gaps were formulated into questions and grouped as in the 2008 research agenda: Laboratory Support, Treatment Strategy, Programmatically Relevant Research, Epidemiology, and Management of Contacts...
2016: PloS One
Woojin Lew, Rosalind Vianzon, Anna Marie Celina Garfin, Julie Lyn Hall
PROBLEM: Typhoon Haiyan damaged or destroyed health infrastructure, equipment and services essential to the Philippine National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP), and it had to be re-established in the affected areas in Regions 6, 7 and 8. Continuing treatment and restoring diagnostic capacity were also challenging. CONTEXT: The Philippines has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world. At the time of Typhoon Haiyan, there were an estimated 26 ,00 TB cases on treatment at directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) centres and 356 multidrug-resistant TB cases registered at programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT) sites...
October 2015: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Ritu Singhal, Neeta Singla, Vithal Prasad Myneedu, Niti Singh, Rohit Sarin
There are limited data of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosed in various patient categories by implementing Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant TB (PMDT) using line probe assay (LPA) from our country. Samples from presumptive MDR-TB from five districts of New Delhi were subjected to LPA from 1st October 2011 to 31st December 2014. The MDR-TB diagnosed in 4th & 5th month follow-up positives were significantly higher than other categories of the patients. Only 3/232 (2.2%) RIF resistants were diagnosed among smear negative re-treatment cases...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Thuy Thi Thanh Hoang, Nhung Viet Nguyen, Sy Ngoc Dinh, Hoa Binh Nguyen, Frank Cobelens, Guy Thwaites, Huong Thien Nguyen, Anh Thu Nguyen, Pamela Wright, Heiman F L Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Vietnam is ranked 14(th) among 27 countries with high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In 2009, the Vietnamese government issued a policy on MDR-TB called Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) to enhance and scale up diagnosis and treatment services for MDR-TB. Here we assess the PMDT performance in 2013 to determine the challenges to the successful identification and enrollment for treatment of MDR-TB in Vietnam. METHODS: In 35 provinces implementing PMDT, we quantified the number of MDR-TB presumptive patients tested for MDR-TB by Xpert MTB/RIF and the number of MDR-TB patients started on second-line treatment...
September 29, 2015: BMC Public Health
Surajit Lahiri, Abhijit Mukherjee, Supabitra Hazra, Pulak Jana, Sandip Roy, Brojo Kishore Saha
BACKGROUND: Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT) under the RNTCP is being implemented in West Bengal in a phased manner since 2011. During the initial years MDR-TB cases were identified based on criteria A. This study examines the first line anti-tubercular drug resistance pattern of mycobacteria cultured from sputum samples of MDR suspects who were retreatment cases smear positive from 4(th) month onwards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the following retrospective record based study, data on Drug Sensitivity Testing (DST) of sputum samples of MDR suspects between September 2011 and August 2012 were collected from the IRL Kolkata and analysed...
March 2015: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
T Islam, B J Marais, N V Nhung, C-Y Chiang, W W Yew, T Yoshiyama, N R Mira, J van den Broek, R Lumb, N Nishikiori, L B Reichman
The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR) was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT). We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges...
March 2015: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
R Singhal, V P Myneedu, J Arora, N Singh, M Bhalla, A Verma, R Sarin
PURPOSE: There is scarcity of prevalence data of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) data and common mutations responsible in North India. This study aimed to detect MDR-TB among MDR-TB suspects from Delhi and mutation patterns using GenoType MTBDRplus assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All MDR suspects in five districts of New Delhi were referred to the laboratory from 1 st October 2011 to 31 st December 2012 as per criterion defined by Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT)...
