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Infection, immunocompromised patients

N A Filatova, N A Knyazev, S O Skarlato, O V Anatskaya, A E Vinogradov
Cryptosporidiosis causes persistent diarrhea in infants, immunocompromised patients and elderly persons. Long-term consequences of the disease include increased risk of malignancy, cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate prolonged effects of cryptosporidiosis on innate immunity and growth in neonatal C3HA mice. The disease was challenged by Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inoculation into 7-days old animals. The mice whose intestine smears contained 3-5 or 6 and more oocysts per microscopic field at the day 5 after infection were considered as mildly or severely infected, correspondingly...
March 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Carlos Fritzsche, M Loebermann, E C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine. CASE: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Serological work-up and detection of hepatitis A RNA in stool sample revealed an acute hepatitis A infection despite a previous complete vaccination with the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine...
March 14, 2018: Infection
C Correa-Martinez, A Brentrup, K Hess, K Becker, A H Groll, F Schaumburg
Coprinopsis cinerea is an environmental fungus which can cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients, often leading to death. Here we report the case of a paediatric patient with an invasive wound infection due to C. cinerea, which was successfully treated with surgical debridement and oral posaconazole.
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Na Jia, Yuan-Chun Zheng, Jia-Fu Jiang, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Bao-Gui Jiang, Ran Wei, Hong-Bo Liu, Qiu-Bo Huo, Yi Sun, Yan-Li Chu, Hang Fan, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Nan-Nan Yao, Wen-Hui Zhang, Hong Wang, Dong-Hui Guo, Xue Fu, Ya-Wei Wang, Peter J Krause, Ju-Liang Song, Wu-Chun Cao
Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China. Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. We evaluated them for Babesia infection using history; physical examination; and blood smear, PCR, and genetic sequencing...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Íñigo Corral, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Mario Rodríguez, Michal-Maciej Kawiorski, María-José López-Martínez, Juan-Carlos Galán
Neurological manifestations associated with HHV-7 have been described in primary infection in children, and very occasionally in immunocompromised adult patients. However, the role of HHV-7 reactivation as a cause of central nervous system (CNS) diseases in immunocompetent adults has not yet been defined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and microbiological features of adults with neurological symptoms who underwent lumbar puncture and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpesviruses (HHV-1-8) and enteroviruses performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), during a 4-year period...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Kristine M Thompson, Brian T Kruse, Mary Ann S Hedges
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is usually associated with a surgical or traumatic wound. Clostridial myonecrosis is an uncommon but deadly infection that can develop in the absence of a wound and is often associated with occult gastrointestinal cancer or immunocompromise, or both. CASE REPORT: We report a case of catastrophic atraumatic Clostridium septicum infection in an immunocompromised host. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians most commonly associate necrotizing fasciitis with superinfection of an open wound...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ling Guo, Tom C DeRoche, Ziyan T Salih, Shadi A Qasem
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a serious complication in immunocompromised patients; clinicians often expect expedited results for biopsy specimens. Our goal is to determine the accuracy of identification of CMV on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 361 biopsy specimens from 273 patients with suspicion for CMV infection were retrieved. CMV was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 37 specimens acquired from 33 individual patients (average age = 54 years)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Panagiota Zikidou, Anastassia Grapsa, Zoe Bezirgiannidou, Athanassios Chatzimichael, Elpis Mantadakis
Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Case report: We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with the presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Fikret Şahintürk, Hamiyet Demirkaya, Ümit Akın Dere, Erkin Sönmez, Nur Altınörs, Gökhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
Neurologic complications after solid-organ transplant reveal a great spectrum of pathologies. Intracranial hemorrhages, cerebral ischemic lesions, infarctions, lymphoproliferative disorders, and infections, including aspergillosis, have been observed after liver transplant. Fungi constitute nearly 5% of all central nervous system infections, mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients. The most common causative agent is Aspergillus species. It presents either as maxillary sinusitis or pulmonary infection...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Alberto Ferrarese, Alberto Zanetto, Chiara Becchetti, Salvatore Stefano Sciarrone, Sarah Shalaby, Giacomo Germani, Martina Gambato, Francesco Paolo Russo, Patrizia Burra, Marco Senzolo
Bacterial infection (BI) is a common cause of impairment of liver function in patients with cirrhosis, especially in the liver transplant candidates. These patients share an immunocompromised state and increased susceptibility to develop community and hospital-acquired infections. The changing epidemiology of BI, with an increase of multidrug resistant strains, especially in healthcare-associated settings, represents a critical issue both in the waiting list and in the post-operative management. This review focused on the role played by BI in patients awaiting liver transplantation, evaluating the risk of drop-out from the waiting list, the possibility to undergo liver transplantation after recovery from infection or during a controlled infection...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Laura Becker, Stephan Fuchs, Yvonne Pfeifer, Torsten Semmler, Tim Eckmanns, Gerit Korr, Dagmar Sissolak, Michael Friedrichs, Edith Zill, Mei-Lin Tung, Christian Dohle, Martin Kaase, Sören Gatermann, Holger Rüssmann, Matthias Steglich, Sebastian Haller, Guido Werner
