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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811307/an-interview-with-jenny-nichols
#1
Aidan Maartens
Jennifer Nichols is a Principal Investigator at the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. Her lab works on lineage segregation and the establishment of pluripotency in the mammalian embryo. In 2017 she was awarded the British Society for Developmental Biology's Cheryll Tickle Medal, given to mid-career female scientists with outstanding achievements in developmental biology. We met Jenny in her Cambridge office to talk about pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, the importance of collaboration in her career path, and what playing a musical instrument has in common with research...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806606/imbalance-between-abstract-and-concrete-repetitive-thinking-modes-in-schizophrenia
#2
Pierre Maurage, Pierre Philippot, Delphine Grynberg, Dominique Leleux, Benoît Delatte, Camille Mangelinckx, Jan-Baptist Belge, Eric Constant
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive thoughts can be divided in two modes: abstract/analytic (decontextualized and dysfunctional) and concrete/experiential (problem-focused and adaptive). They constitute a transdiagnostic process involved in many psychopathological states but have received little attention in schizophrenia, as earlier studies only indexed increased ruminations (related to dysfunctional repetitive thoughts) without jointly exploring both modes. This study explored the two repetitive thinking modes, beyond ruminations, to determine their imbalance in schizophrenia...
July 1, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800164/b-cell-phenotypes-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-relapsing-after-rituximab-expression-of-b-cell-activating-factor-binding-receptors-on-b-cell-subsets
#3
Elena Becerra, Inmaculada De La Torre, Maria J Leandro, Geraldine Cambridge
OBJECTIVES: Serum levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF) rise following Rituximab (RTX) therapy in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Initiation of naïve B cell return to the periphery and autoreactive B cell expansion leading to relapse after RTX may therefore be linked to interactions between BAFF and BAFF-binding receptors (BBR). METHODS: Relationships between serum BAFF and BBR expression (BAFFR, TACI and BCMA) were determined on B cell subsets, defined using IgD/CD38...
August 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798947/international-organization-of-standardization-iso-and-cambridge-filter-test-cft-smoking-regimen-data-comparisons-in-tobacco-product-marketing-applications
#4
Changyu Chae, Matthew J Walters, Matthew R Holman
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. METHODS: Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. RESULTS: Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R(2) > 0...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795358/psychophysical-measurements-of-luminance-contrast-sensitivity-and-color-discrimination-with-transparent-and-blue-light-filter-intraocular-lenses
#5
Marcelo Fernandes da Costa, Augusto Paranhos Júnior, Claudio Luiz Lottenberg, Leonardo Cunha Castro, Dora Fix Ventura
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to measure luminance contrast sensitivity and color vision thresholdfs in normal subjects using a blue light filter lens and transparent intraocular lens material. METHODS: Monocular luminance grating contrast sensitivity was measured with Psycho for Windows (version 2.36; Cambridge Research Systems) at 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 20.0, and 30.0 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) in 15 normal subjects (eight female), with a mean age of 21...
August 9, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782371/patterns-of-fixation-during-face-recognition-differences-in-autism-across-age
#6
Jennifer Fedor, Andrew Lynn, William Foran, Jared DiCicco-Bloom, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Difficulties with face recognition increase from adolescence to adulthood in autism, reflecting a lack of typical late development. We examined whether this reflects differences in the development of patterns of fixation to eyes and mouths during face recognition. Children, adolescents, and adults (aged 7-30) with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test while gaze was recorded. Average duration and number of fixations were calculated for eyes and mouth regions of interest, defined individually for each face image in the task...
August 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777430/long-noncoding-rna-ccat1-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-human-medulloblastoma-via-mapk-pathway
#7
Ran Gao, Rui Zhang, Cuicui Zhang, Li Zhao, Yue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common posterior fossa tumor in children and one that easily metastasizes. The mechanisms of how the medulloblastoma develops and progresses remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to assess the role of long noncoding colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (lncRNA CCAT1) in cell proliferation and metastasis in human medulloblastoma. METHODS: Levels of CCAT1 were measured in samples and cell lines of medulloblastoma...
