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Circulatory physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923109/current-challenges-in-neonatal-resuscitation-what-is-the-role-of-adrenaline
#1
REVIEW
Roberto Antonucci, Luca Antonucci, Cristian Locci, Annalisa Porcella, Laura Cuzzolin
Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication. It is the best established drug in neonatal resuscitation, but only weak evidence supports current recommendations for its use. Furthermore, the available evidence is partly based on extrapolations from adult studies, and this introduces further uncertainty, especially when considering the unique physiological characteristics of newly born infants. The timing, dose, and route of administration of adrenaline are still debated, even though this medication has been used in neonatal resuscitation for a long time...
June 19, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903893/living-without-a-pulse-the-vascular-implications-of-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#2
Suneet N Purohit, William K Cornwell, Jay D Pal, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Amrut V Ambardekar
Pulsatility seems to have a teleological role because evolutionary hierarchy favors higher ordered animals with more complex, multichamber circulatory systems that generate higher pulse pressure compared with lower ordered animals. Yet despite years of such natural selection, the modern generation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) that have been increasingly used for the last decade have created a unique physiology characterized by a nonpulsatile, nonlaminar blood flow profile with the absence of the usual large elastic artery Windkessel effect during diastole...
June 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899172/dietary-intake-of-energy-and-nutrients-from-breakfast-and-risk-of-stroke-in-the-japanese-population-the-circulatory-risk-in-communities-study-circs
#3
Chika Okada, Hironori Imano, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Renzhe Cui, Mitsumasa Umesawa, Koutatsu Maruyama, Isao Muraki, Mina Hayama-Terada, Yuji Shimizu, Tomoko Sankai, Takeo Okada, Masahiko Kiyama, Akihiko Kitamura, Hiroyasu Iso
AIMS: The frequency of breakfast intake has been reported to be inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular events; however, it is uncertain what the impact of the energy and nutrient intakes from breakfast are. We assessed the association between these intakes from breakfast and the risk of stroke prospectively. METHODS: In a baseline survey of four Japanese communities between 1981 and 1990, we enrolled 3 248 residents (1 662 men and 1 586 women) aged 40-59 years who were free from stroke and heart disease and who responded to the 24-hour dietary recall survey...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892476/ambulatory-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-in-advanced-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Syed Yaseen Naqvi, Ibrahim G Salama, Ayhan Yoruk, Leway Chen
Cardiac transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with advanced congestive heart failure that is refractory to maximal medical therapy. However, donor heart availability remains the major limiting factor, resulting in a large number of patients waiting long periods of time before transplantation. As a result, mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly used as a 'bridge' in order to sustain organ function and stabilise haemodynamics while patients remain on the transplant waiting list or undergo left ventricular assist device surgery...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877889/performance-of-noninvasive-assessment-in-the-diagnosis-of-right-heart-failure-after-left-ventricular-assist-device
#5
Joanna M Joly, Ashraf El-Dabh, Ramey Marshell, Arka Chatterjee, Michelle G Smith, Margaret Tresler, James K Kirklin, Deepak Acharya, Indranee N Rajapreyar, José A Tallaj, Salpy V Pamboukian
Right heart failure (RHF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is associated with poor outcomes. Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) defines RHF as elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) plus venous congestion. The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic performance of the noninvasive INTERMACS criteria using RAP as the gold standard. We analyzed 108 patients with LVAD who underwent 341 right heart catheterizations (RHC) between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013...
June 1, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874737/effects-of-hg-sublethal-exposure-in-the-brain-of-peacock-blennies-salaria-pavo-molecular-physiological-and-histopathological-analysis
#6
Azza Naïja, Patrick Kestemont, Benoit Chénais, Zohra Haouas, Ronny Blust, Ahmed Noureddine Helal, Justine Marchand
Marine environments are affected by large amounts of toxicants among those mercury (Hg). The aim of this study was to assess potential neurotoxic effects of Hg in the peacock blenny Salaria pavo. A sublethal contamination to 66 μg HgCl2 L-1 over periods of 1, 4, 10 and 15 days was performed. Total Hg concentrations measured in the brain highlighted the detection of Hg at days 1 and 4 following the exposure but no concentration of the metal was further detected. Partial-length cDNA of genes coding ABC transporters (abcb1, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2) and acetylcholinesterase (ache) were characterized...
