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fungal endocarditis

Shi-Min Yuan
Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition. The Candida and Aspergillus species are the two most common etiologic fungi found responsible for fungal endocarditis. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. Some patients may have a fever of unknown origin as the onset symptom. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis is extremely difficult. The optimum antifungal therapy still remains debatable. Treating Candida endocarditis can be difficult because the Candida species can form biofilms on native and prosthetic heart valves...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan, Monisha Priyadarshini Kumar, Rutuja R Sikachi, Abhinav Agrawal
Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality...
August 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Mariana Brandão, Jorge Almeida, Rita Ferraz, Lurdes Santos, Paulo Pinho, Jorge Casanova
Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis is an extremely severe form of infective endocarditis, with poor prognosis and high mortality despite treatment. Candida albicans is the most common etiological agent for this rare but increasingly frequent condition. We present a case of fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis due to C. albicans following aortic and pulmonary valve replacement in a 38-year-old woman with a history of surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot, prior infective endocarditis and acute renal failure with need for catheter-based hemodialysis...
September 2016: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Nadia Bouabdallaoui, Pierre Demondion, Guillaume Lebreton, Pascal Leprince
Fungal isolated native pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely uncommon. Data are scarce and report high mortality and recurrence rates. Recommended management combines both medical and surgical approaches. We report herein a rare case of isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by Candida albicans The patient did not display prior heart disease. Medical management was unsuccessful. Pulmonary valve replacement allowed rapid improvement.
June 28, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Kunal D Kotkar, Sameh M Said
Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune syndrome with cardiac manifestations such as nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, also known as Libman-Sacks endocarditis. A 61-year-old female with history of antiphospholipid syndrome presented in acute pulmonary edema. Echocardiography demonstrated mobile vegetations on the free margins of both the anterior and the posterior mitral valve leaflets. Blood cultures and fungal serologies were negative. During mitral valve replacement both the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets were covered with multiple small vegetations with features of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis...
July 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ahmed Khurshid Pasha, Justin Z Lee, See-Wei Low, Hem Desai, Kwan S Lee, Mayar Al Mohajer
Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Beata Sulik-Tyszka, Piotr Kacprzyk, Krzysztof Mądry, Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Wiesław Jędrzejczak, Marta Wróblewska
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is increasingly diagnosed in high-risk patients. The lesions are usually located in the lungs and/or sinuses, and the fungus may spread haematogenously to different organs; however, involvement of the heart during IA is very rare. We describe a unique case of invasive aspergillosis of the heart septum and the lungs in the allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient.
August 2016: Mycopathologia
Vishal Walasangikar, Amit Kumar Dey, Rajaram Sharma, Vivek Murumkar, Rohit Gadewar, Priya Hira, Kartik Mittal
In general aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries are less frequent than intracranial, aortic or other vascular locations. Infectious causes include bacteria such as Staphylococcus sp and Streptococcus sp, mycobacteria, Treponema pallidium (syphilis) and rarely fungi. We report a 7 year old female with two right-sided parahilar pseudo-aneurysm of fungal origin with a prior history of ventricular septal defect. Pulmonary mycotic pseudo-aneurysms are very rare and require a high suspicion to diagnose. If a patient is still symptomatic for fever and cough for a long time, and consolidation on x-ray is not improving on antibiotics, contrast-enhanced computed tomography is indicated...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli, Lêni Márcia Anchieta, Ana Carolina Bueno E Silva, Lenize Adriana de Jesus, Viviane Rosado, Wanessa Trindade Clemente
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare two different empiric treatments for late-onset neonatal sepsis, vancomycin and oxacillin, in a neonatal intensive care unit with a high prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2014. Data from the medical records of at-risk newborns were collected daily. Infections were defined according to the National Health Surveillance Agency criteria...
September 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Abdurrahman A Ozdemir, Tugce K Oral, Aydin Varol
Survival rates of premature infants have increased with developing technology and evolving knowledge but late-onset sepsis is more frequent due to prolonged hospitalization periods of these infants. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight premature infant who was admitted with respiratory distress syndrome, developed necrotizing enterocolitis and fungal sepsis with endocarditis by Candida albicans. He was treated with antifungal therapy until fungal vegetation resolved. Fungal sepsis and endocarditis may be an important morbidity in preterm infants; we review the recent literature about the risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of fungal sepsis in these high risk infants...
April 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Lucia Taramasso, Paola Tatarelli, Antonio Di Biagio
In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis...