February 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Charles L Daley
Worldwide, an estimated 8.6 million people develop tuberculosis (TB) each year resulting in 1.3 million deaths. Although rates of TB are declining in many areas of the world, the emergence of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis threatens to undermine TB control programmes. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), strains that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, are more difficult to diagnose and treat than other forms of TB and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Unfortunately, most countries with a high burden of MDR-TB detect less than 25% of the estimated MDR-TB cases and among those detected only 82% are treated...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Fel Angelie Colon
SESSION TITLE: Respiratory Infections Posters IISESSION TYPE: Original Investigation PosterPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 29, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMPURPOSE: GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To find out the profile of MDRTB patients with positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF result at the PMDT Unit of WVMC. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE: To find out the most common affected gender, age group, area of residence, site of body affected , chest x ray findings, registration group and previous treatment received prior to referral to PMDT of MDRTB patients...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Yang-Xin Yu
Electroactive organic compounds are a novel group of green cathode materials for rechargeable metal-ion batteries. However, the organic battery life is short because the organic compounds can be dissolved by nonaqueous electrolytes. Here a comparative investigation of phenanthraquinone (PQ), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and their derivatives, i.e., benzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']difuran-4,5-dione (BDFD), benzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene-4,5-quinone (BDTQ), 3,8-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PAD), pyromellitic dithioanhydride (PMDT), pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and 1,4,5,8-anthracenetetrone (ATO), adsorbed on graphene is performed using a density functional theory (DFT) with a van der Waals (vdW) dispersion-correction...
September 24, 2014: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Ashok Kumar, Prahalad Kumar, Ranjani Ramachandran
The RNTCP is implementing the Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) for detecting and treating drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Diagnostic services for DR-TB is provided through a network of RNTCP certified Culture and Drug Susceptibility Testing (C&DST) laboratories.This paper describes about the process involved in certification of C&DST laboratories for different technologies used in RNTCP.
July 2012: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Yatin Dholakia, Zahir Quazi, Nerges Mistry
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) avail of private care since Programmatic Management of DR TB (PMDT) is not universally available in India. Management of DR TB is challenging and involves great expertise. Chest physicians (CPs) play a major role in this area. The study was undertaken with the objective to see whether the practices of CPs comply with current guidelines and to identify areas where they could be involved to improve access to PMDT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, CPs from Mumbai and Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, were given pretested questionnaires to be filled in and returned...
January 2012: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Manfred Georg Krukemeyer, Veit Krenn, Martin Jakobs, Wolfgang Wagner
BACKGROUND: Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a new treatment principle for tumors. Passive MDT (pMDT) uses cytostatics coupled to ferromagnetic nanoparticles, whereas in active MDT (aMDT), extracorporeal magnets are additionally placed over the tumor area. PURPOSE: Mitoxantrone-magnetite-dextran composite particles were used to assess the distribution and effect of MDT. METHODS: We conducted two trials with n = 60 rats transfected with R(1)H rhabdomyosarcoma cells...
February 2012: Journal of Drug Targeting
Melissa L Wright, Diane E Adamo, Susan H Brown
Age-related changes in proprioceptive ability and their contributions to postural instability have been well documented. In contrast, and despite the known importance of proprioceptive feedback in the control of coordinated arm and hand movement, studies focusing on upper limb proprioception in older populations are few and equivocal in their findings. This study focused on kinesthetic awareness about the wrist joint in healthy young and older adults. Passive movement detection thresholds (PMDTs) were twice as high in older compared to young participants...
August 15, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
Marleen Renders, Roel Lievrouw, Marcela Krecmerová, Antonin Holý, Piet Herdewijn
5'-O-phosphonomethyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (PMdA) proved to be a good substrate of the Therminator polymerase. In this article, we investigated whether the A, C, T and U analogues of this phosphonate nucleoside (PMdN) series can function as substrates of natural DNA polymerases. PMdT and PMdU could only be polymerized enzymatically to a limited extent. Nevertheless, PMdA and PMdC could be incorporated into a DNA duplex with complete chain elongation by all the DNA polymerases tested. A mixed sequence of four nucleotides containing modified C, T and A residues could be obtained with the Vent(exo(-)) and Therminator polymerases...
November 24, 2008: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Kazuyuki Daitoku, Kazuhiko Seya, Ken-Ichi Furukawa, Shigeru Motomura
It is important to accurately and conveniently assess the effects of L- and N-type Ca(2+) channel blocking drugs, which are commonly used for treatment of hypertension, but no method is available to simultaneously assess the effects of them in the same preparation. We have therefore designed an ex vivo method to measure the changes in contractile response of anterior papillary muscle of right ventricle and myocardial interstitial norepinephrine (NE) level using canine blood-perfused papillary muscle preparations...
August 2007: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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