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Infection, immunocompromised patients

Vikas Gautam, Prashant P Patil, Sunil Kumar, Samriti Midha, Mandeep Kaur, Satinder Kaur, Meenu Singh, Swapna Mali, Jayanthi Shastri, Anita Arora, Pallab Ray, Prabhu B Patil
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a complex group of bacteria causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Herein, we report multilocus sequence typing and analysis of the 57 clinical isolates of Bcc collected over the period of seven years (2005-2012) from several hospitals across India. A total of 21 sequence types (ST) including two STs from cystic fibrosis patient's isolates and twelve novel STs were identified in the population reflecting the extent of genetic diversity...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Voon Kin Chin, Tze Yan Lee, Basir Rusliza, Pei Pei Chong
Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida, the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ellen Van Damme, Kim Thys, Marianne Tuefferd, Carl Van Hove, Jeroen Aerssens, Marnix Van Loock
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Ishita Chen, Raymond B Fohtung, Hanadi Ajam Oughli, Robert Bauer, Caline Mattar, William G Powderly, Mark S Thoelke
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) is a rare complication of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection that can occur in immunocompetent host. It usually involves ipsilateral facial paralysis, ear pain and facial vesicles. Disseminated herpes zoster is another complication of VZV infection typically seen in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a patient with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who presented simultaneously with RHS and disseminated herpes zoster. While other complications have been documented to coexist with RHS, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of concurrent RHS with disseminated herpes zoster...
2016: IDCases
Haruki Funao, Khaled M Kebaish, Norihiro Isogai, Takahiro Koyanagi, Morio Matsumoto, Ken Ishii
BACKGROUND: Spondylodiscitis still remains a serious problem especially in immunocompromised patients. Surgery is necessary when non-surgical treatment is unsuccessful. Although minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with percutaneous pedicle screws is less invasive, percutaneous sacropelvic fixation techniques are not common practice. Here, we describe two cases in which spondylodiscitis in the lumbosacral spine was treated with a percutaneous stabilization using S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw technique...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Murali K Kolikonda, Priyanga Jayakumar, Srividya Sriramula, Steven Lippmann
A common inhabitant of skin, the Kocuria kristinae of the Micrococcaceae family, has gained attention in recent years because it can induce pathology in humans. Reported is a Kocuria kristinae-caused abdominal abscess in a patient treated for rheumatoid arthritis with adalimumab. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor drugs are known to cause various bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. This is the first known case where an opportunistic infection with Kocuria has presented with an abdominal abscess in an immunocompromised individual who is on long term TNF inhibitors...
October 18, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher J Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mariaconcetta Varano, Marco Gaspari, Angela Quirino, Giovanni Cuda, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a gram-negative rod belonging to the Brucellaceae family, able to colonize a variety of environments, and actually reported as a human opportunistic pathogen. Despite its low virulence, the bacterium causes a growing number of hospital-acquired infections mainly, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the global proteome changes occurring in O. anthropi in response to different growth temperatures, in order to achieve a major understanding of the mechanisms by which the bacterium adapts to different habitats and to identify some potential virulence factors...
October 18, 2016: Proteomics
Mai Yamamoto, Takashige Kashimoto, Yukihiro Yoshimura, Nao Tachibana, Shiho Kuroda, Yoshiko Miki, Sou Kitabayashi, Ping Tong, Jianbo Xiao, Koichi Tanaka, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Koichiro Yamamoto
The halophilic marine bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus, occasionally causes fatal septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Mice are commonly used as experimental animals to investigate the virulence of V. vulnificus, however, a large number of mice are generally required for bioassays. The present study examined whether the invertebrate species, silkworms, can be used instead of mice to investigate V. vulnificus virulence. When the silkworms were inoculated with 1.2x107 colony forming units of V. vulnificus OPU1‑Rf, a virulent strain of V...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
James Sutherland Lawson, Wendy K Glenn, Noel James Whitaker
High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl, Birgit Spiess, Sven Heldt, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wolfler, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prueller, Robert Krause, Mark Reinwald, Holger Flick, Dieter Buchheidt, Tobias Boch
In recent years galactomannan antigen testing (GM) and also Aspergillus PCR have become increasingly important for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Whether or not these tests need to be performed with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; i.e., primary site of infection), or testing of blood samples is sufficient, remains, however, a matter of debate. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, and Aspergillus PCR by using BALF samples and blood samples obtained at the same day from a total of 53 immunocompromised patients (16 with probable/proven IA and 37 with no evidence of IA according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria; 38 patients with hematological malignancies were prospectively enrolled at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, 15 patients with mixed underlying diseases at the Mannheim University Hospital)...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
F C A Odongo, L S Azevedo, E D Neto, H Yeh-Li, H Caiaffa, L C Pierrotti
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus infection can cause severe illness in certain high-risk groups. Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients have been shown to present a greater risk for severe influenza and complications than the general population. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive cohort study of the features and outcomes of influenza infection in renal transplant recipients from July 2009 to May 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with influenza A infection within the specified period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Fernanda Sangalli-Leite, Liliana Scorzoni, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula E Silva, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Fernanda Patrícia Gullo, Rosangela Moraes da Silva, Luis Octávio Regasini, Dulce Helena Siqueira da Silva, Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection responsible for high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Combination of antifungal substances is a promising way to increase the percentage of successful treatment. Pedalitin (PED) is a natural substance obtained from Pterogyne nitens. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of PED alone and in combination with amphotericin B (AmB) in vitro and in vivo against Cryptococcus spp. In the in vitro assay, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Isabel Barranco-Fernández, Alberto García-Salido, Montserrat Nieto-Moro, Montserrat Sierra-Colomina, Belén Gutierrez-Partida, Inmaculada de Prada-Vicente, Antonio Torrelo-Fernández, Ana Serrano-González
Fusarium species are a known cause of ocular infection. The misuse of contact lenses is the main risk factor in immunocompetent people. In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium infection can produce local and/or systemic invasive fusariosis which is associated with complications, poor prognosis and low response to treatment.Fusarium ocular infection can evolve to keratitis, endophthalmitis and, in extreme cases, ocular perforation. We report, for the first time in children, the case of a 5 year old girl diagnosed with toxic epidermal necrolysis who developed Fusarium ocular infection requiring ocular enucleation...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tobias Svensson, Kristina Lamberg Lundström, Martin Höglund, Honar Cherif
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious infections. Diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-established investigation for identifying the cause of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL in patients treated for hematological malignancies and how often it contributed to a modification of the anti-infectious therapy...
October 14, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Yihua Zhou
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute self-limiting hepatitis in most cases and chronic infection in rare circumstances. It is believed to be noncytopathic, so immunologically mediated events should play important roles in its pathogenesis and infection outcomes. The anti-HEV antibody response was clarified when the major antigenic determinants on the ORF2 polypeptide were determined, which are located in its C-terminal portion. This subregion also forms the conformational neutralization epitopes. Robust anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses usually develop 3-4 weeks after infection in experimentally infected nonhuman primates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, Hang Zeng, Ling Wang
Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of multiple hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates has revealed extensive genomic diversity among them. Recently, a variety of genetically distinct HEV variants have also been isolated and identified from large numbers of animal species, including birds, rabbits, rats, ferrets, bats, cutthroat trout, and camels, among others. Furthermore, it has been reported that recombination in HEV genomes takes place in animals and in human patients. Also, chronic HEV infection in immunocompromised individuals has revealed the presence of viral strains carrying insertions from human genes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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