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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645188/temporal-variation-of-the-microbiome-is-dependent-on-body-region-in-a-wild-mammal-tamiasciurus-hudsonicus
#1
Colleen B Bobbie, Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde
Microbial communities are increasingly being recognized as important to host health in wild mammals, but how these communities are characterized can have important consequences on the results of these studies. Previous research has explored temporal variation in microbial communities in humans and lab mammals, but few have investigated how microbiomes fluctuate in wild populations and none have examined the temporal dynamics of these fluctuations in different body regions on a wild mammal. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 16S rRNA gene regions, we characterized the buccal and gut microbiomes of wild North American red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, to measure changes in these two microbiomes over short (< 2 weeks), medium (2-4 weeks) and long (> 1 month) term sampling periods...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#2
Marco Matejcic, M J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
June 22, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644475/post-translational-modification-of-ribosomally-synthesized-peptides-by-a-radical-sam-epimerase-in-bacillus-subtilis
#3
Alhosna Benjdia, Alain Guillot, Pauline Ruffié, Jérôme Leprince, Olivier Berteau
Ribosomally synthesized peptides are built out of L-amino acids, whereas D-amino acids are generally the hallmark of non-ribosomal synthetic processes. Here we show that the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is able to produce a novel type of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide that contains D-amino acids, and which we propose to call epipeptides. We demonstrate that a two [4Fe-4S]-cluster radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme converts L-amino acids into their D-counterparts by catalysing Cα-hydrogen-atom abstraction and using a critical cysteine residue as the hydrogen-atom donor...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644366/microbiota-environment-and-diet
#4
Mauro Batista de Morais, Carolina Santos Mello, Mirian Silva Carmo-Rodrigues, Humberto Bezerra Araújo Filho, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz Melli, Soraia Tahan, Antônio Carlos Campos Pignatari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644365/apropos-gut-microbiota-differences-in-children-from-distinct-socioeconomic-levels-living-in-the-same-urban-area-in-brazil
#5
Sheldon Waugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644357/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-cesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#6
Mei Chin Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne G E Neo, Wei Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644287/1-5-ce-test-hours-health-and-the-human-microbiome-a-primer-for-nurses
#7
Emily Contrada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644126/extensive-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-cheese-associated-bacteria
#8
Kevin S Bonham, Benjamin E Wolfe, Rachel J Dutton
Acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows microbes to rapidly gain new capabilities and adapt to new or changing environments. Identifying widespread HGT regions within multispecies microbiomes can pinpoint the molecular mechanisms that play key roles in microbiome assembly. We sought to identify horizontally transferred genes within a model microbiome, the cheese rind. Comparing 31 newly-sequenced and 134 previously sequenced bacterial isolates from cheese rinds, we identified over 200 putative horizontally transferred genomic regions containing 4,844 protein coding genes...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643880/effects-of-discrete-bioactive-microbial-volatiles-on-plants-and-fungi
#9
REVIEW
Birgit Piechulla, Marie-Chantal Lemfack, Marco Kai
Plants live in association with microorganisms, which are well known as a rich source of specialized metabolits, including volatile compounds. The increasing numbers of described plant microbiomes allowed manifold phylogenetic tree deductions, but less emphasis is presently put on the metabolic capacities of plant-associated microorganisms. With the focus on small volatile metabolites we summarize i) the knowledge of prominent bacteria of plant microbiomes, ii) present the state-of-the-art of individual (discrete) microbial organic and inorganic volatiles affecting plants and fungi, and iii) emphasize the high potential of microbial volatiles in mediating microbe-plant interactions...
June 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#10
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643625/microbial-interactions-and-interventions-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Terence Van Raay, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Recently, several lines of evidence that indicate a strong link between the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and aspects of the gut microbiota have become apparent. However, it remains unclear how changes in the gut microbiota might influence carcinogenesis or how regional organization of the gut might influence the microbiota. In this review, we discuss several leading theories that connect gut microbial dysbiosis with CRC and set this against a backdrop of what is known about proximal-distal gut physiology and the pathways of CRC development and progression...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643622/lung-microbiota-and-its-impact-on-the-mucosal-immune-phenotype
#12
Benjamin G Wu, Leopoldo N Segal
The use of culture-independent techniques has allowed us to appreciate that the upper and lower respiratory tract contain a diverse community of microbes in health and disease. Research has only recently explored the effects of the microbiome on the host immune response. The exposure of the human body to the bacterial environment is an important factor for immunological development; thus, the interaction between the microbiome and its host is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of disease. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms that determine the composition of the airway microbiome and its effects on the host immune response...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643480/microbiome-yarns-microbial-forensics-for-auditing-provenance-in-global-food-chains
#14
EDITORIAL
Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok, Romilio T Espejo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643294/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-influences-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#15
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intestinal microbiome is increasing steadily with regard to the immune function und the defense against pathogens. The medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) has been used as probiotic for the prevention and treatment of infectious diarrhea since more than 50 years. Meta-analyses confirm the clinical efficacy of S. boulardii to treat diarrhea of various origins in children and adults. METHOD: This review article summarizes experimental studies on molecular and immunological mechanisms which explain the proven clinical efficacy of S...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#16
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642971/high-diversity-of-bacterial-communities-in-developmental-stages-of-bactrocera-carambolae-insecta-tephritidae-revealed-by-illumina-miseq-sequencing-of-16s-rrna-gene
#17
Hoi-Sen Yong, Sze-Looi Song, Kah-Ooi Chua, Phaik-Eem Lim
Bactrocera carambolae is a highly polyphagous fruit pest of agricultural importance. This study reports the bacterial communities associated with the developmental stages of B. carambolae. The microbiota of the developmental stages were investigated by targeted 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq. At 97% similarity, there were 19 bacterial phyla and unassigned bacteria, comprising 39 classes, 86 orders, 159 families and 311 genera. The bacterial composition varied among the specimens of developmental stage and across developmental stages as well as exuviae...
June 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642945/nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-biosynthetic-clusters-of-eskape-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Andrew M Gulick
Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642887/dynamic-regulation-of-serum-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonists-in-ms
#19
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Maria Isabel Garcia Sanchez, Maria Antonietta Mazzola, Christopher C Hemond, Keren Regev, Anu Paul, Pia Kivisäkk, Rohit Bakshi, Guillermo Izquierdo, Howard L Weiner, Francisco J Quintana
OBJECTIVE: Several factors influence the clinical course of autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as MS and inflammatory bowel disease. Only recently, the complex interaction between the gut microbiome, dietary factors, and metabolism has started to be appreciated with regard to its potential to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. One of the molecular sensors that mediates the effects of these environmental signals on the immune response is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor with key functions in immune cells...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#20
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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