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Aggression in Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501048/systematic-review-of-evidence-underpinning-non-pharmacological-therapies-in-dementia
#1
Richard Olley, Andrea Morales
Objective Dementia is one of the most common illnesses worldwide, and is one of the most important causes of disability in older people. Currently, dementia affects over 35million people around the globe. It is expected that this number will increase to 65.7million by 2030. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment to control the principal behaviour symptoms may help reduce these numbers and delay the progression to more advanced and dangerous stages of this disorder with resultant increase quality of life for those affected...
May 15, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491038/yokukansan-and-yokukansankachimpihange-ameliorate-aggressive-behaviors-in-rats-with-cholinergic-degeneration-in-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#2
Masahiro Tabuchi, Keita Mizuno, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Tomohisa Hattori, Yoshio Kase
Yokukansan (YKS) and yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH) are traditional Japanese Kampo medicines. The latter comprises YKS along with the medicinal herbs Citrus unshiu peel and Pinellia tuber. Both of these Kampo medicines are indicated for the treatment of night crying and irritability in children and for neurosis and insomnia in adults. In recent clinical trials, YKS exhibited ameliorative effects on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, such as aggressiveness, excitement, and irritability. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the involvement of cholinergic degeneration in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the development of aggressiveness in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488770/allopurinol-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-aggression-a-case-series
#3
Chelsea N Carr, Craig M Straley, Terrence B Baugh
OBJECTIVE: Allopurinol is a medication indicated for the treatment and prevention of gout. Through various theorized mechanisms, there has been an observed benefit in reducing aggression in patients with dementia who are refractory to traditional interventions. This case series of eight patients reports the use of allopurinol to treat aggression at the Battle Creek Veterans Affairs Medical Center (BCVAMC). METHODS: Subjects' charts were accessed retrospectively to obtain data...
May 10, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478818/the-multi-factorial-origins-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-symptomology-in-post-career-athletes-the-athlete-post-career-adjustment-ap-ca-model
#4
Michael Gaetz
CTE has two prominent components: the pathophysiology that is detected in the brain postmortem and the symptomology that is present in the interval between retirement and end of life. CTE symptomology has been noted to include memory difficulties, aggression, depression, explosivity, and executive dysfunction at early stages progressing to problems with attention, mood swings, visuospatial difficulties, confusion, progressive dementia, and suicidality (e.g. McKee et al. (2012), Omalu et al. (2010a-c), McKee et al...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475165/molecular-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-neurodegenerative-dementias-the-role-of-in-vivo-pet-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Chiara Cerami, Leonardo Iaccarino, Daniela Perani
Neurodegeneration elicits neuroinflammatory responses to kill pathogens, clear debris and support tissue repair. Neuroinflammation is a dynamic biological response characterized by the recruitment of innate and adaptive immune system cells in the site of tissue damage. Resident microglia and infiltrating immune cells partake in the restoration of central nervous system homeostasis. Nevertheless, their activation may shift to chronic and aggressive responses, which jeopardize neuron survival and may contribute to the disease process itself...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465709/aromatherapy-and-aromatic-plants-for-the-treatment-of-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Damiana Scuteri, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Laura Rombolà, Pina Rosa Avato, Anna Rita Bilia, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Shinobu Sakurada, Tsukasa Sakurada, Giacinto Bagetta
The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462986/music-based-therapeutic-interventions-for-people-with-dementia
#7
REVIEW
Jenny T van der Steen, Mirjam C van Soest-Poortvliet, Johannes C van der Wouden, Manon S Bruinsma, Rob Jpm Scholten, Annemiek C Vink
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a clinical syndrome with a number of different causes which is characterised by deterioration in cognitive, behavioural, social and emotional functions. Pharmacological interventions are available but have limited effect to treat many of the syndrome's features. Less research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments. In this review, we examined the evidence for effects of music-based interventions as a treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia on emotional well-being including quality of life, mood disturbance or negative affect, behavioural problems, social behaviour, and cognition at the end of therapy and four or more weeks after the end of treatment...
May 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454534/palliative-care-for-people-with-dementia-in-the-terminal-phase-a-mixed-methods-qualitative-study-to-inform-service-development
#8
Jenny T van der Steen, Natashe Lemos Dekker, Marie-José H E Gijsberts, Laura H Vermeulen, Margje M Mahler, B Anne-Mei The
BACKGROUND: When entering the dying phase, the nature of physical, psychosocial and spiritual care needs of people with dementia and their families may change. Our objective was to understand what needs to be in place to develop optimal palliative care services for the terminal phase in the face of a small evidence base. METHODS: In 2015-2016, we performed a mixed-methods qualitative study in which we (1) analysed the domains and recommendations from the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) dementia white paper and identified those with particular relevance for the terminal phase; (2) performed a series of focus group discussions with Dutch family caregivers of people with dementia in variable stages; (3) conducted interviews with experts involved in 15 special forms of terminal care for people with dementia in five countries...
