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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933668/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-generalizing-configural-relationships
#1
Sam C Berens, Chris M Bird
The hippocampus has been implicated in integrating information across separate events in support of mnemonic generalizations. These generalizations may be underpinned by processes at both encoding (linking similar information across events) and retrieval ("on-the-fly" generalization). However, the relative contribution of the hippocampus to encoding- and retrieval-based generalizations is poorly understood. Using fMRI in humans, we investigated the hippocampal role in gradually learning a set of spatial discriminations and subsequently generalizing them in an acquired equivalence task...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933461/factors-associated-with-hiv-testing-among-participants-from-substance-use-disorder-treatment-programs-in-the-us-a-machine-learning-approach
#2
Yue Pan, Hongmei Liu, Lisa R Metsch, Daniel J Feaster
HIV testing is the foundation for consolidated HIV treatment and prevention. In this study, we aim to discover the most relevant variables for predicting HIV testing uptake among substance users in substance use disorder treatment programs by applying random forest (RF), a robust multivariate statistical learning method. We also provide a descriptive introduction to this method for those who are unfamiliar with it. We used data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network HIV testing and counseling study (CTN-0032)...
December 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933429/establishing-the-values-for-patient-engagement-pe-in-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-research-an-international-multiple-stakeholder-perspective
#3
Kirstie Haywood, Anne Lyddiatt, Samantha J Brace-McDonnell, Sophie Staniszewska, Sam Salek
PURPOSE: Active patient engagement is increasingly viewed as essential to ensuring that patient-driven perspectives are considered throughout the research process. However, guidance for patient engagement (PE) in HRQoL research does not exist, the evidence-base for practice is limited, and we know relatively little about underpinning values that can impact on PE practice. This is the first study to explore the values that should underpin PE in contemporary HRQoL research to help inform future good practice guidance...
December 8, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933164/effect-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-shoal-familiarity-and-metabolism-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#4
Lauren E Nadler, Shaun S Killen, Mark I McCormick, Sue-Ann Watson, Philip L Munday
Atmospheric CO2 is expected to more than double by the end of the century. The resulting changes in ocean chemistry will affect the behaviour, sensory systems and physiology of a range of fish species. Although a number of past studies have examined effects of CO2 in gregarious fishes, most have assessed individuals in social isolation, which can alter individual behaviour and metabolism in social species. Within social groups, a learned familiarity can develop following a prolonged period of interaction between individuals, with fishes preferentially associating with familiar conspecifics because of benefits such as improved social learning and greater foraging opportunities...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933011/psychological-restoration-can-depend-on-stimulus-source-attribution-a-challenge-for-the-evolutionary-account
#5
Andreas Haga, Niklas Halin, Mattias Holmgren, Patrik Sörqvist
Visiting or viewing nature environments can have restorative psychological effects, while exposure to the built environment typically has less positive effects. A classic view is that this difference in restorative potential of nature and built environments depends on differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the stimuli. In addition, an evolutionary account is often assumed whereby restoration is believed to be a hardwired response to nature's stimulus-features. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the restorative effects of a stimulus do not entirely depend on the stimulus-features per se, but also on the meaning that people assign to the stimulus...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932969/variability-of-neuronal-responses-types-and-functional-significance-in-neuroplasticity-and-neural-darwinism
#6
Alexander V Chervyakov, Dmitry O Sinitsyn, Michael A Piradov
HIGHLIGHTS We suggest classifying variability of neuronal responses as follows: false (associated with a lack of knowledge about the influential factors), "genuine harmful" (noise), "genuine neutral" (synonyms, repeats), and "genuine useful" (the basis of neuroplasticity and learning).The genuine neutral variability is considered in terms of the phenomenon of degeneracy.Of particular importance is the genuine useful variability that is considered as a potential basis for neuroplasticity and learning. This type of variability is considered in terms of the neural Darwinism theory...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932696/corpus-callosum-structural-integrity-is-associated-with-postural-control-improvement-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-who-have-minimal-disability
#7
Daniel S Peterson, Geetanjali Gera, Fay B Horak, Brett W Fling
Background Improvement of postural control in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is an important target for neurorehabilitation. Although PwMS are able to improve postural performance with training, the neural underpinnings of these improvements are poorly understood. Objective To understand the neural underpinnings of postural motor learning in PwMS. Methods Supraspinal white matter structural connectivity in PwMS was correlated with improvements in postural performance (balancing on an oscillating surface over 25 trials) and retention of improvements (24 hours later)...
