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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738512/effects-of-nitrogen-deposition-on-soil-microbial-communities-in-temperate-and-subtropical-forests-in-china
#1
Di Tian, Lai Jiang, Suhui Ma, Wenjing Fang, Bernhard Schmid, Longchao Xu, Jianxiao Zhu, Peng Li, Gianalberto Losapio, Xin Jing, Chengyang Zheng, Haihua Shen, Xiaoniu Xu, Biao Zhu, Jingyun Fang
Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition has aroused large concerns because of its potential negative effects on forest ecosystems. Although microorganisms play a vital role in ecosystem carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, the effect of N deposition on soil microbiota still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the responses of microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) and microbial community composition to 4-5years of experimentally simulated N deposition in temperate needle-leaf forests and subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in eastern China, using chloroform fumigation extraction and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#2
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738073/the-n-terminal-region-of-serum-amyloid-a3-protein-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-up-regulates-muc2-mucin-mrna-expression-in-mouse-colonic-epithelial-cells
#3
Manami Tashiro, Ami Iwata, Marika Yamauchi, Kaori Shimizu, Ayaka Okada, Naotaka Ishiguro, Yasuo Inoshima
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute-phase protein and a precursor of amyloid A (AA) in AA amyloidosis in humans and animals. SAA isoforms have been identified in a wide variety of animals, such as SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 in mouse. Although the biological functions of SAA isoforms are not completely understood, recent studies have suggested that SAA3 plays a role in host defense. Expression of SAA3 is increased on the mouse colon surface in the presence of microbiota in vivo, and it increases mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) in murine colonic epithelial cells in vitro, which constitutes a protective mucus barrier in the intestinal tract...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738021/commensal-bacteria-ab-use-cd8-t-cells-to-induce-insulin-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Chi Ma, Tim F Greten
Type I interferon-dependent expansion of intrahepatic CD8(+) T cells promotes systemic insulin resistance in obesity.
April 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737908/edible-nanoencapsulation-vehicles-for-oral-delivery-of-phytochemicals-a-perspective-paper
#5
Jie Xiao, Yong Cao, Qingrong Huang
Edible nanoencapsulation vehicles (ENVs) designed for the delivery of phytochemicals have gained increasing research interest. The major driving force for this trend is the potential bioavailability enhancement effect for phytochemicals when delivered via ENVs. ENVs affect the bioefficacy of phytochemicals by influencing their dispersion and gastrointestinal stability, rate and site of release, transportation efficiency across endothelial layer, systemic circulation and biodistribution, as well as the regulation of gut microflora...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737738/the-innate-immune-receptor-nlrp12-maintains-intestinal-homeostasis-by-regulating-microbiome-diversity
#6
Jenny Moi-Fong Lau, Yvonne Dombrowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737582/a-nutritional-approach-for-managing-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Natalie Bhesania, Gail A M Cresci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) encountered by the pediatrician and consultant. The primary focus of this review is to provide an update on beneficial nutritional interventions for managing this patient population with discussion on gut microbiome effects. RECENT FINDINGS: A common complaint among the pediatric population is IBS-related recurrent abdominal pain. The prevalence of IBS is estimated to range between 6 and 14% and is defined by the Rome III criteria for FGIDs...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737484/the-effect-of-fiber-and-prebiotics-on-children-s-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-microbiome
#8
Carrie A M Wegh, Margriet H C Schoterman, Elaine E Vaughan, Clara Belzer, Marc A Benninga
The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 10(14) bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders...
July 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737021/infection-therapy-the-problem-of-drug-resistance-and-possible-solutions
#9
Harald Brüssow
The rising antibiotic resistance in major bacterial pathogens together with the breakdown of the antibiotic discovery platform creates a critical situation for infection therapy. Recent developments reviving new antibiotic discovery from defining chemical rules for membrane-passing compounds to isolation chips for soil bacteria and exploring the human microbiome for antibiotic-producing bacteria are discussed. The potential of bacteriocins, tailocins, phage lysins, phages, probiotics and commensal blends as alternatives to antibiotics is evaluated...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736992/microbiota-metabolome-and-immune-alterations-in-obese-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-containing-type-2-resistant-starch
#10
Javad Barouei, Zach Bendiks, Alice Martinic, Darya Mishchuk, Dustin Heeney, Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Dorothy Kieffer, Jose Zaragoza, Roy Martin, Carolyn Slupsky, Maria L Marco
SCOPE: We examined the intestinal and systemic responses to incorporating a type 2 resistant starch (RS) into a high fat diet fed to obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese, C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet without or with 20% (by weight) high-amylose maize resistant starch (HF-RS) for six weeks. Serum adiponectin levels were higher with RS consumption, but there were no differences in weight gain and adiposity. With HF-RS, the expression levels of ileal TLR2 and Reg3g and cecal occludin, TLR2, TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 were induced; whereas colonic concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine IL-17A declined...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736954/the-impact-of-the-bovine-fecal-microbiome-on-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-prevalence-and-enumeration-in-naturally-infected-cattle
#11
M Kim, L A Kuehn, J L Bono, E D Berry, N Kalchayanand, H C Freetly, A K Benson, J E Wells
AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine if the fecal microbiome has an association with E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and enumeration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pyrosequencing analysis of fecal microbiome was performed from feedlot cattle fed one of three diets: i) 94 heifers fed low concentrate (LC) diet, ii) 142 steers fed moderate concentrate (MC) diet, and iii) 132 steers fed high concentrate (HC) diet. A total of 322,585 OTUs were calculated from 2,411,122 high-quality sequences obtained from 368 fecal samples...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736890/insect-frass-in-stored-cereal-products-as-a-potential-source-of-lactobacillus-sanfranciscensis-for-sourdough-ecosystem
#12
