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Emilson Ribeiro Viana, Geraldo Mathias Ribeiro, Alfredo G de Oliveira, Juan Carlos Gonzalez Perez
An individual tin oxide (SnO<sub>2</sub>) nanobelt was connected in a back-gate field-effect transistor (FET) configuration and the conductivity of the nanobelt were measured at different temperatures from 400K to 4K, in darkness and under UV illumination. In darkness, the SnO<sub>2</sub> nanobelts show semiconductor behaviour for the whole temperature range measured. But when subject to UV illumination the photoinduced carriers was high enough that leads to a Metal-to-Insulator transition, near room temperature, at T<sub>MIT</sub> = 240 K...
August 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
Rogerio S Goncalves, Taya Hamilton, Ali R Daher, Hiroaki Hirai, Hermano I Krebs
The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Rogerio S Goncalves, Taya Hamilton, Hermano I Krebs
This paper describes our efforts to employ the Microsoft Kinect as a low cost vision control system for the MIT-Skywalker, a robotic gait rehabilitation device. The Kinect enables an alternative markerless solution to control the MIT-Skywalker and allows a more user-friendly set-up. A study involving eight healthy subjects and two stroke survivors using the MIT-Skywalker device demonstrates the advantages and challenges of this new proposed approach.
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Hongji Li, Xiaonan Wang, Zirun Wang, Jiaqi Jiang, Maobin Wei, Jiahong Zheng, Yongsheng Yan, Chunxiang Li
In this study, a novel SERS sensor was successfully prepared by combining a molecular imprinted technique (MIT) with a SERS technique to improve the selectivity of the traditional SERS technique. Moreover, a thermo-sensitive technique was also introduced to confer stimuli-responsive properties to the materials. In a typical procedure, the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were reduced on the surface of ZnO nanorods (NRs), and the ZnO/Ag heterostructures were used as the SERS substrates. Subsequently, a layer of thermo-sensitive imprinted polymer was coated on the surface of ZnO/Ag heterostructures to prepare the thermoresponsive ZnO/Ag/molecularly imprinted polymers (ZOA-TMIPs) by precipitation polymerization...
August 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Neoma T Boardman, Anne Dragøy Hafstad, Jim Lund, Line Rossvoll, Ellen Aasum
Exercise training is a potent, therapeutic approach in obesity and diabetes that exerts protective effects against development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemic-injury. Acute increases in circulating fatty acids (FAs) during an ischemic insult can challenge the heart, as high FA-load is considered to have adverse cardiac effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise-induced cardiac effects in diet-induced obese mice are abrogated by an acute high FA-load. Diet-induced obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jeffrey Funk
Although high degrees of reliability have been found for many types of forecasts purportedly due to the existence of accountability, public forecasts of technology are rarely assessed and continue to have a poor reputation. This paper's analysis of forecasts made by MIT's Technology Review provides a rare assessment and thus a means to encourage accountability. It first shows that few of the predicted "breakthrough technologies" currently have large markets. Only four have sales greater than $10 billion while eight technologies not predicted by Technology Review have sales greater than $10 billion including three with greater than $100 billion and one other with greater than $50 billion...
2017: PloS One
Jiang-Jing Wang, Ya-Zhi Xu, Riccardo Mazzarello, Matthias Wuttig, Wei Zhang
Metal-insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most essential topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. The accompanied drastic change in electrical resistance can be exploited in electronic devices, such as data storage and memory technology. It is generally accepted that the underlying mechanism of most MITs is an interplay of electron correlation effects (Mott type) and disorder effects (Anderson type), and to disentangle the two effects is difficult. Recent progress on the crystalline Ge₁Sb₂Te₄ (GST) compound provides compelling evidence for a disorder-driven MIT...
July 27, 2017: Materials
Tiegui Lin, Jian Wang, Gang Liu, Langping Wang, Xiaofeng Wang, Yufen Zhang
To fabricate high-quality polycrystalline VO₂ thin film with a metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature less than 50 °C, high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with different discharge currents was employed in this study. The as-deposited VO₂ films were characterized by a four-point probe resistivity measurement system, visible-near infrared (IR) transmittance spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity results revealed that all the as-deposited films had a high resistance change in the phase transition process, and the MIT temperature decreased with the increased discharge current, where little deterioration in the phase transition properties, such as the resistance and transmittance changes, could be found...
June 9, 2017: Materials
Dong Zhang, Hong-Jun Sun, Min-Huan Wang, Li-Hua Miao, Hong-Zhu Liu, Yu-Zhi Zhang, Ji-Ming Bian
Vanadium dioxide (VO₂) thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF)-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR) transmittance was observed from the optimized sample...
