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hepatitis in pediatric oncology unit

Mónica Jerónimo, Sónia Silva, Manuela Benedito, Manuel João Brito
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between lymphomas and autoimmune diseases has been reported as bi-directional, however there is a few data in pediatric population. The aim of this work is to evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents with Hodgkin's lymphoma followed in a Pediatric Oncology Unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: By reviewing Hodgkin's lymphomas data from the past 16 years (collected prospectively), an apparently large incidence of autoimmune diseases, mostly in female patients, was noted...
November 2015: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Ané Büchner, Nicolette M Du Plessis, David T Reynders, Fareed E Omar, Simnikiwe H Mayaphi, Ahmad F Haeri Mazanderani, Theunis Avenant
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well described and continues to occur worldwide. Recent nosocomial outbreaks have been linked to unsafe injection practices, use of multi-dose vials, and poor staff compliance with standard precautions. This report describes a nosocomial outbreak that occurred in a pediatric hematology and oncology unit of a large academic hospital, the epidemiological investigation of the outbreak, and preventive measures implemented to limit further in-hospital transmission...
November 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Roberto Simeone, Patrizia Visconti
BACKGROUND: Working in health care carries the risk of transmission of infected blood to patients by hospital workers and to other health personnel in the form of occupational infections. Conscientious application of the standard precautions is the main method used to avoid needle stick injuries, contamination of skin and mucous membranes, cuts with sharp tools, and inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. The aim of this work was to investigate in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-east Italy, the enhancement carried out to prevent situations of biologic risk for health care workers, and to verify the related laboratory analyses...
2015: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Maria Debora De Pasquale, Lidia Monti, Maria Luisa D'Andrea, Maria Antonietta De Ioris, Aurora Castellano
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic regenerating nodules (HRN) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are benign regenerating lesions of the liver that rarely occur in children. An increased incidence of these lesions is reported in children treated for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight children who developed FNH and HRN after treatment for malignancies in the Oncology unit at the "Bambino Gesù" Pediatric Hospital in Rome, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The lesions, considered in the differential diagnosis with metastatic relapse of the primitive disease, have been monitored with US or other available imaging techniques...
March 2013: Annals of Hepatology
Reto Marc Baertschiger, Hulya Ozsahin, Anne-Laure Rougemont, Mehrak Anooshiravani, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Claude Le Coultre, Pietro Majno, Barbara E Wildhaber, Gilles Mentha, Christophe Chardot
PURPOSE: Multifocal panhepatic hepatoblastoma (HB) without extrahepatic disease is generally considered as an indication for total hepatectomy and liver transplantation. However, after initial chemotherapy, downstaging of the tumor sometimes allows complete macroscopic resection by partial hepatectomy. This procedure is no longer recommended because of the risk of persistent viable tumor cells in the hepatic remnant. We report our experience with conservative surgery in such cases. METHOD: Between 2000 and 2005, 4 children were consecutively referred to our unit with multinodular pan-hepatic HBs (classification PRETEXT IV of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Liver Tumor Study Group SIOPEL)...
May 2010: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Robert F Tamburro, Raymond C Barfield, Michele L Shaffer, Surender Rajasekaran, Paul Woodard, R Ray Morrison, Scott C Howard, Richard T Fiser, Jeffrey E Schmidt, Elaine M Sillos
OBJECTIVE: To assess the following hypotheses regarding mechanically ventilated pediatric oncology patients, including those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and those not receiving HSCT: 1) outcomes are more favorable for nontransplant oncology patients than for those requiring HSCT; 2) outcomes have improved for both populations over time; and 3) there are factors available during the time of mechanical ventilation that identify patients with a higher likelihood of dying...
May 2008: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
S W Moore, A Davidson, G P Hadley, M Kruger, J Poole, D Stones, L Wainwright, G Wessels
BACKGROUND: Malignant liver tumors (mostly hepatoblastoma [HB] and hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) are uncommon, representing 0.5%-2% of childhood malignancies worldwide. The pattern of liver tumors appears to differ in Southern Africa as a result of infectious factors (e.g., hepatitis B/retroviral disease (HIV). This study aimed to assess recent changes in the prevalence and surgical management of liver tumors in South African children. METHODS: Data were obtained from the tumor registry and pediatric oncology units in South African hospitals to audit and review the epidemiology, treatment, and outcome of malignant hepatic tumors in South African children...