August 3, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772800/a-novel-silicon-allotrope-in-the-monoclinic-phase
#8
Chaogang Bai, Changchun Chai, Qingyang Fan, Yuqian Liu, Yintang Yang
This paper describes a new silicon allotrope in the P2/m space group found by first-principles calculations using the Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP) plane-wave code. The examined P2/m-Si belongs to the monoclinic crystal system. P2/m-Si is an indirect band-gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.51 eV, as determined using the HSE06 hybrid functional. The elastic constants, phonon spectra and enthalpy indicate that P2/m-Si is mechanically, dynamically, and thermodynamically stable. P2/m-Si is a low-density (2...
April 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772507/band-gap-tuning-in-2d-layered-materials-by-angular-rotation
#9
Javier Polanco-Gonzalez, Jesús Alfredo Carranco-Rodríguez, José L Enríquez-Carrejo, Pierre G Mani-Gonzalez, José Manuel Domínguez-Esquivel, Manuel Ramos
We present a series of computer-assisted high-resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) simulations to determine Moiré patters by induced twisting effects between slabs at rotational angles of 3°, 5°, 8°, and 16°, for molybdenum disulfide, graphene, tungsten disulfide, and tungsten selenide layered materials. In order to investigate the electronic structure, a series of numerical simulations using density functional methods (DFT) methods was completed using Cambridge serial total energy package (CASTEP) with a generalized gradient approximation to determine both the band structure and density of states on honeycomb-like new superlattices...
February 8, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772421/creep-deformation-by-dislocation-movement-in-waspaloy
#10
Mark Whittaker, Will Harrison, Christopher Deen, Cathie Rae, Steve Williams
Creep tests of the polycrystalline nickel alloy Waspaloy have been conducted at Swansea University, for varying stress conditions at 700 °C. Investigation through use of Transmission Electron Microscopy at Cambridge University has examined the dislocation networks formed under these conditions, with particular attention paid to comparing tests performed above and below the yield stress. This paper highlights how the dislocation structures vary throughout creep and proposes a dislocation mechanism theory for creep in Waspaloy...
January 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769602/taxonomic-notes-on-the-armored-spiders-of-the-families-pacullidae-and-tetrablemmidae-arachnida-araneae-from-singapore
#11
Yucheng Lin, Joseph K H Koh, Seppo Koponen, Shuqiang Li
Eight species of armored spiders belonging to two families, Pacullidae Simon, 1894 and Tetrablemmidae O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873, are reported from Singapore. Five species are documented as new to science: Paculla bukittimahensis Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Paculla globosa Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Ablemma malacca Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Singaporemma lenachanae Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), and Sulaimania brevis Lin & Li, sp. n. (male). The three known species are Brignoliella besutensis Lin, Li & Jäger, 2012, Brignoliella michaeli Lehtinen, 1981, and Singaporemma singulare Shear, 1978, of which the female of Brignoliella besutensis is described for the first time...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768521/searching-for-cancer-vulnerabilities-amid-genetic-chaos
#12
Michael R Speicher
A meeting report on the Third European Association for Cancer Research Conference on Cancer Genomics, held at Churchill College, Cambridge, UK, 25-28 June 2017.
August 3, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762967/multi-temperature-study-of-potassium-uridine-5-monophosphate-electron-density-distribution-and-anharmonic-motion-modelling
#13
Katarzyna N Jarzembska, Katarzyna Řlepokura, Radosław Kamiński, Matthias J Gutmann, Paulina M Dominiak, Krzysztof Woźniak
Uridine, a nucleoside formed of a uracil fragment attached to a ribose ring via a β-N1-glycosidic bond, is one of the four basic components of ribonucleic acid. Here a new anhydrous structure and experimental charge density distribution analysis of a uridine-5'-monophosphate potassium salt, K(UMPH), is reported. The studied case constitutes the very first structure of a 5'-nucleotide potassium salt according to the Cambridge Structural Database. The excellent crystal quality allowed the collection of charge density data at various temperatures, i...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761988/neurological-soft-signs-precede-the-onset-of-schizophrenia-a-study-of-individuals-with-schizotypy-ultra-high-risk-individuals-and-first-onset-schizophrenia
#14
Raymond C K Chan, Hui-Ru Cui, Min-Yi Chu, Tian-Hong Zhang, Ya Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Simon S Y Lui, Ji-Jun Wang, Eric F C Cheung
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are one of the biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, a few studies have examined the prevalence of NSS across the schizophrenia spectrum. The present study adopted a quasi-longitudinal study design and examined the prevalence of NSS and their associations with clinical and behavioural manifestations in participants in different stages of the illness. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 39 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia, 39 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 39 individuals with schizotypy, and 39 healthy controls...