December 8, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932344/using-robust-normative-data-to-investigate-the-neuropsychology-of-cognitive-aging
#8
Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, David Ames, Jason Hassenstab, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Olivier Salvado, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which increasing age is associated with impairment in cognitive function, termed cognitive aging, may have been overestimated in prior studies. The inclusion of individuals with severe or uncontrolled systemic medical illness or prodromal neurodegenerative disease in normal aging samples is likely to bias estimates toward lower cognitive performance and inflate estimates of variability. METHOD: Unbiased estimates of cognitive aging in 658 adults aged 60-84, who underwent rigorous screening to ensure their general and cognitive health, were computed...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932305/scavenging-of-highly-reactive-gamma-ketoaldehydes-attenuates-cognitive-dysfunction-associated-with-epileptogenesis
#9
Jennifer N Pearson, Eric Warren, Li-Ping Liang, L Jackson Roberts, Manisha Patel
Cognitive dysfunction is a major comorbidity of the epilepsies; however, treatments targeting seizure-associated cognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in learning and memory are not available. Isoketals and neuroketals, collectively known as gamma-ketoaldehydes are formed via the non-enzymatic, free radical catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. They are attractive candidates for oxidative protein damage and resultant cognitive dysfunction due to their formation within the plasma membrane and their high proclivity to form cytotoxic adducts on protein lysine residues...
December 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932233/schizophrenia-risk-alleles-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia typically onsets after puberty but is often preceded by observable childhood neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether these childhood antecedents index genetic liability is unknown. We used polygenic risk scores derived from a patient discovery sample as indicators of the genetic liability of schizophrenia. Our aim was to identify the early childhood manifestations of this liability in a UK population-based cohort. METHODS: The study sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective population-based cohort study of 14701 children...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931534/advances-in-clinical-immunology-in-2015
#11
REVIEW
Javier Chinen, Luigi D Notarangelo, William T Shearer
Advances in clinical immunology in the past year included the report of practice parameters for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiencies to guide the clinician in the approach to these relatively uncommon disorders. We have learned of new gene defects causing immunodeficiency and of new phenotypes expanding the spectrum of conditions caused by genetic mutations such as a specific regulator of telomere elongation (RTEL1) mutation causing isolated natural killer cell deficiency and mutations in ras-associated RAB (RAB27) resulting in immunodeficiency without albinism...
December 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931520/translational-potential-of-long-term-decreases-in-mitochondrial-lipids-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#12
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Utsav Joshi, Gogce Crynen, Jon Reed, Benoit Mouzon, Stephan Baumann, Hannah Montague, Zuchra Zakirova, Tanja Emmerich, Corbin Bachmeier, Nancy Klimas, Kimberly Sullivan, Michael Mullan, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Fiona Crawford
Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929612/effects-of-cumulative-herpesviridae-and-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-bipolar-and-schizophrenia-subjects
#13
Nora Hamdani, Claire Daban-Huard, Ophelia Godin, Hakim Laouamri, Stéphane Jamain, Dodji Attiba, Marine Delavest, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Josselin Houenou, Jean-Romain Richard, Robert H Yolken, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Ryad Tamouza, Marion Leboyer, Faith B Dickerson
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment leading to social disruption. While previous studies have focused on the effect of individual infectious exposure, namely, Herpesviridae viruses or Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii), on cognitive functioning, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of multiple infections on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and in healthy controls. METHODS: Seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and T gondii was related to cognitive status among 423 participants (recruited between 2008 and 2014; 138 patients with bipolar disorder, 105 patients with schizophrenia [DSM-IV criteria], and 180 healthy controls) for episodic verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test), working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition), and premorbid intelligence quotient (National Adult Reading Test)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929474/a-simple-one-step-dissection-protocol-for-whole-mount-preparation-of-adult-drosophila-brains
