Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbiome or microbiota or commensal

Rudi Beyaert, Claude Libert
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wilmore et al. (2018) co-housed isogenic mouse populations, uncovering commensal bacteria-induced serum IgA and IgA-producing bone marrow plasma cells as critical components of resistance against sepsis. They further identified gut microbial taxa that may account for the induction of this protective system.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Allison M Weis, Raymond Soto, June L Round
The commensal microbiota influences many aspects of immune system regulation, including T cells, but molecular details of how this occurs are largely unknown. Here we review our findings that the microbiota regulates Erdr1, a secreted apoptotic factor, to control T cell survival. Erdr1 is highly upregulated in CD4+ T cells from germfree mice and antibiotic treated animals, and our study shows that Erdr1 is suppressed by the microbiota via Toll-like receptor signaling and MyD88 dependent pathways. Erdr1 functions in an autocrine fashion and promotes apoptosis through the FAS/FASL pathway...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Makoto Chiba, Takanori Itabashi, Koujiro Hirai, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Taichiro Ishige, Shinji Kawasaki
A strain (Hime 5-1T ) of lactic acid bacterium was isolated from the gut of the grasshopper Metrioptera engelhardti from a mountainous area of Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Strain Hime 5-1T had a low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known lactic acid bacteria, with the closest recognized relatives being Lactobacillus tucceti (96.7 %), Lactobacillus furfuricola (96.5 %), Lactobacillus versmoldensis (96.3 %) and Lactobacillus nodensis (96.1 %). Comparative analyses of the rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that Hime 5-1T is not closely related to other Lactobacillus species...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Jordi Real, Elisabet Grezner, Bonventura Bolíbar, Carl Llor
INTRODUCTION: Commensal flora of healthy people is becoming an important reservoir of resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship of previous antibiotic-dispensed and resistance pattern of strains of Staphylococcus aureus in primary care patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain, from October 2010 to May 2011, as part of the APRES (The appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary care in Europe concerning antibiotic resistance) study...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Hanna Ferløv Schwensen, Carol Kan, Janet Treasure, Niels Høiby, Magnus Sjögren
PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a poorly understood and often chronic condition. Deviations in the gut microbiota have been reported to influence the gut-brain axis in other disorders. Therefore, if present in AN, it may impact on symptoms and illness progression. A review of the gut microbiota studies in AN is presented. METHOD: A literature search on PubMed yielded 27 articles; 14 were selected and based on relevance, 9 articles were included. The findings were interpreted in the larger context of preclinical research and clinical observations...
March 14, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Yehao Liu, Yongchun Li, Xiaomei Hua, Karin Müller, Hailong Wang, Tongyi Yang, Qiong Wang, Xin Peng, Mengcheng Wang, Yanjun Pang, Jinliang Qi, Yonghua Yang
Glyphosate is a non-selective organophosphate herbicide that is widely used in agriculture, but its effects on soil microbial communities are highly variable and often contradictory, especially for high dose applications. We applied glyphosate at two rates: the recommended rate of 50 mg active ingredient kg-1 soil and 10-fold this rate to simulate multiple glyphosate applications during a growing season. After 6 months, we investigated the effects on the composition of soil microbial community, the catabolic activity and the genetic diversity of the bacterial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs), and 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eleuza Rodrigues Machado, Núbia Oliveira Matos, Sinione Morais Rezende, Daniela Carlos, Thauana Cristina Silva, Leônia Rodrigues, Maria Jarlene Rodrigues Almeida, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2) were analyzed using two parasitological methods...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Elizabeth Copeland, Katherine Leonard, Richard Carney, Justin Kong, Martin Forer, Yuresh Naidoo, Brian G G Oliver, Justin R Seymour, Stephen Woodcock, Catherine M Burke, Nicholas W Stow
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition that affects up to 12% of the human population in developed countries. Previous studies examining the potential role of the sinus bacterial microbiota within CRS infections have found inconsistent results, possibly because of inconsistencies in sampling strategies. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sinus microbiome is altered in CRS and additionally if the middle meatus is a suitable representative site for sampling the sinus microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
G Ström, S Boqvist, A Albihn, L-L Fernström, A Andersson Djurfeldt, S Sokerya, T Sothyra, U Magnusson
Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Katherine Y Le, Matthew D Park, Michael Otto
The primary virulence factor of the skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus epidermidis , is the ability to form biofilms on surfaces of implanted materials. Much of this microorganism's pathogenic success has been attributed to its ability to evade the innate immune system. The primary defense against S. epidermidis biofilm infection consists of complement activation, recruitment and subsequent killing of the pathogen by effector cells. Among pathogen-derived factors, the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA), as well as the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), and the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) have been shown to modulate effector cell-mediated killing of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guangli Feng, Bernadine M Flanagan, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Barbara A Williams, Wenwen Yu, Robert G Gilbert, Michael J Gidley
Recent studies show that a single or small number of intestinal microbes can completely degrade complex carbohydrates. This suggests a drive towards competitive utilisation of dietary complex carbohydrates resulting in limited microbial diversity, at odds with the health benefits associated with a diverse microbiome. This study investigates the enzymatic metabolism of wheat and rye arabinoxylans (AX) using in vitro fermentation, with a porcine faecal inoculum. Through studying the activity of AX-degrading enzymes and the structural changes of residual AX during fermentation, we show that the AX-degrading enzymes are mainly cell-associated, which enables the microbes to utilise the AX competitively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Jian Ye, Ming Yang, Rongrong Ding, Xingwang Wang, Enqin Zheng, Disheng Fu, Shaoyun Li, Shenping Zhou, Dewu Liu, Jie Yang, Zhenfang Wu
In an attempt to increase profits and sustainability in the swine industry, the gut microbiome has become a focus of much research. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in the ileum, cecum, and colon of Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pigs showing two extreme feed conversion ratios (FCRs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that the microbial community in the cecum and colon had significantly higher alpha diversity than the ileum. We further identified 11, 55, and 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significantly different relative abundances between the high and low FCR pigs among the three gut locations, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shuai Zhao, Jun-Jie Liu, Samiran Banerjee, Na Zhou, Zhen-Yong Zhao, Ke Zhang, Chang-Yan Tian
While saline soils account for 6.5% of the total land area globally, it comprises about 70% of the area in northwestern China. Microbiota in these saline soils are particularly important because they are critical to maintaining ecosystem services. However, little is known about the microbial diversity and community composition in saline soils. To investigate the distribution patterns and edaphic determinants of bacterial communities in saline soils, we collected soil samples across the hypersaline Ebinur Lake shoreline in northwestern China and assessed soil bacterial communities using bar-coded pyrosequencing...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Homero San-Juan-Vergara, Eduardo Zurek, Nadim J Ajami, Christian Mogollon, Mario Peña, Ivan Portnoy, Jorge I Vélez, Christian Cadena-Cruz, Yirys Diaz-Olmos, Leidy Hurtado-Gómez, Silvana Sanchez-Sit, Danitza Hernández, Irina Urruchurtu, Pierina Di-Ruggiero, Ella Guardo-García, Nury Torres, Oscar Vidal-Orjuela, Diego Viasus, Joseph F Petrosino, Guillermo Cervantes-Acosta
HIV infection has a tremendous impact on the immune system's proper functioning. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is significantly disarrayed during HIV infection. Compositional changes in the gut microbiota might contribute to the mucosal barrier disruption, and consequently to microbial translocation. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating changes in the fecal microbiota of HIV-infected individuals from Colombia. We analyzed the fecal microbiota of 37 individuals via 16S rRNA gene sequencing; 25 HIV-infected patients and 12 control (non-infected) individuals, which were similar in body mass index, age, gender balance and socioeconomic status...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Chuanjie Wu, Chuanhui Li, Wenbo Zhao, Nanchang Xie, Feng Yan, Yajun Lian, Li Zhou, Xiaoya Xu, Yong Liang, Lu Wang, Ming Ren, Sijie Li, Xuan Cheng, Lu Zhang, Qingfeng Ma, Haiqing Song, Ran Meng, Xunming Ji
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the plasma level of trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO), a proatherosclerotic intestinal microbiota metabolite, can be a predictor of ischemic brain injury secondary to carotid artery stenting (CAS). METHODS: In this multicenter, prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with severe carotid artery stenosis (>70%) who were prepared for CAS. Plasma TMAO level was measured within 3 days before CAS, and MRI was performed 1 to 3 days after CAS...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"