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Aggression in Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928962/current-concepts-and-controversies-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#1
REVIEW
Rimona S Weil, Tammaryn L Lashley, Jose Bras, Anette E Schrag, Jonathan M Schott
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are likely to represent two ends of a disease spectrum. It is well established that both are characterised pathologically by widespread cortical Lewy body deposition. However, until recently, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to neuronal damage were not known. It was also not understood why some cells are particularly vulnerable in PDD/DLB, nor why some individuals show more aggressive and rapid dementia than others...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904449/james-wenceslaus-papez-his-circuit-and-emotion
#2
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883859/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-faster-progression-of-cognitive-impairments-as-predictors-of-risk-of-conversion-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia
#3
Mariola Bidzan, Leszek Bidzan, Ilona Bidzan-Bluma
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research, based on 7 years of observations, was to assess the relationship between the dynamics of changes in the realm of cognitive functions in the early stages of observations and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as further progression of cognitive function impairments in people diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety three individuals were included in the study, all of whom referred themselves to the Mental Health Clinic and were diagnosed with MCI based on the criteria of the Working Group on MCI...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882156/comparative-safety-and-efficacy-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-the-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#4
Jennifer Watt, Zahra Goodarzi, Andrea C Tricco, Areti-Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are highly prevalent in patients with dementia. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies are commonly used to treat these symptoms, but their comparative safety and efficacy is unknown. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of the published and unpublished literature to retrieve all articles pertaining to outcomes of safety and efficacy associated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of BPSD for patients living in the community and institutionalized care settings...
September 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882104/dysphoric-symptoms-in-relation-to-other-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-among-elderly-in-nursing-homes
#5
Agnes Lindbo, Maria Gustafsson, Ulf Isaksson, Per-Olof Sandman, Hugo Lövheim
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common and varied in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between BPSD and dysphoric symptoms at different levels of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Assessments of 4397 elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Sweden were performed. Data on cognitive function and BPSD were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The relationships between dysphoria and eight BPSD factors were plotted against cognitive function to investigate how dysphoria affects BPSD throughout the dementia disease...
September 7, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857270/physical-aggression-among-patients-with-dementia-neuropathologically-confirmed-post-mortem
#6
Madeleine Liljegren, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Elisabet Englund
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of physical aggression among patients with dementia of different types and to analyze potential differences in clinical traits, in terms of singular or repetitive behavior and occurrence in early or late stage of the disease. We also aimed at examining against whom the physical aggression was exerted. METHODS: We included 281 cases with a neuropathological dementia diagnosis from the brain bank at the Department of Pathology, Lund University, for this retrospective medical records review...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856006/effect-of-wearing-fingers-rings-on-the-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-an-exploratory-study
#7
Teruo Yokoi, Hitoshi Okamura, Tomoka Yamamoto, Katsuya Watanabe, Shigeko Yokoi, Hitoshi Atae, Masayuki Ueda, Takahiro Kuwayama, Shigekazu Sakamoto, Saaya Tomino, Hideo Fujii, Takefumi Honda, Takayosi Morita, Takafumi Yukawa, Nobuko Harada
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the effects of an approach that wears finger rings on elderly females with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. METHOD: The subjects were seven Japanese dementia patients living in elderly nursing homes. A single-case experimental design was adopted for the study. Each study subject was asked to put rings on her finger (from 9:00 to 19:00) for 7 days. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory, scenes of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, interest in wearing rings, self-awareness, and overall profile were determined to assess the effect on the patients of wearing rings...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855464/the-effects-of-quality-of-life-on-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-elderly-people-with-dementia-residing-at-long-term-care-facilities
#8
Mizue Suzuki, Hideyuki Hattori, Koji Fukuda, Hajime Ooshiro, Takayuki Saruhara, Yoshie Furuta, Kunihiko Abe, Masao Kanamori
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to clarify how quality of life (QOL) affects the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) among elderly individuals with dementia within long-term care facilities (e.g., long-term healthcare facilities, sanatorium-type medical facilities, and special nursing homes for the elderly). METHODS: Elderly individuals with dementia were evaluated to determine their activities of daily living (ADL; Katz), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Quality of life inventory for the elderly with dementia (QOLD) scores...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851471/a-systematic-evaluation-of-impulsive-aggressive-behavior-in-psychogeriatric-inpatients-using-the-staff-observation-aggression-scale-revision-soas-r
#9
Myrella Paschali, Daniel Kamp, Claudia Reichmann, Michaela Jaenner, Christian Lange-Asschenfeldt, Tillmann Supprian
BACKGROUND: Impulsive-aggressive behavior is a significant challenge in geriatric psychiatry and requires professional evaluation and management. METHODS: SOAS-R scales (Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revision) completed by medical staff on three secure psychiatric wards were analyzed during a period of 12 months. Patients were subdivided into the following two diagnostic subgroups: dementia and other diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 146 aggressive incidents involving 66 patients were reported (8...