February 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874095/anuran-amphibians-as-comparative-models-for-understanding-extreme-dehydration-tolerance-a-negative-feedback-lymphatic-mechanism-for-blood-volume-regulation
#7
Stanley S Hillman
Anurans are the most terrestrial order of amphibians. Couple the high driving forces for evaporative loss in terrestrial environments and their low resistance to evaporation, dehydration is an inevitable stress on their water balance. Anurans have the greatest tolerances for dehydration of any vertebrate group, some species can tolerate evaporative losses up to 45% of their standard body mass. Anurans have remarkable capacities to regulate blood volume with hemorrhage and dehydration compared to mammals. Stabilization of blood volume is central to extending dehydration tolerance, since it avoids both the hypovolemic and hyperviscosity stresses on cardiac output and its consequential effects on aerobic capacity...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861103/blunted-peripheral-blood-supply-and-underdeveloped-skeletal-muscle-in-fontan-patients-the-impact-on-functional-capacity
#8
Aida Luiza Ribeiro Turquetto, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Daniela Regina Agostinho, Patrícia Alves de Oliveira, Yarla Alves Dos Santos, Gabriela Liberato, Maria Angélica Binotto, Maria Concepcion Garcia Otaduy, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Luiz Fernando Canêo, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli Jatene
BACKGROUND: Changes in circulatory physiology are common in Fontan patients due to suboptimal cardiac output, which may reduce the peripheral blood flow and impair the skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to investigate the forearm blood flow (FBF), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh and functional capacity in asymptomatic clinically stable patients undergoing Fontan surgery. METHODS: Thirty Fontan patients and 27 healthy subjects underwent venous occlusion plethysmography, magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh musculature and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843285/experimental-investigation-of-the-determination-for-the-safe-operating-regime-of-ultrasound-tube-shaped-waveguide-wire-for-internal-blood-vessel-debulking
#9
Algimantas Bubulis, Mantas Venslauskas, Jonas Navickas, Silvijus Abramavičius, Edgaras Stankevičius
BACKGROUND: Majority of limb amputations are caused by circulatory disturbances such as vascular occlusions and strictures. Discovery of modern and more advanced ultrasonic interventional vascular debulking methodology would likely save limbs of CVD patients and their lives in an economical way. However, there is a lack of researches regarding the ultrasound's effect on physiological functions of human blood cells. The tube-shaped ultrasound waveguide wire with orifices at its operational end was offered as the alternative to some currently patented interventional thrombosis treatment solutions...
May 18, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803101/high-altitude-with-monotonous-environment-has-significant-impact-on-mood-and-cognitive-performance-of-acclimatized-lowlanders-possible-role-of-altered-serum-bdnf-and-plasma-homocysteine-level
#10
Saroj Kumar Das, Priyanka Dhar, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Kalpana Barhwal, Sunil Kumar Hota, Tsering Norboo, Shashi Bala Singh
BACKGROUND: Monotony resulting due to the wilderness, sparse population and isolation from society could adversely affect human physiology and cause mood alterations. Thus, observations need to be conducted in order to elucidate the possible role of circulating biomarkers in inducing altered mood and cognitive performance following prolonged exposure to high altitude (HA) with persistent monotonous environment. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed towards investigating the impact of monotonous environment in remote HA on mood and cognitive performance of human volunteers and its correlation with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and plasma homocysteine level...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802622/the-pannexin1-membrane-channel-distinct-conformations-and-functions
#11
Gerhard Dahl
The Pannexin1(Panx1) membrane channel responds to different stimuli with distinct channel conformations. Most stimuli induce a large cation- and ATP-permeable conformation, hence Panx1 is involved in many physiological processes entailing purinergic signaling. For example, oxygen delivery in the peripheral circulatory system is regulated by ATP released from red blood cells and endothelial cells through Panx1 channels. The same membrane channel, however, when stimulated by positive membrane potential or by cleavage with caspase 3, is highly selective for the passage of chloride ions, excluding cations and ATP...
May 26, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791320/modelling-the-cerebral-haemodynamic-response-in-the-physiological-range-of-paco-sub-2-sub
#12
Jatinder Singh Minhas, Ronney B Panerai, Thompson G Robinson
Objective
 Arterial CO<sub>2</sub> (PaCO<sub>2</sub>) has a strong effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), but its influence on CBF regulatory mechanisms and circulatory systemic variables has not been fully described over the entire physiological range of PaCO<sub>2</sub>. 
 
 Approach
 CBF velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (BP, Finometer) and end-tidal CO<sub>2</sub> (EtCO<sub>2</sub>, capnography) were measured in 45 healthy volunteers (19 male, mean age 37...
May 23, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788811/central-ecmo-for-circulatory-failure-following-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#13
John P Scott, Johnny C Hong, Nathan E Thompson, Ronald K Woods, George M Hoffman
We describe the case of a 4-year-old male with a past medical history significant for nephrotic syndrome, short-bowel syndrome and fulminant hepatic failure status post (s/p) liver transplant (LT) who developed early post-transplant allograft dysfunction (hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy) and septic shock requiring central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). He remained on ECMO for 85 hours before he was decannulated without event and later underwent repeat LT. This case highlights the potential of central ECMO to provide the circulatory output necessary to reverse distributive shock physiology in patients with sepsis and hepatic dysfunction following LT...