July 2008: World Journal of Surgery
Katerina Katsibardi, Maria A Moschovi, Maria Theodoridou, Nicholas Spanakis, Panagiotis Kalabalikis, Athanassios Tsakris, Fotini Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou
Enteroviruses can cause severe manifestations in children with malignancy. Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS) due to enterovirus is a rare entity in children. Patients with malignancy and IAHS due to enterovirus were retrospectively evaluated at the University of Athens' Hematology-Oncology pediatric unit within a 6-year period (2000-2006). IAHS occurred in three cases among 56 patients with documented enteroviral infection. The diagnosis of IAHS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration and biopsy...
January 2008: European Journal of Pediatrics
Debra Eshelman, Wendy Landier, Teresa Sweeney, Allison L Hester, Kathy Forte, Joan Darling, Melissa M Hudson
Childhood cancer survivors are a growing, vulnerable group with health care needs unique to their cancer treatments. They may experience many late physical and psychological complications (late effects) of treatment including organ dysfunction, infertility, second neoplasms, chronic hepatitis, musculoskeletal problems, alterations in cognitive function, and myriad psychosocial problems. Health care providers may be unaware of actual or potential survivor problems. Until recently, there were no clearly defined, easily accessible risk-based guidelines for cancer survivor follow-up care...
September 2004: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Samuel W Moore, Alistair J W Millar, G P Hadley, Gabriel Ionescu, Mariana Kruger, Janet Poole, David Stones, Linda Wainwright, Milind Chitnis, Glynn Wessels
BACKGROUND: The high regional incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in South Africa also may be present in children of the region, although the link to hepatitis B (HBV) appears less clear. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and probable causes of HCC in South African children. METHODS: Data were obtained from seven participating pediatric oncology units and from the tumor registry to review hepatic tumors in children in South Africa. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-four children (ages 0-14 years) presented with malignant primary hepatic tumors (1988-2003)...
August 1, 2004: Cancer
S Iu Kovalev, O I Maliushenko, N P Glinskikh
A study of distributions of different genetic variations (subtypes) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), circulating in the territories of Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk among infected population categories of different social statuses and age, is reported in the paper. The predominance of 1b subtype was shown in the HCV-infected patients at the hemodialysis center (HDC) and at the pediatric oncohematology center (OHC), 83.3% and 84.6% respectively. The summarized results of examinations of patients conducted at HCV-infection departments (97 persons) did not reveal any essential differences between the data, obtained for Moscow and Saint-Petersburg, concerning the distributions of HCV subtypes...
September 2003: Voprosy Virusologii
Kirsten Visoná, Fulgencio Baez, Lizeth Taylor, René Berríos, Bernal León, Carlos Pacheco, Roberto Jirón, Ronald B Luftig, M Mercedes Somarriba
The risk of acquiring both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in patients with hematological-oncological disorders has been documented. However, the impact and risk factors for such infections from different geographical areas vary, and the use of both immunological and molecular assays to determine HCV infections has been our approach. Children from a hematology-oncology unit (HOU) in Nicaragua were studied for both HBV and HCV serological markers; studies for the latter used both immunological (anti-HCV) and molecular (HCV RNA) assays...
May 2002: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
S E Hamrick, A F Olshan, J P Neglia, B H Pollock
Previous studies have suggested a relationship between reproductive history, pregnancy and birth factors, and the risk of neuroblastoma. We conducted a case-control telephone interview study that included a total of 504 children under the age of 19 years with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma identified by two national collaborative clinical trials groups, the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. A total of 504 controls, matched to cases on age, were identified by random digit dialing. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the matched odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with adjustment for household income, and maternal race and education...
