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Microbiome or microbiota or commensal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938796/complex-interactions-of-circadian-rhythms-eating-behaviors-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-their-potential-impact-on-health
#1
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Sharon V Thompson, Hannah D Holscher
Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. The GI microbiome is essentially a microbial organ that provides metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions for the host. Habitual diet, changes in macronutrient composition, and consumption of nondigestible dietary fibers have all been shown to impact the human GI microbiome. Intriguingly, the impact of diet on the microbiome may be related not only to what humans eat but also to the timing of food consumption...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#2
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938780/effects-of-dietary-threonine-supplementation-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-gut-microbiota-of-laying-hens
#3
X Y Dong, M M M Azzam, X T Zou
The effects of supplemental dietary threonine (Thr) on laying performance, expression of intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory IgA (sIgA), and intestinal microbiota of laying hens fed a low CP diet were investigated. A total of 240 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, was allocated to 3 dietary treatments, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens. Hens were fed a control diet (16% CP), a low CP diet (14% CP), or a low CP diet supplemented with 0.3% L-Thr for 12 weeks. Chemical analyses of the diets for Thr are 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938443/microbiota-dependent-induction-of-colonic-cyp27b1-is-associated-with-colonic-inflammation-implication-of-locally-produced-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-in-inflammatory-regulation-in-the-colon
#4
Jie Du, Xinzhi Wei, Xin Ge, Yinyin Chen, Yan Chun Li
Our recent studies demonstrated that intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling plays a critical role in regulating colonic inflammation by protecting epithelial barrier integrity. Epithelial VDR is down-regulated in colitis, but how mucosal inflammation affects local 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) production is unknown. Here we showed that Cyp27b1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme required for 1,25(OH)2D3 biosynthesis, is highly induced in colonic mucosa in inflammatory response. While VDR is reduced in colon biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis, Cyp27b1 is markedly up-regulated in these samples...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937988/differential-effects-of-rice-bran-cultivars-to-limit-salmonella-typhimurium-in-chicken-cecal-in-vitro-incubations-and-impact-on-the-cecal-microbiome-and-metabolome
#5
Peter M Rubinelli, Sun Ae Kim, Si Hong Park, Stephanie M Roto, Nora Jean Nealon, Elizabeth P Ryan, Steven C Ricke
In this study, rice brans from different cultivars (Calrose, Jasmine, and Red Wells) were assessed for their ability to inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using an in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system containing cecal microbiota obtained from broilers of different ages. Salmonella Typhimurium was added to controls (feed only, cecal only, and feed + cecal material) and treatments (feed + cecal + different rice brans) and S. Typhimurium populations were enumerated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Two experimental conditions were applied 1) unadapted condition in which S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937980/methanobrevibacter-attenuation-via-probiotic-intervention-reduces-flatulence-in-adult-human-a-non-randomised-paired-design-clinical-trial-of-efficacy
#6
Minseok Seo, Jaeyoung Heo, Joon Yoon, Se-Young Kim, Yoon-Mo Kang, Jihyun Yu, Seoae Cho, Heebal Kim
TRIAL DESIGN: The aim of this study was to investigate which of the gut microbes respond to probiotic intervention, as well as study whether they are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in a healthy adult human. For the experimental purpose, twenty-one healthy adults were recruited and received probiotic mixture, which is composed of five Lactobacilli strains and two Bifidobacteria strains, once a day for 60 days. Defecation survey and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis were conducted pre- and post-administration to measure phenotypic differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937904/periodontal-pathogen-colonization-in-young-children-by-pcr-quantification-a-longitudinal-survey
#7
Karine Takahashi, Robson Frederico Cunha, Elerson Gaetti Jardim Junior
INTRODUCTION: Periodontal diseases are among the leading causes of premature tooth loss in adults, but the microbiota associated with this problem is established over time in childhood. AIM: This longitudinal study aimed to verify the occurrence of periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity of children aged six, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four months through PCR quantification, correlating them with the oral microbiota of their mothers. STUDY DESIGN: Saliva and oral biofilm samples were collected from mothers and children by using sterilized paper points...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#8
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936973/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-treating-recurrent-hepatic-encephalopathy-ready-for-clinical-application
#9
Tarkan Karakan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936971/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-gut-microbiota-future-perspectives-on-probiotics-in-metabolic-liver-diseases
#10
EDITORIAL
Yusuf Yılmaz, Fatih Eren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#11
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936943/modulation-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-with-nondigestible-fermentable-carbohydrates-to-improve-human-health
#12
Edward C Deehan, Rebbeca M Duar, Anissa M Armet, Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Mingliang Jin, Jens Walter
There is a clear association between the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases, providing a rationale for the development of strategies that target the GI microbiota to improve human health. In this article, we discuss the potential of supplementing the human diet with nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates (NDFCs) to modulate the composition, structure, diversity, and metabolic potential of the GI microbiome in an attempt to prevent or treat human disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936910/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-a-focus-on-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
Lucinda A Harris, Noemi Baffy
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disordered bowel habits, is one of the most common functional bowel disorders. IBS is a substantial burden on both patient health-related quality of life and health care costs. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for the occurrence of IBS, including altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, changes in gut permeability, immune activation, gut-brain dysregulation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and changes in the gut microbiota...