#14
Antonio J Tito, Shebna Cheema, Mian Jiang, Sheng Zhang
There is an increasing interest in using Drosophila to model human brain degenerative diseases, map neuronal circuitries in adult brains, and study the molecular and cellular basis of higher brain functions. A whole-mount preparation of adult brains with well-preserved morphology is critical for such whole brain-based studies, but can be technically challenging and time-consuming. This protocol describes an easy-to-learn, one-step dissection approach of an adult fly head in less than 10 s, while keeping the intact brain attached to the rest of the body to facilitate subsequent processing steps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929374/flexible-theta-sequence-compression-mediated-via-phase-precessing-interneurons
#15
Angus Chadwick, Mark Cw van Rossum, Matthew F Nolan
Encoding of behavioral episodes as spike sequences during hippocampal theta oscillations provides a neural substrate for computations on events extended across time and space. However, the mechanisms underlying the numerous and diverse experimentally observed properties of theta sequences remain poorly understood. Here we account for theta sequences using a novel model constrained by the septo-hippocampal circuitry. We show that when spontaneously active interneurons integrate spatial signals and theta frequency pacemaker inputs, they generate phase precessing action potentials that can coordinate theta sequences in place cell populations...
December 8, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929331/information-processing-in-illness-representation-implications-from-an-associative-learning-framework
#16
Rob Lowe, Paul Norman
OBJECTIVE: The common-sense model (Leventhal, Meyer, & Nerenz, 1980) outlines how illness representations are important for understanding adjustment to health threats. However, psychological processes giving rise to these representations are little understood. To address this, an associative-learning framework was used to model low-level process mechanics of illness representation and coping-related decision making. METHOD: Associative learning was modeled within a connectionist network simulation...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928709/the-gabaergic-system-in-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-modulates-context-related-extinction-learning-and-renewal-in-humans
#17
Silke Lissek, Anne Golisch, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff
Context-related extinction learning and renewal in humans is mediated by hippocampal and prefrontal regions. Renewal is defined as the reoccurrence of an extinguished response if the contexts present during extinction learning and recall differ. Animal studies implicate hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors in extinction and renewal. However, human studies on GABAergic mechanisms in extinction learning are lacking. In this fMRI study, we therefore investigated the role of the GABAergic system in context-related extinction learning and renewal...
December 7, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927621/optimism-and-cause-specific-mortality-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Eric S Kim, Kaitlin A Hagan, Francine Grodstein, Dawn L DeMeo, Immaculata De Vivo, Laura D Kubzansky
Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927595/decreased-cerebral-perfusion-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#19
Nathalie Doorenweerd, Eve M Dumas, Eidrees Ghariq, Sophie Schmid, Chiara S M Straathof, Arno A W Roest, Beatrijs H Wokke, Erik W van Zwet, Andrew G Webb, Jos G M Hendriksen, Mark A van Buchem, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Iris Asllani, Erik H Niks, Matthias J P van Osch, Hermien E Kan
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by dystrophin gene mutations which lead to the absence of the protein dystrophin. A significant proportion of patients suffer from learning and behavioural disabilities, in addition to muscle weakness. We have previously shown that these patients have a smaller total brain and grey matter volume, and altered white matter microstructure compared to healthy controls. Patients with more distal gene mutations, predicted to affect dystrophin isoforms Dp140 and Dp427, showed greater grey matter reduction...
October 17, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927036/integrative-group-based-cognitive-rehabilitation-efficacy-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Oiane Rilo, Javier Peña, Natalia Ojeda, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Mar Mendibe-Bilbao, Ainara Gómez-Gastiasoro, John DeLuca, Nancy Chiaravalloti, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation programme, REHACOP, on improving cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Fourty-two MS patients were randomized to the treatment programme REHACOP (n = 21) or waiting list control condition (n = 21). The REHACOP group received cognitive rehabilitation in group format for three months focused on attention, processing speed, learning and memory, language, executive functioning, and social cognition...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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