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Infection, immunocompromised patients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145348/magnusiomyces-capitatus-peritonitis-in-a-child-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia-as-a-breakthrough-infection-during-caspofungin-therapy
#1
Ayşe Bariş, Haşim Gencer, Nazan Dalgiç, Güntülü Şik, Fatma Özakkaş, Elif Aktaş
Magnusiomyces capitatus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen particularly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a M. capitatus peritonitis in child with acute lymphocytic leukemia as a breakthrough infection during caspofungin therapy. The possibility of breakthrough infections caused by M. capitatus must be taken into consideration, particularly in immunosupressed patients being treated for systemic fungal infections by caspofungin. Although there are no defined breakpoints for susceptibility testing of M...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142746/interaction-between-merkel-cell-carcinoma-and-the-immune-system-pathogenetic-and-therapeutic-implications
#2
Irene Zanetti, Ilaria Coati, Mauro Alaibac
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. It usually appears on the face and neck of elderly Caucasian people as a flesh-colored, erythematous or violaceous dome-shaped, non-tender nodule with a smooth surface. In immunocompromised patients with T-cell dysfunction, such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or solid organ transplant recipients, the incidence of this disease is markedly increased. This suggests a link between the development of MCC and the immune system...
November 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142411/the-effect-of-polyherbal-medicines-used-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-on-other-opportunistic-organisms-of-humans-infected-with-tuberculosis
#3
Elizabeth Bosede Famewo, Anna Maria Clarke, Anthony Jide Afolayan
Background: In many immunocompromised patients, opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections are common. Polyherbal medicines examined in this study are used by the indigenous people of South Africa for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other opportunistic infections associated with TB. Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of nine polyherbal remedies against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria respectively and three fungi...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142383/assessment-of-doripenem-meropenem-and-imipenem-against-respiratory-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeroginosa-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#4
Arti Negi, Mridu Anand, Avinash Singh, Awadhesh Kumar, Chinmoy Sahu, Kashi Nath Prasad
Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading pathogen causing healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. The development of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa infections is worrisome. Data specifically comparing the susceptibility of the three available carbapenems are lacking in the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the three commonly used carbapenems- imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem against, 435 P...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142047/multi-center-evaluation-of-the-vitek-ms-v3-0-system-for-the-identification-of-filamentous-fungi
#5
Jenna Rychert, E Sue Slechta, Adam P Barker, Edwin Miranda, N Esther Babady, Yi-Wei Tang, Connie Gibas, Nathan Wiederhold, DeAnna Sutton, Kimberly E Hanson
Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality affecting primarily immunocompromised patients. While fungal identification to the species level is critical to providing appropriate therapy, it can be slow, laborious, and often relies on subjective morphologic criteria. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has the potential to speed up and improve the accuracy of identification. In this multi-center study, we evaluated the accuracy of the VITEK® MS v3.0 system in identifying 1,601 clinical mold isolates as compared to identification by DNA sequence analysis and supported by morphologic and phenotypic testing...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141266/-impact-of-abdominal-ultrasound-on-the-identification-of-the-site-of-infection-in-the-emergency-department-analysis-whether-it-makes-sense-to-perform-abdominal-ultrasound-examination-for-the-identfication-of-the-site-of-infection-if-medical-history-and-clinical
#6
Barbara Werkmeister, Julia Langgartner, Doris Schacherer, Arno Mohr
Introduction A very high number of patients presenting in emergency departments suffer from an unknown infection or rather fever. If diagnostic imaging is necessary ultrasound can be performed. Whether ultrasound is superior to medical history and clinical examination considering the significantly enhanced technology in recent years and hence has to be performed in patients without abdominal symptoms with non-obvious focus cannot be answered by review of the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of abdominal ultrasound in the determination of the site of infection and to analyse whether an abdominal ultrasound for the identification of the source of infection is dispensable in patients in whom history and clinical examination do not indicate an abdominal focus...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140969/risk-factors-for-ventilator-associated-events-in-a-picu
