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Microbiome or microbiota or commensal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441720/association-of-polyphenol-biomarkers-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#1
REVIEW
Johanna Rienks, Janett Barbaresko, Ute Nöthlings
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the literature for evidence of associations between polyphenol biomarkers and CVD and mortality risk in observational studies. Eligible studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, and reference lists. Multivariable adjusted associations were extracted...
April 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441565/gut-microbiota-small-molecules-modulate-host-cellular-functions
#2
Jacob M Luber, Aleksandar D Kostic
The human gut metagenome was recently discovered to encode vast collections of biosynthetic gene clusters with diverse chemical potential, almost none of which are yet functionally validated. Recent work elucidates common microbiome-derived biosynthetic gene clusters encoding peptide aldehydes that inhibit human proteases.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441534/managing-the-plant-microbiome-for-biocontrol-fungi-examples-from-hypocreales
#3
REVIEW
Ryan M Kepler, Jude E Maul, Stephen A Rehner
Feeding an increasing global population requires continued improvements in agricultural efficiency and productivity. Meeting estimated future production levels requires the adoption of practices that increase output without environmental degradation associated with external inputs to supplement nutrition or control pests. Enriching the community of microbes associated with plants in agricultural systems for those providing ecosystem services such as pest control is one possible component towards achieving sustainable productivity increases...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441450/commensal-bacteria-and-essential-amino-acids-control-food-choice-behavior-and-reproduction
#4
Ricardo Leitão-Gonçalves, Zita Carvalho-Santos, Ana Patrícia Francisco, Gabriela Tondolo Fioreze, Margarida Anjos, Célia Baltazar, Ana Paula Elias, Pavel M Itskov, Matthew D W Piper, Carlos Ribeiro
Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441432/dysbiosis-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-decrease-in-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptide-level-during-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-rats
#5
Jing Chen, Chunlan Huang, Jingjing Wang, Hui Zhou, Yingying Lu, Lihong Lou, Junyuan Zheng, Ling Tian, Xingpeng Wang, Zhongwei Cao, Yue Zeng
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis was involved in intestinal barrier failure. Paneth cells protect intestinal barrier and are associated with intestinal microbiota. Here, we investigated changes in intestinal microbiota and antimicrobial peptides of Paneth cells in ileum during ANP. METHODS: Rats with ANP were established by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into biliopancreatic duct and sacrificed at 24h and 48h, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441394/maternal-obese-type-gut-microbiota-differentially-impact-cognition-anxiety-and-compulsive-behavior-in-male-and-female-offspring-in-mice
#6
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, R Leigh Townsend, Claudia Kruger, Richard Carmouche, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440278/an-insider-s-perspective-bacteroides-as-a-window-into-the-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Aaron G Wexler, Andrew L Goodman
Over the last decade, our appreciation for the contribution of resident gut microorganisms-the gut microbiota-to human health has surged. However, progress is limited by the sheer diversity and complexity of these microbial communities. Compounding the challenge, the majority of our commensal microorganisms are not close relatives of Escherichia coli or other model organisms and have eluded culturing and manipulation in the laboratory. In this Review, we discuss how over a century of study of the readily cultured, genetically tractable human gut Bacteroides has revealed important insights into the biochemistry, genomics and ecology that make a gut bacterium a gut bacterium...
April 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440276/next-generation-probiotics-the-spectrum-from-probiotics-to-live-biotherapeutics
#8
Paul W O'Toole, Julian R Marchesi, Colin Hill
The leading probiotics currently available to consumers are generally drawn from a narrow range of organisms. Knowledge of the gut microbiota and its constituent actors is changing this paradigm, particularly given the phylogenetic range and relatively unknown characteristics of the organisms under investigation as novel therapeutics. For this reason, and because their development is likely to be more amenable to a pharmaceutical than a food delivery route, these organisms are often operationally referred to as next-generation probiotics, a concept that overlaps with the emerging concept of live biotherapeutic products...
April 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440064/synthetic-and-analytical-strategies-for-the-quantification-of-phenyl-%C3%AE-valerolactone-conjugated-metabolites-in-human-urine
#9
Nicoletta Brindani, Pedro Mena, Luca Calani, Iris Benzie, Siu-Wai Choi, Furio Brighenti, Franca Zanardi, Claudio Curti, Daniele Del Rio
SCOPE: The contribution of the gut microbiota to the metabolism of catechins and proanthocyanidins remains unclear. Phenyl-γ-valerolactones have been identified as the most representative metabolites of these dietary flavan-3-ols, but their accurate quantification has posed problems because of a lack of appropriate bioanalytical standards. This work aimed at synthesizing a novel set of sulphate- and glucuronide-conjugated phenyl-γ-valerolactones and at developing an analytical platform using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS for their quantification in urine...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439501/the-cell-biology-of-the-trichosporon-host-interaction
#10
REVIEW
Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Fernando Rodrigues, Samuel M Gonçalves, Gustavo H Goldman, Agostinho Carvalho, Cristina Cunha
Fungi of the genus Trichosporon are increasingly recognized as causative agents of superficial and invasive fungal disease in humans. Although most species are considered commensals of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract, these basidiomycetes are an increasing cause of fungal disease among immunocompromised hosts, such as hematological patients and solid organ transplant recipients. The initiation of commensal or pathogenic programs by Trichosporon spp. involves the adaptation to the host microenvironment and its immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439499/tick-pathogen-interactions-and-vector-competence-identification-of-molecular-drivers-for-tick-borne-diseases
#11
REVIEW
José de la Fuente, Sandra Antunes, Sarah Bonnet, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Ana G Domingos, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Nicholas Johnson, Katherine M Kocan, Karen L Mansfield, Ard M Nijhof, Anna Papa, Nataliia Rudenko, Margarita Villar, Pilar Alberdi, Alessandra Torina, Nieves Ayllón, Marie Vancova, Maryna Golovchenko, Libor Grubhoffer, Santo Caracappa, Anthony R Fooks, Christian Gortazar, Ryan O M Rego
