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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334924/throat-swabs-in-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-associations-with-clinical-presentation-and-potential-targets-for-point-of-care-testing
#1
Hannah V Thornton, Alastair D Hay, Niamh M Redmond, Sophie L Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Tim J Peters, John P Leeming, Andrew Lovering, Barry Vipond, Peter Muir, Peter S Blair
Background and objectives.: Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Methods.: Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to <16 years presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333950/drug-resistant-hiv-behaviors-and-characteristics-among-los-angeles-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-new-hiv-diagnosis
#2
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Lorelei Bornfleth, Robert K Bolan, Martha Lewis Blum
Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333581/the-social-construction-of-fibromyalgia-as-a-health-problem-from-the-perspective-of-policies-professionals-and-patients
#3
Erica Briones-Vozmediano
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful chronic disease, suffered mainly by women, that consolidates a number of symptoms and skeletal muscle issues which are little understood. OBJECTIVES: To explore the social construction of FM from the perspective of health policies, patients, and health professionals involved in their medical attention. METHODS: I) Policy review of national and regional health plans in a national and international context, the clinical protocols for fibromyalgia in Spain, and the Parliamentary initials in the European and Spanish context; and ii) Qualitative study involving 28 personal interviews with 16 fibromyalgia patients and 12 interviews with health care professionals in Spain...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333257/comparative-effectiveness-of-linezolid-versus-vancomycin-as-definitive-antibiotic-therapy-for-heterogeneously-resistant-vancomycin-intermediate-coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
A C Blanchard, E Fortin, C Laferrière, I Goyer, A Moussa, J Autmizguine, C Quach
Objectives: Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333232/prevalence-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-treated-patients-with-viral-load-50%C3%A2-copies-ml-a-2014-french-nationwide-study
#5
L Assoumou, C Charpentier, P Recordon-Pinson, M Grudé, C Pallier, L Morand-Joubert, S Fafi-Kremer, A Krivine, B Montes, V Ferré, M Bouvier-Alias, J-C Plantier, J Izopet, M-A Trabaud, S Yerly, J Dufayard, C Alloui, L Courdavault, H Le Guillou-Guillemette, A Maillard, C Amiel, A Vabret, C Roussel, S Vallet, J Guinard, A Mirand, A Beby-Defaux, F Barin, A Allardet-Servent, R Ait-Namane, M Wirden, C Delaugerre, V Calvez, M-L Chaix, D Descamps, S Reigadas
Background: Surveillance of HIV-1 resistance in treated patients with a detectable viral load (VL) is important to monitor, in order to assess the risk of spread of resistant viruses and to determine the proportion of patients who need new antiretroviral drugs with minimal cross-resistance. Methods: The HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase genes were sequenced in plasma samples from 782 consecutive patients on failing antiretroviral regimens, seen in 37 specialized centres in 2014...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333200/antibiotic-prescribing-frequency-amongst-patients-in-primary-care-a-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#6
Laura Shallcross, Nick Beckley, Greta Rait, Andrew Hayward, Irene Petersen
Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in primary care is a public health priority. Objectives: We hypothesized that a subset of patients account for the majority of antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. We investigated the relationship between the total amount of antibiotics prescribed, individual-level antibiotic use and comorbidity. Methods: This was a cohort study using electronic health records from 1 948 390 adults registered with 385 primary care practices in the UK in 2011-13...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332765/combating-blood-stream-infections-during-induction-chemotherapy-in-children-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-single-center-results-in-india
#7
Divya Subburaj, Ramya Uppuluri, Dhaarani Jayaraman, Venkateshwaran Vellaichamyswaminathan, Sathishkumar Kandath, Revathi Raj
Optimal management of infectious complication is the biggest challenge in children receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have analyzed the data of children undergoing AML induction chemotherapy at our center from 2002 to 2016 and found that Gram-negative infections are more predominant when compared to the published literature. There also has been a surge in multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections over the last 4 years, which has increased the need for supportive care and escalated the cost of care...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331426/environmental-distribution-and-drug-susceptibility-of-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-isolated-from-outdoor-and-indoor-environments
#8
Sachiko Nakamoto, Misaki Sakamoto, Kana Sugimura, Yuki Honmura, Yuki Yamamoto, Natsumi Goda, Hiroo Tamaki, Naoto Burioka
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an environmental bacterium with multi-drug resistance. We isolated Achromobacter xylosoxidans and investigated its susceptibility to 13 drugs. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from rivers and ponds, and 11 samples were swabbed from residential sinks and baths. Nine strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans were isolated from the 89 samples. Five strains, including 2 that were sampled from residential homes, showed high resistance to multiple aminoglycosides. This indicated that Achromobacter xylosoxidans is widely distributed in various outdoor and indoor environments...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#9
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330484/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-production-among-the-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#10
Ankit Belbase, Narayan Dutt Pant, Krishus Nepal, Bibhusan Neupane, Rikesh Baidhya, Reena Baidya, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: The increasing drug resistance along with inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of Staphylococcus aureus are present as the serious problems to the successful treatment of the infections caused by S. aureus. So, the main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns along with the rates of inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of S...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330268/antimicrobial-activity-of-pvp-coated-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-lysinibacillus-varians
#11
Divya Bhatia, Ashwani Mittal, Deepak Kumar Malik
Emergence of resistant microbes to conventional antibiotics and increased emphasis on health-care costs has raised the concern for the development of new effective antimicrobial reagents. Silver nanoparticles being an excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial agent could be considered as a suitable alternative for existing antibiotic. This study demonstrates the extra-cellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using supernatant of Lysinibacillus varians. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR analysis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329852/overcoming-elderspeak-a-qualitative-study-of-three-alternatives
#12
Anna I Corwin
Purpose: This study identifies genres of communication that avoid the features of elderspeak and successfully engage cognitively or physically affected older adults in rich communicative interaction. Design and Methods: The study examined 100 hr of audio- and video-recorded interaction between older Catholic nuns and their caregivers. The data were collected as part of a 7-year study on the linguistic and communicative factors that contribute to successful aging in a Catholic convent infirmary...