May 1, 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774232/multiple-origins-of-green-blood-in-new-guinea-lizards
#14
Zachary B Rodriguez, Susan L Perkins, Christopher C Austin
Several species of lizards from the megadiverse island of New Guinea have evolved green blood. An unusually high concentration of the green bile pigment biliverdin in the circulatory system of these lizards makes the blood, muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissues bright green in color, eclipsing the crimson color from their red blood cells. This is a remarkable physiological feature because bile pigments are toxic physiological waste products of red blood cell catabolism and, when chronically elevated, cause jaundice in humans and all other vertebrates...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773069/high-altitude-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Maurizio Bussotti, Giovanni Marchese
The effects of hypoxia on the human organism has been considered doubly fascinating by the scientific community: the knowledge of the discrete mechanisms allowing the acclimatization both at the genetic level or through the cell mediators production in addition to the macroscopic responses of the cardio-circulatory and ventilatory systems to a hypoxic environment has been progressively developed since the last century; moreover granting a safer stay in hypoxic conditions not only for the residents but also for the different cathegories of workers, sportsmen and tourists has been considered a worthy aim of the medical activity...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758129/twenty-four-hour-normothermic-perfusion-of-discarded-human-kidneys-with-urine-recirculation
#16
Annemarie Weissenbacher, Letizia Lo Faro, Olga Boubriak, Maria F Soares, Ian S Roberts, James P Hunter, Daniel Voyce, Nikolay Mikov, Andrew Cook, Rutger J Ploeg, Constantin C Coussios, Peter J Friend
Transportable normothermic kidney perfusion for 24 hours or longer could enable viability assessment of marginal grafts, increased organ utilization and improved transplantation logistics. Eleven clinically-declined kidneys were perfused normothermically, six from donors after brain stem death (DBD, median cold ischemia time 33±36.9 hours) and five from donors after circulatory death (DCD, 36.2±38.3 hours): n=3 kidneys were perfused using Ringer's lactate to replace excreted urine volume, and n=8 using urine recirculation to maintain perfusate volume without fluid replenishment...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753817/arch-augmentation-via-median-sternotomy-for-coarctation-of-aorta-with-proximal-arch-hypoplasia
#17
W Hampton Gray, Winfield J Wells, Vaughn A Starnes, S Ram Kumar
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta can be associated with hypoplasia of the proximal transverse aortic arch. One approach to manage this condition is via left thoracotomy and extended end-to-end anastomosis with the expectation that the proximal arch will grow over time. Our preferred approach is to augment the aorta via midline sternotomy. We hypothesized that this approach is safe, durable and allows reliable growth of the aorta. METHODS: We identified the records of patients with biventricular anatomy who had coarctation of the aorta, hypoplasia of the proximal transverse arch, and no other cardiac lesion that would mandate cardiopulmonary bypass use and midline sternotomy...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730077/ex-vivo-normothermic-porcine-pancreas-a-physiological-model-for-preservation-and-transplant-study
#18
Rohan Kumar, Wen Yuan Chung, Franscois Runau, John David Isherwood, Kean Guan Kuan, Kevin West, Giuseppe Garcea, Ashley Robert Dennison
INTRODUCTION: An ex vivo normothermic porcine pancreas perfusion (ENPPP) model was established to investigate effects of machine perfusion pressures on graft preservation. METHODOLOGY: Nine porcine pancreata were perfused with autologous blood at 50 mmHg (control) pressure. Graft viability was compared against four ex-vivo porcine pancreata perfused at 20 mmHg ('low') pressure. Arterio-venous oxygen gas differentials, biochemistry, and graft insulin responses to glucose stimulation were compared...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727607/rediscovery-of-otto-frank-s-contribution-to-science
#19
REVIEW
Johann P Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Angela Drake-Holland, Mark I M Noble, Brigitte Lohff, Jochen Schaefer
In the late 19th century, German physiologist Otto Frank (1865-1944) embarked on a near life-long research program of laying down the mathematical, methodological, and theoretical foundations in order to understand and define the performance of the heart and circulatory system in all their complexity. The existence of the "Frank-Starling law" testifies to this. Two of his seminal publications have been translated into English previously, introducing Frank's research on the dynamics of the heart and the arterial pulse to a wider audience...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698389/importance-of-integrating-nanotechnology-with-pharmacology-and-physiology-for-innovative-drug-delivery-and-therapy-an-illustration-with-firsthand-examples
#20
REVIEW
Rui Xue Zhang, Jason Li, Tian Zhang, Mohammad A Amini, Chunsheng He, Brian Lu, Taksim Ahmed, HoYin Lip, Andrew M Rauth, Xiao Yu Wu
Nanotechnology has been applied extensively in drug delivery to improve the therapeutic outcomes of various diseases. Tremendous efforts have been focused on the development of novel nanoparticles and delineation of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles in relation to their biological fate and functions. However, in the design and evaluation of these nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, the pharmacology of delivered drugs and the (patho-)physiology of the host have received less attention. In this review, we discuss important pharmacological mechanisms, physiological characteristics, and pathological factors that have been integrated into the design of nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery systems and therapies...
May 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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