Federica Boiocchi, Davide Porcellato, Lidia Limonta, Claudia Picozzi, Ileana Vigentini, Daria Patrizia Locatelli, Roberto Foschino
AIM: Insect frass samples were collected from Drosophila melanogaster, Plodia interpunctella, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tribolium confusum and T. castaneum to elucidate if they can be the origin of Type I sourdough microorganisms (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida milleri). METHODS AND RESULTS: Selective enrichments were carried out to isolate Lactic Acid Bacteria and yeast. A metagenetic analysis, targeted on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region, was performed by using Illumina MiSeq protocol...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736331/microbial-regulation-of-hippocampal-mirna-expression-implications-for-transcription-of-kynurenine-pathway-enzymes
#13
Gerard M Moloney, Olivia F O'Leary, Eloisa Salvo-Romero, Lieve Desbonnet, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
Increasing evidence points to a functional role of the enteric microbiota in brain development, function and behaviour including the regulation of transcriptional activity in the hippocampus. No changes in CNS miRNA expression have yet been linked to the colonisation status of the gut. Given the pivotal impact of miRNAs on gene expression, our study was based on the hypothesis that this would also be altered in the germ-free state in the hippocampus. We measured miRNAs in the hippocampus of Germ free (GF), conventional (C) and Germ free colonised (GFC) Swiss Webster mice...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736228/dbz-is-a-putative-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-that-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-gut-dysbiosis
#14
Pengfei Xu, Fan Hong, Jialin Wang, Jing Wang, Xia Zhao, Sheng Wang, Tingting Xue, Jingwei Xu, Xiaohui Zheng, Yonggong Zhai
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor PPARγ is an effective pharmacological target for some types of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, the current PPARγ-targeting thiazolidinedione drugs have undesirable side effects. Danshensu Bingpian Zhi (DBZ), also known as tanshinol borneol ester derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a synthetic derivative of natural compounds used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735809/antibiotic-stewardship-in-perinatal-and-neonatal-care
#15
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu, Tetsuya Kawakita
The spread of antibiotic resistance due to the use and misuse of antibiotics around the world is now a major health crisis. Neonates are exposed to antibiotics both before and after birth, often empirically because of risk factors for infection, or for non-specific signs which may or may not indicate sepsis. There is increasing evidence that, apart from antibiotic resistance, the use of antibiotics in pregnancy and in the neonatal period alters the microbiome in the fetus and neonate with an increased risk of immediate and long-term adverse effects...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735426/diet-versus-phylogeny-a-comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-captive-colobine-monkey-species
#16
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Rob Knight, Qikun Zhang, Duoying Cui, Katherine R Amato
Both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (N = 64 individuals). Colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (GI) problems. This study included eight Asian colobines (Rhinopithecus brelichi, Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, Pygathrix nemaeus, Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus auratus, and Trachypithecus vetulus) and one African colobine (Colobus guereza)...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735425/influence-of-host-plant-on-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-gut-bacterial-community
#17
Cinzia P Strano, Antonino Malacrinò, Orlando Campolo, Vincenzo Palmeri
Microbial communities associated to the gut of insects are attracting an increasing interest, mainly because of their role in influencing several host life-traits. The characterization of the gut microbial community is pivotal for understanding insect ecology and, thus, to develop novel pest management strategies. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pytiocampa (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), is a severe defoliator of pine forests, able to feed on several pine species. In this work, we performed a metabarcoding analysis to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the gut bacterial community of pine processionary larvae associated with three different host pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra subsp...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735410/rhizosphere-sampling-protocols-for-microbiome-16s-18s-its-rrna-library-preparation-and-enrichment-for-the-isolation-of-drought-tolerance-promoting-microbes
#18
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
Natural plant microbiomes are abundant and have a remarkably robust composition, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissues. Microbes in the former "habitat" face limited nutrients and harsh environmental conditions, while those in the latter likely lead a more sheltered existence. The most populous and diverse of these microbiomes are associated with the zone around the plant roots, commonly referred to as the rhizosphere. A majority of recent studies characterize these plant-associated microbiomes by community profiling of bacteria and fungi, using amplicon-based marker genes and next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735391/toward-a-resilient-functional-microbiome-drought-tolerance-alleviating-microbes-for-sustainable-agriculture
#19
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
In recent years, the utilization of novel sequencing techniques opened a new field of research into plant microbiota and was used to explore a wide diversity of microorganisms both inside and outside of plant host tissues, i.e., the endosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. An early realization from such research was that species richness and diversity of the plant microbiome are both greater than believed even a few years ago, and soil is likely home to the most abundant and diverse microbial habitats known...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735320/in-vitro-interaction-between-fumonisin-b-sub-1-sub-and-the-intestinal-microflora-of-pigs
#20
Huu Anh Dang, Attila Zsolnai, Melinda Kovacs, Istvan Bors, Andras Bonai, Brigitta Bota, Judit Szabo Fodor
The caecal chyme of pigs was incubated anaerobically in McDougall buffer with and without fumonisin B1 (5 μg/ml) for 0, 24 and 48 h. The plate count agar technique was applied for enumerating the amount of bacteria including aerobic, anaerobic bacteria, coliform, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sp. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction was also performed to estimate the number of copies of the total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella. No significant differences in the amount of bacterial groups between the experimental (buffer, chyme, and fumonisin B1) and control 1 groups (buffer + chyme) were observed in both methods...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
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