March 14, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329212/clinical-status-of-adolescents-with-perinatal-hiv-at-transfer-to-adult-care-in-the-uk-ireland
#13
Intira Jeannie Collins, Caroline Foster, Anna Tostevin, Pat Tookey, Andrew Riordan, David Dunn, D M Gibb, Ali Judd
Background.: Increasing numbers of children infected perinatally with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving to adolescence and transitioning to adult care, yet there are scarce data on their clinical status at transfer. Methods.: We analyzed prospective cohort data from the UK/Ireland national Collaborative HIV Pediatric Study (CHIPS). Clinical status at last pediatric clinic visit prior to transfer was described. Factors associated with higher CD4 cell count and viral load (VL) suppression<400 c/mL among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at transfer were assessed using linear and logistic regression, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329088/short-course-adjunctive-gentamicin-as-empirical-therapy-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#14
David S Y Ong, Jos F Frencken, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, Nicole Juffermans, Tom van der Poll, Marc Bonten, Olaf Cremer
Background.: Meta-analyses failed to demonstrate clinical benefits of beta lactam plus aminoglycoside combination therapy, compared to beta lactam monotherapy, in patients with sepsis. However, few data exist on the effects of short-course adjunctive aminoglycoside therapy in sepsis patients with organ failure or shock. Methods.: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in two intensive care units in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2015...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327828/-tuberculosis-in-health-workers-in-peru-2013-2015
#15
Mirtha Gabriela Soto-Cabezas, Ana María Chávez-Pachas, Juan Carlos Arrasco-Alegre, Martin Javier Alfredo Yagui-Moscoso
Objectives.: To describe the characteristics of tuberculosis epidemiology in Peruvian health workers. Materials and methods.: A descriptive study was performed. It included all health workers with tuberculosis listed in the national epidemiological surveillance system of the Peruvian Ministry of Health, during 2013, 2014, and 2015. Results.: A total of 755 cases of tuberculosis in health workers were reported: 60% worked in hospitals, 28% worked in primary-care facilities, and 12% worked in private facilities...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327817/identification-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-central-west-region-of-brazil-a-case-study
#16
Wirlaine Glauce Maciel, Kesia Esther da Silva, José Victor Bortolotto Bampi, Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos Bet, Ana Carolina Ramos, Ana Cristina Gales, Simone Simionatto
Metallo-beta-lactamase production is an important mechanism for carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which represents an emerging public health challenge. We report the case of a patient admitted to an intensive care unit, with sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant São Paulo Metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing P. aeruginosa . This is the first case of infection by this pathogenic strain in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Thus, infection control measures are required for preventing future spread and outbreaks...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325858/incidence-of-bloodstream-infections-a-nationwide-surveillance-of-acute-care-hospitals-in-switzerland-2008-2014
#17
Niccolò Buetti, Andrew Atkinson, Jonas Marschall, Andreas Kronenberg
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections are often associated with significant mortality and morbidity. We aimed to investigate changes in the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland between 2008 and 2014. METHODS: Data on bloodstream infections were obtained from the Swiss antibiotic resistance surveillance system (ANRESIS). RESULTS: The incidence of bloodstream infections increased throughout the study period, especially among elderly patients and those receiving care in emergency departments and university hospitals...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325666/development-of-novel-patient-derived-preclinical-models-from-malignant-effusions-in-patients-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-resistant-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Jiryeon Jang, Oliver Rath, Julia Schueler, Hyun Hwan Sung, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Hyun Moo Lee, Han-Yong Choi, Ghee-Young Kwon, Woong Yang Park, Jeeyun Lee, Se Hoon Park
PURPOSE: Although targeting angiogenesis with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has become standard of care in the treatment of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), resistance mechanism are not fully understood, and there is a need to develop new therapeutic options overcoming them. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To develop a preclinical model that predicts clinical activity of novel agents in 19 RCC patients, we established patient-derived cell (PDC) and xenograft (PDX) models derived from malignant effusions or surgical specimen...
March 15, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325540/corrigendum-to-rates-of-susceptibility-of-carbapenems-ceftobiprole-and-colistin-against-clinically-important-bacteria-collected-from-intensive-care-units-in-2007-results-from-the-surveillance-of-multicenter-antimicrobial-resistance-in-taiwan-smart-j-microbiol
#19
Shio-Shin Jean, Wen-Sen Lee, Kwok-Woon Yu, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chin-Wan Hsu, Feng-Yi Chang, Wen-Chien Ko, Ray-Jade Chen, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Jien-Wei Liu, Min-Chi Lu, Carlos Lam, Cheng-Yi Liu, Po-Ren Hsueh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322639/the-symbolic-functions-of-nurses-cognitive-artifacts-on-a-medical-oncology-unit
#20
Jacquelyn W Blaz, Alexa K Doig, Kristin G Cloyes, Nancy Staggers
Acute care nurses continue to rely on personally created paper-based tools-their "paper brains"-to support work during a shift, although standardized handoff tools are recommended. This interpretive descriptive study examines the functions these paper brains serve beyond handoff in the medical oncology unit at a cancer specialty hospital. Thirteen medical oncology nurses were each shadowed for a single shift and interviewed afterward using a semistructured technique. Field notes, transcribed interviews, images of nurses' paper brains, and analytic memos were inductively coded, and analysis revealed paper brains are symbols of patient and nurse identity...
December 1, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
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