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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812769/multiplex-coaxial-flow-focusing-for-producing-multicompartment-janus-microcapsules-with-tunable-material-compositions-and-structural-characteristics
#1
Qiang Wu, Chaoyu Yang, Guangli Liu, Wanghuai Xu, Zhiqiang Zhu, Ting Si, Ronald X Xu
We propose a simple but efficient multiplex coaxial flow focusing (MCFF) process for single-step fabrication of multicompartment Janus microcapsules (MJMs) in a wide range of operating parameters. The produced MJMs consist of a multicompartmental core-shell structure with material compositions tunable in individual shell and core compartments. Potential applications of such a MJM agent are demonstrated in both benchtop and in vitro experiments. For the benchtop experiment, magnetic nanoparticles are loaded into one of the shell compartments and photopolymerized under ultraviolet light for controlled alignment and rotation of the microcapsules in a magnetic field...
August 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812246/dna-tetrahedron-delivery-enhances-doxorubicin-induced-apoptosis-of-ht-29-colon-cancer-cells
#2
Guiyu Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Junen Yang
As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812183/anti-dll4-antibody-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-th17-cells-in-asthmatic-mice
#3
Cuiye Weng, Lei Chong, Xiaoxiao Jia, Rongying Zheng, Yue Huang, Tingting Zhu, Changchong Li, Weixi Zhang
T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in allergic asthma, and the Notch ligand Delta-like ligand (Dll)4 has been reported to direct the differentiation of Th17 cells. In this study, experimental animals were divided into five groups (control group, asthma group, physiological saline group, anti-Dll4 antibody group, and immunoglobulin G group). The study aimed to explore the effect of anti-Dll4 antibody on the differentiation of Th17 cell in asthmatic mice. Dll4 protein expressions were performed by immunohistochemical imaging...
August 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811971/preclinical-immunopet-ct-imaging-using-zr-89-labeled-anti-pd-l1-monoclonal-antibody-for-assessing-radiation-induced-pd-l1-upregulation-in-head-and-neck-cancer-and-melanoma
#4
Masahiro Kikuchi, David A Clump, Raghvendra M Srivastava, Lingyi Sun, Dexing Zeng, Julio A Diaz-Perez, Carolyn J Anderson, W Barry Edwards, Robert L Ferris
Radiation therapy (RT) can induce upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells or myeloid cells, which may affect response to PD-1-based immunotherapy. PD-L1 upregulation during RT is a dynamic process that has been difficult to monitor during treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RT-induced PD-L1 upregulation in the tumor and its microenvironment using immunoPET/CT imaging of two syngeneic murine tumor models (HPV+ head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) or B16F10 melanoma)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811710/single-amino-acid-mutation-of-sr-bi-decreases-infectivity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-derived-from-cell-culture-in-a-cell-culture-model
#5
Rong Gao, Wei Gao, Gang Xu, Jie Xu, Hao Ren
AIM: To investigate the effect of a single amino acid mutation in human class B scavenger receptor I (SR-BI) on the infectivity of cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus (HCVcc) in SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct the SR-BI S112F mutation, and the mutation was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells were transfected with SR-BI S112F, SR-BI wild type (WT) and control plasmids, and then infected with HCVpp (HCV pseudoparticles) and hepatitis C virus derived from cell culture (HCVcc)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811568/dynamic-x-ray-radiography-reveals-particle-size-and-shape-orientation-fields-during-granular-flow
#6
François Guillard, Benjy Marks, Itai Einav
When granular materials flow, the constituent particles segregate by size and align by shape. The impacts of these changes in fabric on the flow itself are not well understood, and thus novel non-invasive means are needed to observe the interior of the material. Here, we propose a new experimental technique using dynamic X-ray radiography to make such measurements possible. The technique is based on Fourier transformation to extract spatiotemporal fields of internal particle size and shape orientation distributions during flow, in addition to complementary measurements of velocity fields through image correlation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811527/atherosusceptible-shear-stress-activates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-promote-endothelial-inflammation
#7
Keith A Bailey, Fawaz G Haj, Scott I Simon, Anthony G Passerini