September 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936425/gut-dysbiosis-in-animals-due-to-environmental-chemical-exposures
#14
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936424/acid-stress-response-mechanisms-of-group-b-streptococci
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#16
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936206/an-in-vitro-fermentation-study-on-the-effects-of-gluten-friendly-tm-bread-on-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-of-fecal-samples-from-healthy-and-celiac-subjects
#17
Adele Costabile, Triana Bergillos-Meca, Loretta Landriscina, Antonio Bevilacqua, Isidro Gonzalez-Salvador, Maria R Corbo, Leonardo Petruzzi, Milena Sinigaglia, Carmela Lamacchia
Recently, an innovative gluten detoxification method called Gluten Friendly(TM) (GF) has been developed. It induces structural modifications, which abolish the antigenic capacity of gluten and reduce the in vitro immunogenicity of the most common epitopes involved in celiac disease, without compromising the nutritional and technological properties. This study investigated the in vitro effects of GF bread (GFB) on the fecal microbiota from healthy and celiac individuals by a three-stage continuous fermentative system, which simulates the colon (vessel 1, proximal colon; vessel 2, transverse colon; and vessel 3, distal colon), as well as on the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936204/modulatory-influence-of-segmented-filamentous-bacteria-on-transcriptomic-response-of-gnotobiotic-mice-exposed-to-tcdd
#18
Robert D Stedtfeld, Benli Chai, Robert B Crawford, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Maggie R Williams, Shao Xiangwen, Tomomi Kuwahara, James R Cole, Norbert E Kaminski, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Environmental toxicants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), are known to induce host toxicity and structural shifts in the gut microbiota. Key bacterial populations with similar or opposing functional responses to AhR ligand exposure may potentially help regulate expression of genes associated with immune dysfunction. To examine this question and the mechanisms for AhR ligand-induced bacterial shifts, C57BL/6 gnotobiotic mice were colonized with and without segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) - an immune activator...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936203/modulation-of-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function-in-experimental-colitis-treated-with-sulfasalazine
#19
Haihui Zheng, Mingyi Chen, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Lin Wei, Ziqiong Liao, Mengxia Wang, Fangli Ma, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935987/toward-the-identification-of-a-type-i-toxin-antitoxin-system-in-the-plasmid-dna-of-dairy-lactobacillus-rhamnosus
#20
Claudia Folli, Alessia Levante, Riccardo Percudani, Davide Amidani, Stefania Bottazzi, Alberto Ferrari, Claudio Rivetti, Erasmo Neviani, Camilla Lazzi
Plasmids carry genes that give bacteria beneficial traits and allow them to survive in competitive environments. In many cases, they also harbor toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems necessary for plasmid maintenance. TA systems are generally characterized by a stable "toxin", a protein or peptide capable of killing the cell upon plasmid loss and by an unstable "antitoxin", a protein or a non-coding RNA that inhibits toxin activity. Here we report data toward the identification of a RNA-regulated TA system in the plasmid DNA of L...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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