April 28, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#9
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395245/validation-of-a-dried-blood-spot-method-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-citalopram-mirtazapine-and-risperidone-and-its-active-metabolite-9-hydroxyrisperidone-using-hplc-ms
#10
Johanna Weber, Stefanie Oberfeld, Andrea Bonse, Klaus Telger, Rainer Lingg, Georg Hempel
Citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone are frequently prescribed for psychiatric illnesses such as depression and psychosis or for aggressive behavior in elderly patients with dementia. The plasma concentrations vary greatly between patients, especially in elderly patients. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) increases the safety of antipsychotic treatment and a more rapid response to treatment may be achieved. To facilitate TDM, the objectives of this study were to develop and validate a reliable dried blood spot method to simultaneously quantify citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone including its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378347/the-effectiveness-of-massage-and-touch-on-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Jie Wu, Yi Wang, Zhiwen Wang
BACKGROUND: Many original studies have explored the effectiveness of massage and touch on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. However, the study design, interventions, measurements and outcomes varied among studies. AIM: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of massage and touch on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of older people with dementia. DESIGN: A quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Library, PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang were searched from the date the database established to January 2016...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#12
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343446/responding-to-aggression-and-reactive-behaviours-in-the-home
#13
Rachel V Herron, Mark W Rosenberg
Behaviours such as hitting, spitting, swearing and kicking can be a common response to personal, social and environmental challenges experienced by people with dementia. Little attention, however, has been given to how partners in care experience and respond to these behaviours in the home. This paper examines the emerging theme of 'aggression,' in seven interviews with nine former partners in care of people with dementia in Ontario, Canada. We explore how partners in care talk about, interpret and respond to these behaviours drawing on recent conceptualizations of structural and interpersonal violence in health and social geography and contributing to the growing body of research on relational care...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268100/intrafamilial-variable-phenotype-including-corticobasal-syndrome-in-a-family-with-p-p301l-mutation-in-the-mapt-gene-first-report-in-south-america
#14
Emilia M Gatto, Ricardo F Allegri, Gustavo Da Prat, Patricio Chrem Mendez, David S Hanna, Michael O Dorschner, Ezequiel I Surace, Cyrus P Zabetian, Ignacio F Mata
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is a neuropathological disorder that causes a variety of clinical syndromes including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). FTD associated with parkinsonism occurs frequently as a result of mutations in the C9orf72 gene and also in the genes coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) on chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Herein, we report an Argentinean family, of Basque ancestry, with an extensive family history of behavioral variant of FTD...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265399/reversible-dementia-subclinical-seizure-in-early-onset-dementia
#15
Elysia Tjong, William McHugh, Yen-Yi Peng
We report a case of early-onset dementia with subclinical seizures. Aggressive seizure control improved the patient's cognition. Commonly, an EEG is only performed following overt behavioral seizures. Therefore, subclinical seizures tend to be underdiagnosed. Serial or extended EEG should be seriously considered in patients with early-onset dementia.
March 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#16
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
June 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248781/complicated-dementia-teaching-caregivers-to-recognize-signs-and-take-the-next-steps
#17
Andrea L Jones, Diane K Pastor
Older adults who exhibit extreme behaviors present a complex diagnostic and management picture for home healthcare clinicians and family caregivers. This case study describes the situation of Mrs. M, whose aggressive, combative behavior was so difficult for her children to comprehend and manage, she was secluded in a locked basement of her home. This article details assessment techniques, symptom presentation and possible diagnostic implications, as well as resources for caregivers.
March 2017: Home Healthcare Now
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222513/clinical-effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-dementia
#18
Moshe Isserles, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Sanjeev Kumar, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Dementia frequently presents with aggression, agitation, and disorganized behavior for which current treatment is partially effective and is associated with significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a sample of patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia (NPS) and to explore factors associated with response and with cognitive adverse effects...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222509/galantamine-response-associates-with-agitation-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Sachiko Nakayama, Akimitsu Suda, Atsushi Nakanishi, Yumiko Motoi, Nobutaka Hattori
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) occur in up to 80% of AD patients and represent one of the largest factors contributing to caregiver burden. To analyze the effect of galantamine on BPSD and caregiver burden, we treated a total of 50 patients with mild AD for 12 weeks and evaluated them using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI). We also performed regional cerebral blood flow single photon emission computed tomography (rCBF SPECT) at baseline using three-dimensional sterotatic surface projections...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179043/measurement-of-agitation-and-aggression-in-adult-and-aged-neuropsychiatric-patients-review-of-definitions-and-frequently-used-measurement-scales
#20
Ladislav Volicer, Leslie Citrome, Jan Volavka
Agitation and aggression in adult psychiatric patients with psychoses and in persons with dementia increase the burden of disease and frequently cause hospitalization. The implementation of currently available management strategies and the development of new ones is hindered by inconsistent terminology that confuses agitation with aggression. This confusion is maintained by many rating scales that fail to distinguish between these two syndromes. We review the frequently used rating scales with a particular focus on their ability to separate agitation from aggression...
February 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
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