August 30, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826872/determinants-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-scoping-review-of-the-evidence
#10
Ann Kolanowski, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Laura N Gitlin, Helen C Kales, Barbara Resnick, Kimberly S Van Haitsma, Amy Knehans, Jane E Sutterlin, Justine S Sefcik, Wen Liu, Darina V Petrovsky, Lauren Massimo, Andrea Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Margaret MacAndrew, Glenna Brewster, Vycki Nalls, Ying-Ling Jao, Naomi Duffort, Danny Scerpella
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent in people with neurodegenerative diseases. PURPOSE: In this scoping review the Kales, Gitlin and Lykestos framework is used to answer the question: What high quality evidence exists for the patient, caregiver and environmental determinants of five specific BPSD: aggression, agitation, apathy, depression and psychosis? METHOD: An a priori review protocol was developed; 692 of 6013 articles retrieved in the search were deemed eligible for review...
June 16, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801438/associations-between-polypharmacy-and-treatment-intensity-for-hypertension-and-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study-of-nursing-home-patients-in-british-columbia-canada
#11
Rita McCracken, James McCormack, Margaret J McGregor, Sabrina T Wong, Scott Garrison
OBJECTIVES: Describe nursing home polypharmacy prevalence in the context of prescribing for diabetes and hypertension and determine possible associations between lower surrogate markers for treated hypertension and diabetes (overtreatment) and polypharmacy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 6 nursing homes in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 214 patients residing in one of the selected facilities during data collection period...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795386/dementia-caregiver-burden-a-research-update-and-critical-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Sheung-Tak Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an updated review of the determinants of caregiver burden and depression, with a focus on care demands and especially the differential effects of various neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. Moreover, studies on caregivers for frontotemporal and Lewy body dementias were referred to in order to identify differences and similarities with the mainstream literature based largely on Alzheimer caregivers. RECENT FINDINGS: As a group, neuropsychiatric symptoms are most predictive of caregiver burden and depression regardless of dementia diagnosis, but the effects appear to be driven primarily by disruptive behaviors (e...
August 10, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767715/lafora-disease-in-miniature-wirehaired-dachshunds
#13
Lindsay Swain, Gill Key, Anna Tauro, Saija Ahonen, Peixiang Wang, Cameron Ackerley, Berge A Minassian, Clare Rusbridge
Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive late onset, progressive myoclonic epilepsy with a high prevalence in the miniature Wirehaired Dachshund. The disease is due to a mutation in the Epm2b gene which results in intracellular accumulation of abnormal glycogen (Lafora bodies). Recent breed-wide testing suggests that the carrier plus affected rate may be as high as 20%. A characteristic feature of the disease is spontaneous and reflex myoclonus; however clinical signs and disease progression are not well described...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767205/prevalence-and-pharmacotherapy-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-a-geriatric-psychiatry-unit-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Arnim Quante, Atdhe Sulejmani
Objective: To observe (1) the proportion and nature of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients treated at a geriatric psychiatry ward in Germany over a time span of 1 year and (2) the use and effect of various pharmacologic interventions in managing BPSD in a real-world scenario. Methods: This study was a naturalistic, retrospective analysis. Between May 2015 and May 2016, 437 patients aged 65 to 100 years with various psychiatric diseases (including dementia, schizophrenia, and depression) were admitted to a geriatric psychiatry unit in Germany...