#7
Raeley Guess, Jarin Vaewpanich, Jorge A Coss-Bu, Siriporn Phongjitsiri, Curtis Kennedy, Jeffrey Starke, Satid Thammasitboon
OBJECTIVE: The term ventilator-associated events includes ventilator-associated condition, infection-related ventilator-associated complication, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. We sought to identify potential new risk factors for ventilator-associated condition and infection-related ventilator-associated complication in the PICU population. DESIGN: Matched case control study. SETTING: Children's hospital at a tertiary care academic medical center...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140544/a-cryptosporidium-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#9
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140233/case-report-a-case-of-recurrent-strongyloides-stercoralis-colitis-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma
#10
Keith Glenn, David A Lindholm, Gregory Meis, Luisa Watts, Nicholas Conger
Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infection is frequently subclinical and thus under-recognized, although its increasing prevalence in nonendemic regions has implications for immunocompromised hosts. We present a 75-year-old male with stage II multiple myeloma who presented with relapse of Strongyloides infection after initial treatment, negative surveillance testing, and subsequent resumption of chemotherapy for his multiple myeloma. The optimal regimen for secondary prophylaxis against recurrent infections is unknown...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138886/clinical-predictors-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy
#11
Si-Ho Kim, Sun Young Cho, Cheol-In Kang, Hyeri Seok, Kyungmin Huh, Young Eun Ha, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen with high morbidity and mortality. Because of its unique antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, appropriate antimicrobial therapy for SM bacteremia is still challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients. The present study was performed to assess clinical predictors of SM bacteremia in adult patients with hematologic malignancy. From 2006 through 2016, a case-control study was performed at a tertiary-care hospital. Case patients were defined as SM bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancy...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135250/structure-activity-relationships-of-6-and-8-gingerol-analogs-as-anti-biofilm-agents
#12
Hyunsuk Choi, So-Young Ham, Eunji Cha, Yujin Shin, Han-Shin Kim, Jeong Kyu Bang, Sang-Hyun Son, Hee-Deung Park, Youngjoo Byun
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a causative agent of chronic infections in immunocompromised patients. Disruption of quorum sensing circuits is an attractive strategy for treating diseases associated with P. aeruginosa infection. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of gingerol analogs targeting LasR, a master regulator of quorum sensing networks in P. aeruginosa. Structure-activity relationship studies showed that a hydrogen-bonding interaction in the head section, stereochemistry and rotational rigidity in the middle section, and optimal alkyl chain length in the tail section are important factors for the enhancement of LasR-binding affinity and for the inhibition of biofilm formation...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132793/-french-recommendations-on-control-measures-to-reduce-the-infectious-risk-in-immunocompromised-patients
#13
REVIEW
J-R Zahar, S Jolivet, H Adam, C Dananché, J Lizon, S Alfandari, H Boulestreau, N Baghdadi, J-O Bay, A-M Bénéteau, M-E Bougnoux, M-P Brenier-Pinchart, J-H Dalle, S Fournier, J-G Fuzibet, C Kauffmann-Lacroix, I Le Guinche, D Lepelletier, N Loukili, A Lory, M Morvan, R Oumedaly, P Ribaud, P Rohrlich, P Vanhems, S Aho, D Vanjak, J-P Gangneux
The increase use of immunosuppressive treatments in patients with solid cancer and/or inflammatory diseases requires revisiting our practices for the prevention of infectious risk in the care setting. A review of the literature by a multidisciplinary working group at the beginning of 2014 wished to answer the following 4 questions to improve healthcare immunocompromised patients: (I) How can we define immunocompromised patients with high, intermediate and low infectious risk, (II) which air treatment should be recommended for this specific population? (III) What additional precautions should be recommended for immunocompromised patients at risk for infection? (IV) Which global environmental control should be recommended? Based on data from the literature and using the GRADE method, we propose 15 recommendations that could help to reduce the risk of infection in these exposed populations...