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae pose an important threat of infection with increased morbidity and mortality, especially for immunocompromised patients. Here, we use the rise of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae in a German neurorehabilitation center from April 2015 to April 2016 to dissect the benefit of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for outbreak analyses. In total, 53 isolates were obtained from 52 patients and examined using WGS. Two independent analysis strategies (reference-based and -free) revealed the same distinct clusters of two CTX-M-15 producing K...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erkin Saeed Saifi, Alice Gavazzi, Sara Spandrio
Although its prevalence in resource-rich countries is not precisely estimated, persistent diarrhoea is not a common event if extreme ages are excluded. Enteric pathogens, of various underlying aetiologies, often cause major diarrhoeal syndromes, especially in immunocompromised adults. While there is a rich medical literature regarding HIV-related infections, information about the diagnosis of HIV-infection from diarrhoea as a presenting complaint is scarce. Our case report focuses on a 29-year-old Italian male with persistent diarrhoea who was diagnosed with Giardiasis and subsequently tested for HIV infection, resulting positive...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Silvano Esposito, Silvana Noviello, Francesco De Caro, Giovanni Boccia
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) involve a heterogeneous group of entities with different clinical presentations classified according to several specific criteria. Because of their great variability, their incidence and prevalence is difficult to accurately determine. Yet it is generally thought that the rate of SSTIs is globally increasing due to an aging population, strictly associated with the increase in the number of critical and immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of SSTIs is also extremely variable, reflecting the noteworthy heterogeneity of their clinical presentations and their epidemiology...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Cheryl L Maier, Phillip J Gross, Christina L Dean, Satheesh Chonat, Andrew Ip, Morgan McLemore, Fuad El Rassi, Sean R Stowell, Cassandra D Josephson, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Fever accompanying vaso-occlusive crisis is a common presentation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and carries a broad differential diagnosis. Here, we report a case of transfusion-transmitted malaria in a patient with SCD presenting with acute vaso-occlusive crisis and rapidly decompensating to multisystem organ failure (MSOF). CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old African American male with SCD was admitted after multiple days of fever and severe generalized body pain...
March 9, 2018: Transfusion
Nicole Bertin, Gabriele Brosolo, Fabrizio Pistola, Francesco Pelizzo, Christian Marini, Franco Pertoldi, Olga Vriz
BACKGROUND: Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the normal oral flora of dogs and cats. Human infection is caused by animal bite but is rarely observed, mainly in immunocompromised patients. We present 2 cases of C. canimorsus infection that occurred in immunocompetent patients and caused multiorgan failure and in both cases severe neurologic involvement. CASE REPORT: In the first case, we present a 69-year-old immunocompetent woman with septic shock derived from skin and soft tissue infection after a dog's bite...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Alessia Gallo, Monica Miele, Ester Badami, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Patients following solid organ transplantation show a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Elevated risk is likely due to the interplay of a combination of factors, such as chronic inflammation, coexisting medical conditions, immunosuppressive regimen and persistent infection with oncogenic viruses. In addition, the tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, by driving recruitment and in situ differentiation of anti-inflammatory cells of the adaptive and innate immune system such as regulatory T cells, Th17, Dendritic Cells, Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells, Type 2 Macrophages...
February 16, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Lieuwe D Bos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Subrat Khanal, Pranita Ghimire, Amit S Dhamoon
Adenoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are a significant cause of upper respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Less commonly, the adenovirus family can cause a variety of gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, genitourinary, and neurologic diseases. Most adenovirus infections are self-limited in the immunocompetent host and are treated with supportive measures. Fatal infections can occur in immunocompromised patients and less frequently in the healthy. Adenoviral vectors are being studied for novel biomedical applications including gene therapy and immunization...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicines
Elina Virtanen, Hanna Seppälä, Ilkka Helanterä, Pia Laine, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Lars Paulin, Laura Mannonen, Petri Auvinen, Eeva Auvinen
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection is a common asymptomatic viral infection in the general population. Severe complications are seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) in renal transplant recipients. Information on BKPyV microRNA expressions is scarce, although polyomavirus-encoded microRNAs have been shown to control viral replication and assist in immune evasion. Whereas the pathogenic role of rearrangements in JC polyomavirus has been well established, little is known about BKPyV rearrangements in PyVAN...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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