Atherosclerosis impacts arteries where disturbed blood flow renders the endothelium susceptible to inflammation. Cytokine activation of endothelial cells (EC) upregulates VCAM-1 receptors that target monocyte recruitment to atherosusceptible regions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits EC dysregulation in metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that ER plays a central role in mechanosensing of atherosusceptible shear stress (SS) by signaling enhanced inflammation. Aortic EC were stimulated with low-dose TNFα (0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811174/subchronic-exposure-to-sublethal-dose-of-imidacloprid-changes-electrophysiological-properties-and-expression-pattern-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-insect-neurosecretory-cells
#8
Yassine Benzidane, Delphine Goven, Aly Ahmed Abd-Ella, Caroline Deshayes, Bruno Lapied, Valérie Raymond
Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810809/optimization-of-human-nk-cell-manufacturing-fully-automated-separation-improved-i-ex-vivo-i-expansion-using-il-21-with-autologous-feeder-cells-and-generation-of-anti-cd123-car-expressing-effector-cells
#9
Stephan Klöß, Olaf Oberschmidt, Michael Morgan, Julia Dahlke, Lubomir Arseniev, Volker Huppert, Markus Granzin, Tanja Gardlowski, Nadine Matthies, Stefanie Soltenborn, Axel Schambach, Ulrike Koehl
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The administration of ex-vivo expanded Natural killer (NK) cells as potential antitumor effector cells appears to be suitable for effector cell-based immunotherapies in high-risk cancer patients. However, the GMP-conform manufacturing of clinical-grade NK cells at sufficiently high numbers represent a great challenge. Therefore, we improved and optimized previous expansion protocols for those effector cells through the use of newly developed culture medium, IL-21 and autologous feeder cells...
August 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810259/reliability-reproducibility-and-prognostic-accuracy-of-the-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-on-ct-perfusion-and-non-contrast-ct-in-hyperacute-stroke
#10
Jillian Naylor, Leonid Churilov, Ziyuan Chen, Miriam Koome, Neil Rane, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND: Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) assesses early ischemic change on non-contrast CT (NCCT). We hypothesised that assessing ASPECTS regions on CT Perfusion (CTP) rather than NCCT would improve inter-rater agreement and prognostic accuracy, particularly in patients presenting early after stroke onset. METHODS: Ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous alteplase from 2009 to 2014 at our institution were included in this study. Inter-rater agreement and prognostic accuracy of ASPECTS across modalities were analysed by the time between stroke onset and initial NCCT, dichotomized 1st quartile versus quartiles 2-4, referred to as epochs...
August 16, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810047/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-retinal-cavernous-hemangioma
#11
Luisa Pierro, Alessandro Marchese, Marco Gagliardi, Francesco Bandello
Retinal cavernous hemangioma is a rare, benign, retinal tumor characterized by angiomatous proliferation of vessels within the inner retina or the optic disc.1 Here we report a case of retinal cavernous hemangioma on the margin of the optic disc in the right eye of a 61-year-old asymptomatic female. The lesion was studied with multimodal imaging which included structural optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, blue fundus auto-fluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and visual field examination...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810037/quantitative-features-of-the-choriocapillaris-in-healthy-individuals-using-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#12
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Maximilian Pfau, Akihito Uji, Phillip P Le, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To quantify vessel density (VD) and grey value (GV) as a measure of flow in the choriocapillaris (CC) in healthy subjects with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, noncomparative case series, 3 mm × 3 mm OCTA images of 36 eyes of 22 healthy individuals were obtained using a swept-source instrument. VD and GV levels were calculated on CC en face slabs in the central 1-mm (subfoveal field) and surrounding 2...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810036/evaluation-of-macular-perfusion-in-healthy-smokers-by-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#13
Ziya Ayhan, Mahmut Kaya, Taylan Ozturk, Omer Karti, F Hakan Oner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the macular perfusion changes in healthy smokers by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: OCTA measurements were taken for the right eyes of 40 smokers (Group 1) and age- and sex-matched control cases (Group 2). Group 1 underwent OCTA scanning with the XR Avanti AngioVue OCTA (Optovue, Fremont, CA) at baseline and at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after one standard cigarette smoking...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#14
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809831/data-processing-methods-for-3d-seismic-imaging-of-subsurface-volcanoes-applications-to-the-tarim-flood-basalt
#15
Lei Wang, Wei Tian, Yongmin Shi