April 2, 2016: Virulence
Takahiro Taguchi, Jeswant Dillon, Mohd Azhari Yakub
A 55-year-old man developed severe mitral regurgitation with persistent fungal infective endocarditis 8 months after coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery and 2 saphenous veins, as well as mitral valve repair with a prosthetic ring. Echocardiography demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation and a valvular vegetation. Computed tomography coronary arteriography indicated that all grafts were patent and located intimately close to the sternum. Median resternotomy was not attempted due to the risk of injury to the bypass grafts, and therefore, a right anterolateral thoracotomy approach was utilized...
2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Gábor Balázs Uhrin, Rasmus Hare Jensen, Eva Korup, Jens Grønlund, Ulla Hjort, Claus Moser, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Henrik Carl Schønheyder
We report Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. The fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. Despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia.
December 2015: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Chetan Pasrija, Isa Mohammed, Inna Shats, Susie Hong-Zohlman, Junewai Reoma, Michael A Mazzeffi, Keshava Rajagopal
A 63-year-old male patient with HIV disease presented with dyspnea and complete heart block, and was found to have aortic valve (AV) endocarditis secondary to Candida parapsilosis infection. Echocardiography demonstrated AV endocarditis and possible aortic root versus subannular abscess with moderate AV regurgitation (AR), a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and possible left ventricular to right atrial shunt (Gerbode defect). Large AV vegetations, subannular abscess with an acquired membranous VSD, Gerbode defect, and tricuspid annular abscess at the insertion of septal leaflet were noted intraoperatively...
May 2015: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Asif Farooqui, Emily Hart, Onyekwelu Nzewi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2015: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Ewa A Konik, Merri Bremer, Peter T Lin, Sorin V Pislaru
UNLABELLED: A 67-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome, disseminated histoplasmosis, and mitral valve replacement presented with dyspnea and peripheral edema. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated abnormal pulmonic valve with possible vegetation. Color flow imaging showed laminar flow from main pulmonary artery into right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in diastole. The continuous wave Doppler signal showed dense diastolic envelope with steep deceleration slope. These findings were consistent with severe pulmonic valve regurgitation, possibly due to endocarditis...
March 1, 2015: Echo Research and Practice
Pratap Chandra Rath, Bharat Vijay Purohit, Binod Agrawal, Krupal Reddy, Lavanya Nutankavala, Suneetha Narreddy, Mallikkarjun Reddy, Md Abu Salim
Pacemaker-related fungal endocarditis is an uncommon and unexpected complication. It is associated with high mortality rates. Due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, negative blood culture and delays in obtaining appropriate imaging studies; late diagnosis is common with fungal endocarditis. Hereby we are reporting a rare case of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to Trichosporon species. In literature we did not find any case of pacemaker-related endocarditis due to Trichosporon species.
April 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Toshimitsu Tsugu, Mitsushige Murata, Shiro Iwanaga, Yohei Kitamura, Soushin Inoue, Keiichi Fukuda
We present the rare case of a 76-year-old female with infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Candida glabrata. Immediately before developing the present infection, she developed IE with vegetation on the mitral annular calcification, which was caused by Streptococcus mitis and successfully treated with penicillin-G and gentamicin. However, her fever recurred, and she developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture revealed C. glabrata, and echocardiography revealed new vegetation on the mitral valve...
April 2015: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Jad Chahoud, Ahmad Sharif Yakan, Hala Saad, Souha S Kanj
Sixty years after its initial description, right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) still poses a challenge to all medical practitioners. Epidemiological data reveal a rising incidence attributable to the global surge in the number of intravenous drug users and the increased use of central vascular catheters and implantable cardiac devices. RSIE differs from left-sided infective endocarditis in more than just the location of the involved cardiac valve. They have different clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, and prognoses; hence, they require different management strategies...
September 2016: Cardiology in Review
Justin Glavis-Bloom, Scott Vasher, Meghan Marmor, Antonella B Fine, Philip A Chan, Karen T Tashima, John R Lonks, Erna M Kojic
Use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED), including permanent pacemakers (PPM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Most CIED infections are caused by staphylococci. Fungal causes are rare and their prognosis is poor. To our knowledge, there has not been a previously reported case of multifocal Candida endocarditis involving both a native left-sided heart valve and a CIED lead. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old patient who presented with nausea, vomiting, and generalised fatigue, and was found to have Candida glabrata endocarditis involving both a native aortic valve and right atrial ICD lead...
November 2015: Mycoses
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