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Vector competence is a component of vectorial capacity and depends on genetic determinants affecting the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen. These determinants affect traits such as tick-host-pathogen and susceptibility to pathogen infection. Therefore, the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tick-pathogen interactions that affect vector competence is essential for the identification of molecular drivers for tick-borne diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439463/molecular-assessment-of-the-fecal-microbiota-in-healthy-cats-and-dogs-before-and-during-supplementation-with-fructo-oligosaccharides-fos-and-inulin-using-high-throughput-454-pyrosequencing
#12
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose R Barcenas-Walls, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
Prebiotics are selectively fermentable dietary compounds that result in changes in the composition and/or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefits upon host health. In veterinary medicine, commercially available products containing prebiotics have not been well studied with regard to the changes they trigger on the composition of the gut microbiota. This study evaluated the effect of a commercially available nutraceutical containing fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin on the fecal microbiota of healthy cats and dogs when administered for 16 days...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439299/substance-p-enhances-lactic-acid-and-tyramine-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-and-promotes-its-cytotoxic-effect-on-intestinal-caco-2-tc7-cells
#13
Kelly Biaggini, Valérie Borrel, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Awa N'Diaye, Arthur Zébré, Maryse Bonnin-Jusserand, Guillaume Duflos, Marc Feuilloley, Djamel Drider, Pierre Déchelotte, Nathalie Connil
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. This bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on E. faecalis, of Substance P (SP), an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in the gut and skin...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#14
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439295/production-of-high-concentration-n-caproic-acid-from-lactate-through-fermentation-using-a-newly-isolated-ruminococcaceae-bacterium-cpb6
#15
Xiaoyu Zhu, Yan Zhou, Yi Wang, Tingting Wu, Xiangzhen Li, Daping Li, Yong Tao
BACKGROUND: n-Caproic acid (CA), as a medium-chain carboxylic acid, is a valuable chemical feedstock for various industrial applications. The fermentative production of CA from renewable carbon sources has attracted a lot of attentions. Lactate is a significant intermediate waste in the anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates that comprise 18-70% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal and some industrial wastewaters. Recently, researchers (including our own group) reported the CA production using lactate as electron donor with newly identified microbiome systems...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439263/microbial-diversity-of-browning-peninsula-eastern-antarctica-revealed-using-molecular-and-cultivation-methods
#16
Sarita Pudasaini, John Wilson, Mukan Ji, Josie van Dorst, Ian Snape, Anne S Palmer, Brendan P Burns, Belinda C Ferrari
Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439121/bioinformatic-approaches-including-predictive-metagenomic-profiling-reveal-characteristics-of-bacterial-response-to-petroleum-hydrocarbon-contamination-in-diverse-environments
#17
Arghya Mukherjee, Bobby Chettri, James S Langpoklakpam, Pijush Basak, Aravind Prasad, Ashis K Mukherjee, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Arvind K Singh, Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay
Microbial remediation of oil polluted habitats remains one of the foremost methods for restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environments. The development of effective bioremediation strategies however, require an extensive understanding of the resident microbiome of these habitats. Recent developments such as high-throughput sequencing has greatly facilitated the advancement of microbial ecological studies in oil polluted habitats. However, effective interpretation of biological characteristics from these large datasets remain a considerable challenge...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439072/fecal-microbial-characterization-of-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-infectious-diarrhea-shows-significant-dysbiosis
#18
Tzipi Braun, Ayelet Di Segni, Marina BenShoshan, Roy Asaf, James E Squires, Sarit Farage Barhom, Efrat Glick Saar, Karen Cesarkas, Gill Smollan, Batia Weiss, Sharon Amit, Nathan Keller, Yael Haberman
Hospitalized patients are at increased risk for acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and inadequate nutrition. The human intestinal microbiota plays vital functions in nutrient supply and protection from pathogens, yet characterization of the microbiota of hospitalized patients is lacking. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the global pattern of microbial composition of fecal samples from 196 hospitalized patients with suspected infectious diarrhea in comparison to healthy, non-hospitalized subjects (n = 881), and to traditional culture results...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439048/faecal-volatile-organic-compounds-analysis-using-field-asymmetric-ion-mobility-spectrometry-non-invasive-diagnostics-in-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Nora van Gaal, Rozanne Lakenman, James Covington, Richard Savage, Evelien de Groot, Marije Bomers, Marc Benninga, Chris Mulder, Nanne de Boer, Tim de Meij
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), remains challenging to diagnose. Diagnostic work up carries a high burden, especially in paediatric patients, due to invasive endoscopic procedures. IBD is associated with alterations in intestinal microbiota composition. Faecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reflect gut microbiota composition. Aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of faecal VOC profiling as non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for paediatric IBD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439034/teleosts-as-model-organisms-to-understand-host-microbe-interactions
#20
Emily A Lescak, Kathryn C Milligan-Myhre
Host-microbe interactions are influenced by complex host genetics and environment. Studies across animal taxa have aided our understanding of how intestinal microbiota influence vertebrate development, disease, and physiology. However, traditional mammalian studies can be limited by use of isogenic strains, husbandry constraints that result in small sample sizes and limited statistical power, reliance on indirect characterization of gut microbial communities from fecal samples, and concerns whether observations in artificial conditions are actually reflective of what occurs in the wild...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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