July 27, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754586/distress-associated-with-dementia-related-psychosis-and-agitation-in-relation-to-healthcare-utilization-and-costs
#15
Donovan T Maust, Helen C Kales, Ryan J McCammon, Frederic C Blow, Amanda Leggett, Kenneth M Langa
OBJECTIVES: Explore the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD; specifically, delusions, hallucinations, and agitation/aggression) and associated caregiver distress with emergency department (ED) utilization, inpatient hospitalization, and expenditures for direct medical care. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cross-sectional cohort of participants with dementia (N = 332) and informants from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study, a nationally representative survey of U...
October 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733536/do-cancer-patients-with-dementia-receive-less-aggressive-treatment-in-end-of-life-care-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Huei-Kai Huang, Jyh-Gang Hsieh, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ying-Wei Wang
Dementia is a progressive, incurable disease that can deprive patients of the ability to make decisions. This study determines whether dementia influences the medical care that a cancer patient receives at the end of life. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study on patients aged ≥20 with newly diagnosed cancer during 2000-2012. After matching to reduce confounders, there were 7,111 patients with and 28,444 without dementia. The adjusted odd ratios (OR) for medical interventions, including intensive care, palliative care, invasive procedures, and advanced diagnostic testing, were calculated for the final month and three months of life by a multiple logistic regression model...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729192/butyrylcholinesterase-knockout-reduces-fibrillar-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-conserves-18-fdg-retention-in-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
D R DeBay, G A Reid, I R Macdonald, G Mawko, S Burrell, E Martin, C V Bowen, S Darvesh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. One hallmark of the AD brain is the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. AD is also a state of cholinergic dysfunction and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) associates with Aβ pathology. A transgenic mouse (5XFAD) is an aggressive amyloidosis model, producing Aβ plaques of which BChE also associates. A derived strain (5XFAD/BChE-KO), with the BChE gene knocked out, has significantly lower fibrillar Aβ than 5XFAD mice at the same age...
July 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705297/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-behavioral-disorders-in-dementia
#18
Torsten Kratz
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders such as aggressiveness, agitation, delusions, disinhibition, affect lability, and apathy arise in more than 90% of patients with dementia. Behavioral disorders are a major challenge and the greatest stress factor in everyday life for nursing personnel and for family members caring for the patient. METHODS: This review is based on relevant publications retrieved by a selective literature search in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and German S3 guideline databases with the search terms "behavioral disorders," "non-cognitive disorders," and "challenging behavior," in conjunction with "dementia" and "behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698646/plasma-biomarkers-are-associated-with-agitation-and-regional-brain-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Jung-Lung Hsu, Wei-Ju Lee, Yi-Chu Liao, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Jong-Ling Fuh
This study investigated the relationships among plasma biomarkers, regional brain atrophy, and clinical symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 177), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 60) and controls (n = 108). The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscales were administered to subjects. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) and posterior atrophy (PA) were assessed visually...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681424/feasibility-study-suggests-no-impact-from-protected-engagement-time-on-adverse-events-in-mental-health-wards-for-older-adults
#20
Toby Smith, Allan Clark, Emily Dodd, Mary-Ellen Khoo, Sarah Heneker, Jane Cross, Rik Cheston, Richard Gray, Chris Fox, Fiona Nolan
Hospital adverse events, such as falls, violence and aggression, security, self-harm, and suicide, are difficult to manage in older people with dementia. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protected engagement time (PET) resulted in lower adverse events and incidents compared to comparable non-PET wards for people admitted to inpatient older people's mental health wards. Ten inpatient wards for older people were included. Five followed a PET-management pathway, while five continued usual care...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
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