November 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132552/intravenous-drug-abuse-is-a-risk-factor-in-the-failure-of-two-stage-treatment-for-infected-total-hip-arthroplasty
#14
Yu-Jie Su, Sung-Yen Lin, Hsuan-Ti Huang, Je-Ken Chang, Chung-Hwan Chen
Reinfection after two-stage revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) is still a complex issue. Only few studies revealed the factors affecting the success rate in the treatment of periprosthetic hip infection (PHI), especially risk factors. A retrospective study was conducted using records of 30 patients underwent two-stage RHA for infected total hip arthroplasty (THA). Treatment was defined as successful if a patient did not need any reoperation or invasive procedure such as image-guided drainage during the two years after reimplantation...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130815/aspergillus-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-host-with-supravalvular-aortic-stenosis
#15
Sedigheh Saedi, Zahra Khajali, Azin Alizadehasl
Supravalvular aortic stenosis is the rarest form of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Aspergillus endocarditis is also rare and generally reported in immunocompromised hosts. Here we present a case of an immunocompetent patient with supravalvular aortic stenosis complicated by aortic mycotic pseudoaneurysm due to invasive aspergillosis.
January 1, 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126804/clinical-significance-of-human-cytomegalovirus-viruria-and-the-effect-of-antiviral-therapy-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#16
Wei-Lu, Su-Jung Chen, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yu-Jiun Chan, Fu-Der Wang, Hsin-Pai Chen
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised host. The clinical significance of asymptomatic CMV viruria in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. This study aims to clarify whether antiviral therapy is associated with a favorable clinical outcome. METHODS: HSCT recipients whose urine was culture-positive for CMV were retrospectively reviewed and followed. Viruria episodes were divided according to whether or not antiviral therapy was used...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125666/tenosynovitis-caused-by-mycobacterium-malmoense-in-two-kidney-transplant-recipients-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Rebecca van Grootveld, Hans U Scherer, Elke E M Peters, André Gaasbeek, Sandra M Arend, Herman F Wunderink
We report two unrelated cases of tenosynovitis caused by Mycobacterium malmoense in kidney transplant recipients. Both patients received immunosuppression and were referred to our tertiary hospital because of persisting complaints lasting >6 months not responding to corticosteroids or surgery. The mycobacterial cultures were positive for the slow-growing M. malmoense after several weeks of incubation. The patient in Case 1 was treated with a combination of surgical debridement and antibiotics, whereas the patient in Case 2 was only treated surgically...
November 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123428/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-severe-refractory-crohn-s-disease-patient-with-intestinal-stoma-a-case-report
#18
Milton Artur Ruiz, Roberto Luiz Kaiser Junior, Luiz Gustavo de Quadros, Gustavo Henrique Xavier Caseiro, Aderson Francisco Oliveira, Tatiana Peña-Arciniegas, Lilian Piron-Ruiz, Fernanda Soubhia Liedtke Kaiser, Vera Lucia Oliveira
Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be used in the treatment of patients with refractory Crohn's disease (CD) when no alternative treatment is available. However, HSCT increases the risk of infections, in particular during the aplasia of mobilization and conditioning. Moreover, intestinal stomas in CD augment the risk of morbidity in immunocompromised patients and under aplastic conditions. The objective of this report was to describe the results of the first year after HSCT in a CD patient with an intestinal stoma...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121235/management-of-an-outbreak-of-exophiala-dermatitidis-bloodstream-infections-at-an-outpatient-oncology-clinic
#19
Amber Marie Vasquez, D Zavasky, N A Chow, L Gade, E Zlatanic, S Elkind, A P Litvintseva, Peter G Pappas, J R Perfect, S G Revankar, S R Lockhart, T M Chiller, J Ackelsberg, S Vallabhaneni
Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is a dematiaceous fungus that can grow in yeast or mold forms and is typically found in decaying organic matter. It can cause central nervous system disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and has been implicated as a respiratory pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients [1,2]. It has also been identified as a colonizer in the gastrointestinal tract [3]. However, bloodstream infections with this organism are exceedingly rare.
November 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120502/necrotizing-microascus-tracheo-bronchitis-in-a-bilateral-lung-transplant-recipient
#20
Olivier Taton, Benjamin Bernier, Isabelle Etienne, Benjamin Bondue, Sophie Lecomte, Christiane Knoop, Frederique Jacob, Isabel Montesinos
Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of mortality among solid organ transplant recipients. Scopulariopsis species and their teleomorph Microascus are molds found in soil and decaying organic matter. We report here the case of a woman who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for severe emphysema. On day 25 after transplantation, endobronchial green-black lesions were detected during routine endoscopy. Endobronchial swabs, biopsies, and broncho-alveolar lavage samples were positive for Microascus cirrosus...
November 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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