October 2001: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
R J Randall
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major public health concern today because of its prevalence in the United States. Acute HCV is commonly asymptomatic and often results in chronic disease. However, symptoms related to chronic disease may not appear for decades. Patients with HCV have a broad spectrum of symptoms, which vary from elevated liver function test results to cirrhosis, liver cancer and end stage liver disease. Past treatment therapies have not been highly effective; however, a new treatment is currently available...
January 2001: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
A M Langevin, D T Casto, P J Thomas, S D Weitman, C Kretschmar, H Grier, C Pratt, R Dubowy, M Bernstein, S Blaney, T Vietti
PURPOSE: A phase I trial of 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) was performed in children with solid tumors to establish the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), and the pharmacokinetic profile in children and to document any evidence of activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 72-hour infusion of 9-AC dimethylacetamide formulation was administered every 21 days to 23 patients younger than 21 years of age with malignant tumors refractory to conventional therapy...
July 1998: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
R Repp, S Rhiel, K H Heermann, S Schaefer, C Keller, P Ndumbe, F Lampert, W H Gerlich
A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for rapid genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV). During the first PCR round, a universal HBV primer pair was used to amplify the entire pre-S region of the HBV genome. Within the pre-S region, many nucleotide exchanges are observed. These are partly correlated to the serological hepatitis B surface antigen subtypes. Five additional subtype-specific primers were selected from that region which, together with two universal non-group-specific primers, generated specific combinations of two to four DNA fragments of defined sizes...
May 1993: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
A Balcerska, Z Bohdan, E Drozyńska, E Kozielska, A Szarszewski, J A Georgiades
The immunostimulating and anti-cancer action of interferons (IFNs) has been known for many years. However, IFNs have not been introduced widely into the schemes of oncological treatment because of serious side effects potentiating untoward effects of chemotherapy. In addition using high doses of IFNs by parental routes the cost of such therapy is prohibitively high. Natural human interferon alpha lozenges produced from lymphoblastoid cell line by the Hayashibara Biochemical Lab. Okayama Japan (nHuIFN-alpha, HBL) is used in small doses delivered on oral mucosa...
1993: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
B G Williams, B Pruitt
All employees of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital who were at risk for occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus were considered appropriate candidates for immunization when the vaccine was licensed in November 1981. Because a high prevalence of hepatitis B immunity was expected among the staff, preimmunization screening was undertaken in the belief that it would be cost effective. Of 315 candidates screened for antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), 79 (25%) had detectable levels and 48 (15%) had titers of greater than or equal to 10 ratio units (RU)...
October 1984: American Journal of Infection Control
F Rossetti, F Pontini, C Crivellaro, P Cadrobbi, M Guido, P Pontisso, C Pintus, F Bortolotti, L Zanesco
In our Pediatric Haemato-Oncology Unit, 42 young patients cured of their malignancy were left with chronic delta hepatitis. The severity of liver disease in many of these patients prompted us to start a pilot study on the effect of recombinant alpha 2b interferon, given at a dose of 5 MU/square meter thrice weekly. All nine patients included in the study (five males, mean age: 15 years) had well-compensated liver disease, including five cases with active hepatitis and cirrhosis. At the end of the 3rd month of therapy, two patients with cirrhosis developed a biochemical exacerbation leading to hepatic decompensation, which was fatal in one case...
October 1991: Liver
L Hovi, U M Saarinen, H Jalanko, P Pohjanpelto, M A Siimes
After an outbreak of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a unit of pediatric oncology, the clinical outcome and HBV markers were followed in 1 child with chronic and 10 children with acute HBV infection for 12 months. Four children had acute hepatitis with jaundice whereas 7 of the infections were subclinical. Ten children had antecedent malignancies and 1 had aplastic anemia. Four patients died of causes unrelated to the hepatitis after periods of 2, 4, 8 and 10 months. All 3 children who were not immunosuppressed at the time of contracting the HBV infection quickly turned negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), whereas only 2 of 8 patients who were immunosuppressed by chemotherapy eventually became HBsAg-negative...
November 1991: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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