July 31, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760786/how-are-age-related-differences-in-sleep-quality-associated-with-health-outcomes-an-epidemiological-investigation-in-a-uk-cohort-of-2406-adults
#15
Andrew Gadie, Meredith Shafto, Yue Leng, Rogier A Kievit
OBJECTIVES: To examine age-related differences in self-reported sleep quality and their associations with health outcomes across four domains: physical health, cognitive health, mental health and neural health. SETTING: Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) is a cohort study in East Anglia/England, which collected self-reported health and lifestyle questions as well as a range of objective measures from healthy adults. PARTICIPANTS: 2406 healthy adults (age 18-98) answered questions about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and measures of physical, cognitive, mental and neural health...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760155/wine-glass-size-and-wine-sales-a-replication-study-in-two-bars
#16
Rachel Pechey, Dominique-Laurent Couturier, Gareth J Hollands, Eleni Mantzari, Zorana Zupan, Theresa M Marteau
OBJECTIVE: Wine glass size may influence perceived volume and subsequently purchasing and consumption. Using a larger glass to serve the same portions of wine was found to increase wine sales by 9.4% (95% CI 1.9, 17.5) in a recent study conducted in one bar. The current study aimed to replicate this previous work in two other bars using a wider range of glass sizes. To match the previous study, a repeated multiple treatment reversal design, during which wine was served in glasses of the same design but different sizes, was used...
August 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755806/physical-activity-and-blood-pressure-in-10-000-mediterranean-adults-the-epic-florence-cohort
#17
G Masala, B Bendinelli, D Occhini, R M Bruno, S Caini, C Saieva, A Ungar, L Ghiadoni, D Palli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relevant role of physical activity (PA) in cardiovascular risk prevention is widely agreed. We aimed to evaluate, in a large Mediterranean population, the influence of PA on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), taking into account individual characteristics and lifestyle habits. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Florence section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition 10,163 individuals, 35-64 years, without a previous diagnosis of hypertension were recruited...
June 15, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754742/learning-to-teach
#18
(no author information available yet)
In the third year of her PhD at Cambridge, Myfanwy Hill dipped into her skills toolbox to see what competences she has and what she still needs. So, with one eye on the newly fashionable 'portfolio career', and one eye on the unachieved goals on her bucket list, she signed up to teach undergraduate veterinary and medical students.
July 29, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752134/hiv-infection-of-macrophages-implications-for-pathogenesis-and-cure
#19
Kiera L Clayton, J Victor Garcia, Janice E Clements, Bruce D Walker
Although CD4(+) T cells represent the major reservoir of persistent HIV and SIV infection, accumulating evidence suggests that macrophages also contribute. However, investigations of the role of macrophages are often underrepresented at HIV pathogenesis and cure meetings. This was the impetus for a scientific workshop dedicated to this area of study, held in Cambridge, MA in January 2017. The workshop brought together experts in the fields of HIV/SIV immunology and virology, macrophage biology and immunology, and animal models of HIV/SIV infection to discuss the role of macrophages as a physiologically relevant viral reservoir, and the implications of macrophage infection for HIV pathogenesis and strategies for cure...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750115/association-of-c-reactive-protein-genetic-polymorphisms-with-late-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Valentina Cipriani, Ruth E Hogg, Reecha Sofat, Anthony T Moore, Andrew R Webster, John R W Yates, Astrid E Fletcher
Importance: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a circulating inflammatory marker associated with late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It remains uncertain whether the association between CRP concentrations and AMD is causal. Objective: To assess whether CRP (OMIM 123260) single-nucleotide polymorphisms that influence circulating CRP concentrations are associated with late AMD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants in 2 UK, hospital-based, case-control studies (Cambridge AMD study and Moorfields Eye Hospital AMD study) and 1 pan-European, cross-sectional, population-based study (the European Eye [EUREYE] Study) were recruited between November 6, 2000, and April 30, 2007...
July 27, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
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