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James Raftery, Steve Hanney, Trish Greenhalgh, Matthew Glover, Amanda Blatch-Jones
BACKGROUND: This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
J G A Pocock
Barbarism and Religion, the first half of J. G. A. Pocock's study of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, was designed to set Gibbon's work in context, using a method developed in Cambridge, by juxtaposing his narrative to many others-to some but not all of which he explicitly referred. Helena Rosenblatt has misunderstood Pocock's intent, which was to show that Gibbon's work took much of its inspiration for its treatment of Christianity from a world of ecclesiastical scholarship. Though Pierre Force shows that Voltaire's erudition was richer than has been thought, he and Gibbon pursued very different forms of learning...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Helena Rosenblatt
Rosenblatt questions whether Pocock's Barbarism and Religion, though enormously learned and rich, in fact accomplishes Pocock's stated aims. In other words, does the context presented help to explain the intended meaning and significance of Gibbon's Decline and Fall? She asks whether Pocock's methodology, indebted to the Cambridge School, is consistent and serviceable and challenges his claim that Gibbon should be seen as a member of the "Protestant Enlightenment."
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Mandy Day-Calder
The Cambridge dictionary defines a role model as 'a person who someone admires and whose behaviour they try to copy'. When considering what professional traits you would like to portray to others, it might help to think of colleagues who inspire you.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Bandy X Lee, Peter D Donnelly, Larry Cohen, Shikha Garg
The Guest Editors introduce the Special Issue for the Journal of Public Health Policy on violence, health, and the 2030 Agenda. Emphasizing the importance of collaboration between scholars and practitioners, they outline the process of jointly imagining and designing the next generation of violence prevention strategies. They include representative works of members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA), including the World Bank, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention Institute, the Danish Institute Against Torture, the University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Gender Violence and Health Centre, and the Yale University Law and Psychiatry Division, among others...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
M J E Lamb, S J Griffin, S J Sharp, A J M Cooper
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The cardiovascular benefit of increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake following diagnosis of diabetes remains unknown. We aimed to describe how quantity and variety of F&V intake, and plasma vitamin C, change after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and examine whether these changes are associated with improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 401 individuals with screen-detected diabetes from the ADDITION-Cambridge study were followed up over 5 years...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shu Y Ng, Kathryn L Colborn, Lajhem Cambridge, Carla Hajj, T Jonathan Yang, Abraham J Wu, Karyn A Goodman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined acute toxicity profiles and outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to identify predictive clinical factors associated with increased acute toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 301 consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy (median dose 5000cGy) at our institution between 2007 and 2014...
October 14, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Kunal Thakur, Anna Biberger, Alexandra Handrich, Mourad Farouk Rezk
INTRODUCTION: Enbrel(®) (etanercept: manufactured by Immunex Corporation, Newbury Park, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA) was the first biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Europe. More recently, an etanercept biosimilar (Benepali(®): manufactured by Biogen Inc, Cambridge, MA 02124, USA) was approved in the European Union. The perceptions and preferences of the Benepali autoinjector versus Enbrel MYCLIC autoinjector were evaluated by nurses from Europe...
June 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Liina Haring, René Mõttus, Kärolin Kajalaid, Kadri Koch, Kärt Uppin, Eduard Maron, Eero Vasar
Our aim with the present study was to evaluate rank-order and mean-level cognitive functioning stability among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, measured using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), over a six month period. We also aimed to examine longitudinal measurement invariance and identify factors-such as age, gender, educational level, treatment and psychopathological change scores-potentially linked to cognitive change among patients. In addition, correlations between objectively measured and subjectively evaluated cognitive functioning were estimated...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Peter B M Thomas, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Peter Robinson, Anthony J Vivian
PURPOSE: We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. METHODS: The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
C Laur, L Ball, A S Ahankari, M Avdagovska, J Crowley, D Deen, P Douglas, L Hark, M Kohlmeier, L Luzi, L McCotter, K Martyn, C Nowson, C Wall, S Ray
Medical Nutrition Education (MNE) has been identified as an area with potential public health impact. Despite countries having distinctive education systems, barriers and facilitators to effective MNE are consistent across borders, demanding a common platform to initiate global programmes. A shared approach to supporting greater MNE is ideal to support countries to work together. In an effort to initiate this process, the Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme group, in association with their strategic partners, hosted the inaugural International Summit on Medical Nutrition Education and Research on August 8, 2015 in Cambridge, UK...
October 7, 2016: Public Health
Jurgita Kuzmickienė, Gintaras Kaubrys
BACKGROUND The primary manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study...
October 8, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Anna K Bobak, Philip Pampoulov, Sarah Bate
The Cambridge Face Memory Test Long Form (CFMT+) and Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT) are typically used to assess the face processing ability of individuals who believe they have superior face recognition skills. Previous large-scale studies have presented norms for the CFPT but not the CFMT+. However, previous research has also highlighted the necessity for establishing country-specific norms for these tests, indicating that norming data is required for both tests using young British adults. The current study addressed this issue in 254 British participants...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
D B Ninković, D Z Vojislavljević-Vasilev, V B Medaković, M B Hall, E N Brothers, S D Zarić
Stacking interactions between cyclohexane and benzene were studied in crystal structures from the Cambridge Structural Database and by ab initio calculations. Calculated at the very accurate CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory, the cyclohexane-benzene interaction energy is -3.27 kcal mol(-1), which is significantly stronger than the interaction in the benzene dimer (-2.84 kcal mol(-1)) indicating the importance of aliphatic-aromatic interactions.
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Maria M Ttofi, Rebecca V Crago
BACKGROUND: Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. AIMS: The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Valentino Antonio Pironti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Ulrich Müller, Edward Thomas Bullmore, Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. However, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD, and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. AIMS: To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
J Calderón, P Flores, J M Aguirre, G Valdivia, O Padilla, I Barra, L Scoriels, S Herrera, A González, L Massardo
OBJECTIVES: To define the relative role of cognitive impairment, depression, disease activity, and disease damage in the decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHOD: We studied 101 Chilean female SLE patients and applied the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) to assess HRQoL and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive function...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Rafael Carlo Francisco, Ricardo Ott, Renato Augusto Teixeira
Apollophanes has a wide distribution, with some species in Asia and most of the species recorded from North and Central America (World Spider Catalog 2016). New species described from the Galapagos Islands by Baert (2013) have extended the genus range to South America. According to Dondale and Redner (1975) and Dondale and Redner (1978), the species of Apollophanes have a moderately low prosoma, usually of yellow to orange-brown color and with black or brown spots on the lateral margins. The posterior eyes distances are equally spaced and the legs are long, slender and speckled with dark spots, with leg I usually being longer than IV (characteristic observed only in the male exemplar of the new species)...
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Matias Di Paolo, Mariano L Bossi, Ricardo Baggio, Sebastián A Suarez
The synthesis, characterization, structural analysis and fluorescence properties of two rhodamine 6G derivatives are described, namely a propargylamine derivative, 3',6'-bis(ethylamino)-2',7'-dimethyl-2-(methylcyanide)spiro[isoindole-1,9'-xanthen]-3(2H)-one (I), and a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative, 3',6'-bis(ethylamino)-2',7'-dimethyl-3-oxospiro[isoindole-1,9'-xanthen]-2(3H)-yl)butyricacid (II). Both structures are compared with four similar ones from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), and the interactions involved in the stabilization are analyzed using the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
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