March 19, 2017: Materials
Xu-Jie Liu, Liang Li, Xiu-Jun Liu, Yi Li, Chun-Yan Zhao, Rui-Qi Wang, Yong-Su Zhen
Previous studies have shown that mithramycin A (MIT) is a promising candidate for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma through inhibiting transcription factor Sp1. However, systemic toxicities may limit its clinical application. Here, we report a rationally designed formulation of MIT-loaded nanoparticles (MIT-NPs) with a small size and sustained release for improved passive targeting and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Nearly spherical MIT-NPs with a mean particle size of 25.0±4.6 nm were prepared by encapsulating MIT into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with drug loading of 2...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Luman Qu, Márton Vörös, Gergely T Zimanyi
Progress has been rapid in increasing the efficiency of energy conversion in nanoparticles. However, extraction of the photo-generated charge carriers remains challenging. Encouragingly, the charge mobility has been improved recently by driving nanoparticle (NP) films across the metal-insulator transition (MIT). To simulate MIT in NP films, we developed a hierarchical Kinetic Monte Carlo transport model. Electrons transfer between neighboring NPs via activated hopping when the NP energies differ by more than an overlap energy, but transfer by a non-activated quantum delocalization, if the NP energies are closer than the overlap energy...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiasong Zhang, Zhengjing Zhao, Jingbo Li, Haibo Jin, Fida Rehman, Pengwan Chen, Yijie Jiang, Chunxu Chen, Maosheng Cao, Yongjie Zhao
Structural stability and functional performances of vanadium dioxide (VO2) are strongly influenced by oxygen vacancies. However, the mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) influenced by defects is still under debate. Here, we study the evolution of structure and electrical property of oxygen-deficient VO2 by a low temperature annealing process (LTP) based on a truss-structured VO2 nanonet. The oxygenation process of the oxygen-deficient VO2 is greatly prolonged, which enables us to probe the gradual change of properties of the oxygen-deficient VO2...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tatyana A Gubin, Hari P Iyer, Shirlene N Liew, Aartik Sarma, Alex Revelos, João Ribas, Babak Movassaghi, Zen M Chu, Ayesha N Khalid, Maulik D Majmudar, Christopher Xiang Lee
MIT Hacking Medicine is a student, academic, and community-led organization that uses systems-oriented "healthcare hacking" to address challenges around innovation in healthcare. The group has organized more than 80 events around the world that attract participants with diverse backgrounds. These participants are trained to address clinical needs from the perspective of multiple stakeholders and emphasize utility and implementation viability of proposed solutions. We describe the MIT Hacking Medicine model as a potential method to integrate collaboration and training in rapid innovation techniques into academic medical centers...
July 26, 2017: Cell Systems
Daesu Lee, Jaeseong Lee, Kyung Song, Fei Xue, Si-Young Choi, Yanjun Ma, Jacob Podkaminer, Dong Liu, Shih-Chia Liu, Bongwook Chung, Wenjuan Fan, Sang June Cho, Weidong Zhou, Jaichan Lee, Long-Qing Chen, Sang Ho Oh, Zhenqiang Ma, Chang-Beom Eom
Phase transitions in correlated materials can be manipulated at the nanoscale to yield emergent functional properties, promising new paradigms for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), an archetypal correlated material, exhibits a metal-insulator transition (MIT) above room temperature. At the thicknesses required for heterostructure applications, such as an optical modulator discussed here, the strain state of VO2 largely determines the MIT dynamics critical to the device performance. We develop an approach to control the MIT dynamics in epitaxial VO2 films by employing an intermediate template layer with large lattice mismatch to relieve the interfacial lattice constraints, contrary to conventional thin film epitaxy that favors lattice match between the substrate and the growing film...
August 7, 2017: Nano Letters
Guoping Pan, Jinhua Yin, Keli Ji, Xiang Li, Xingwang Cheng, Haibo Jin, Jiping Liu
Tungsten-doped VO2 thin films have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel process and followed by a post annealing. Vanadium pentoxide and tungstic acid as raw materials with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, concentrated hydrochloric acid (catalyst) and oxalic acid used as reducing agent were reacted in isobutanol. Finally, the uniform sol of vanadyl oxalate in isobutanol solvent was obtained as precursor. Detailed study suggested that W doped in VO2 introduces additional electron carriers and induces the formation of V(3+)...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qin Qin, Jianqing Li, Li Zhang, Yinggao Yue, Chengyu Liu
Automatic feature extraction and classification are two main tasks in abnormal ECG beat recognition. Feature extraction is an important prerequisite prior to classification since it provides the classifier with input features, and the performance of classifier depends significantly on the quality of these features. This study develops an effective method to extract low-dimensional ECG beat feature vectors. It employs wavelet multi-resolution analysis to extract time-frequency domain features and then applies principle component analysis to reduce the dimension of the feature vector...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Joe R Feldkamp, Stephen Quirk
Alternative coil designs for single coil magnetic induction tomography are considered in this work, with the intention of improving upon the standard design used previously. In particular, we note that the blind spot associated with this coil type, a portion of space along its axis where eddy current generation can be very weak, has an important effect on performance. The seven designs tested here vary considerably in the size of their blind spot. To provide the most discerning test possible, we use laboratory phantoms containing feature dimensions similar to blind spot size...
August 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Shi-Min Yuan
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare developmental disorder of the lung, characterized by dilation of pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatics. The incidence of CPL among stillborn and neonates was estimated to be <1%. The etiology of CPL is unknown. However, it has been suspected to be of a genetic background. Recent basic studies revealed that it might be caused by the FOXC2, Vegfr-3 and integrin α9β1gene mutations. A clinical diagnosis of CPL can be made much easier in full-term neonates who present with respiratory distress, pleural (especially chylous) effusions with or without generalized edema...
July 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
Manuela Hoffmann, Manuela A Hoffmann, Helmut J Wieler, Frank M Jakobs, Kasra Taymoorian, Arnd Gerhards, Matthias Miederer, Mathias Schreckenberger
AIMS: To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. METHODS: In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared...
July 17, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
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