The morphology and structure of plumbing systems can provide key information on the eruption rate and style of basalt lava fields. The most powerful way to study subsurface geo-bodies is to use industrial 3D reflection seismological imaging. However, strategies to image subsurface volcanoes are very different from that of oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, we process seismic data cubes from the Northern Tarim Basin, China, to illustrate how to visualize sills through opacity rendering techniques and how to image the conduits by time-slicing...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809477/a-reversible-reaction-based-fluorescent-probe-for-real-time-imaging-of-glutathione-dynamics-in-mitochondria
#16
Jianwei Chen, Xiqian Jiang, Chengwei Zhang, Kevin MacKenzie, Fabio Stossi, Timothy Palzkill, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang
We report a mitochondria-specific glutathione (GSH) probe-designated as Mito-RealThiol (MitoRT)-that can monitor in vivo real-time mitochondrial glutathione dynamics, and apply this probe to follow mitochondrial GSH dynamic changes in living cells for the first time. MitoRT can be utilized in confocal microscopy, super-resolution fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometry systems. Using MitoRT, we demonstrate that cells have a high priority to maintain the GSH level in mitochondria compared to the cytosol not only under normal growing conditions but also upon oxidative stress...
August 15, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809092/particle-targeting-in-complex-biological-media
#17
REVIEW
Qiong Dai, Nadja Bertleff-Zieschang, Julia A Braunger, Mattias Björnmalm, Christina Cortez-Jugo, Frank Caruso
Over the past few decades, nanoengineered particles have gained increasing interest for applications in the biomedical realm, including diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. When functionalized with targeting ligands, these particles have the potential to interact with specific cells and tissues, and accumulate at desired target sites, reducing side effects and improve overall efficacy in applications such as vaccination and drug delivery. However, when targeted particles enter a complex biological environment, the adsorption of biomolecules and the formation of a surface coating (e...
August 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809063/color-and-power-doppler-combined-with-fetal-intelligent-navigation-echocardiography-fine-to-evaluate-the-fetal-heart
#18
L Yeo, R Romero
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of color and bidirectional power Doppler ultrasound combined with Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography (FINE) in examining the fetal heart. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted of fetuses in the second and third trimesters with a normal heart or with congenital heart disease (CHD). One or more spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) volume datasets, combined with color or bidirectional power Doppler (S-flow) imaging, were acquired in the apical four-chamber view...
August 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808772/longitudinal-strain-assessed-by-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-correlates-to-hemodynamic-findings-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-and-predicts-positive-remodeling-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#19
Dominik Buckert, Maciej Cieslik, Raid Tibi, Michael Radermacher, Volker Rasche, Peter Bernhardt, Vinzenz Hombach, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Jochen Wöhrle
AIMS: To assess left-ventricular strain parameters before and after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (FT CMR) and to correlate the findings to hemodynamic state and left-ventricular remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with symptomatic AS underwent FT CMR before and after TAVR. Patients were carefully evaluated by a comprehensive work-up including CMR, echocardiography and left and right heart catheterization...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808608/intrathecal-catheter-associated-inflammatory-mass-in-a-neurofibromatosis-type-1-patient-receiving-fentanyl-and-bupivacaine
#20
Derek G Southwell, Joseph A Osorio, Christopher S Liverman, Lauren M Friedman, Ramana K Naidu, Lawrence R Poree, Melanie M Henry, Line Jacques
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated inflammatory masses (CIMs) are a rare but serious complication of intrathecal drug delivery devices. CIM formation is influenced by local medication concentration, which is determined in part by flow dynamics at the catheter tip. Underlying spinal pathologies, such as neoplasms, may alter flow at the catheter tip, thereby contributing to CIM formation. Moreover, they may also complicate the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of a CIM. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 36-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented to our emergency department with complaints of increased back pain and leg weakness...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
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