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Dementia-related behaviors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156360/does-the-15-item-geriatric-depression-scale-function-differently-in-old-people-with-different-levels-of-cognitive-functioning
#1
Francesca Chiesi, Caterina Primi, Martina Pigliautile, Marta Baroni, Sara Ercolani, Lucia Paolacci, Virginia Boccardi, Patrizia Mecocci
BACKGROUND: The 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is widely employed to screen depression among elderly but little is known about the scale functioning in cognitively impaired individuals when compared to normal ones. The aim of the current study is to investigate Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across groups of older people that differ in terms of cognitive functioning applying Item Response Theory (IRT)-based analyses. METHODS: Data from an Italian multi-centric clinical-based study on cognitive impairment and dementia in old people were employed (N = 1903; Age: M = 77...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153005/screening-for-delirium-development-and-validation-of-the-buffalo-delirium-scale-for-use-in-a-home-based-hospice-setting
#2
Jennifer M Breier, Scott T Meier, Christopher W Kerr, Scott T Wright, Pei C Grant, Rachel M Depner
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a challenging occurrence among people at end of life. It can be difficult to detect and treat because of its episodic nature. The Buffalo Delirium Scale (BDS) was designed to identify risk factors for hospice patients in the prodromal stage of delirium. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of items assessing delirium risk factors related to cognitive problems, psychological distress, and sleep problems. METHODS: Hospice nursing staff assessed patients with the 11-item BDS over a 6-month period as part of standard weekly visits to monitor for emerging signs of delirium, for example, sleep patterns, cognition, and behavior...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149796/effectiveness-of-treatment-in-wards-for-patients-with-dementia-and-issues-associated-with-this-treatment-a-prospective-analysis
#3
Shogo Taniguchi, Teruyuki Matsuoka, Takeshi Hikawa, Atsushi Machihara, Keisuke Shibata, Hideki Miki, Hiroshi Shimizu, Jin Narumoto
In order to optimize the treatment in wards for patients with dementia, we investigated predictors of the length of stay in the ward for patients with dementia. A prospective analysis of 72 patients with dementia was conducted in two wards for patients with dementia. Severity of dementia was assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating, basic activities of daily living were evaluated using the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and caregiver distress were determined with the Nursing Home version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146222/nursing-staff-distress-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-young-onset-dementia-and-late-onset-dementia
#4
Jeannette C L van Duinen-van den IJssel, Ans J M J Mulders, Martin Smalbrugge, Sandra A Zwijsen, Britt Appelhof, Syste U Zuidema, Marjolein E de Vugt, Frans R J Verhey, Christian Bakker, Raymond T C M Koopmans
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and the level of distress experienced by nurses caring for residents with young-onset dementia (YOD) and (2) to compare these findings with those for nurses caring for residents with late-onset dementia (LOD). DESIGN/SETTING: This is a retrospective study conducted in Dutch long-term care facilities. Data were used from the Behavior and Evolution of Young-ONset Dementia studies (BEYOND) Parts I and II and the WAAL Behavior in Dementia-II (Waalbed-II) study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#5
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143702/association-between-altered-neurochemical-metabolites-and-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Yi-Chun Yeh, Chun-Wei Li, Yu-Ting Kuo, Mei-Feng Huang, Tai-Ling Liu, Twei-Shiun Jaw, Yi-Hsin Yang, Kuang-Che Kuo, Cheng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)...
November 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140857/that-s-inappropriate-social-norms-in-an-older-population-based-cohort
#7
Mary Ganguli, Zhaowen Sun, Eric McDade, Beth Snitz, Tiffany Hughes, Erin Jacobsen, Chung-Chou H Chang
BACKGROUND: Social cognition is not routinely assessed in older adults. We report population-based normative data on the Social Norms Questionnaire (SNQ22) which asks individuals about the appropriateness of specific behaviors in hypothetical scenarios, errors being related either to breaking with norms or to over-adhering to perceived norms. Total SNQ scores represent the number of correct responses while subscale scores are error totals. METHODS: We administered the SNQ22 to 744 adults aged 65+ within a population-based study, and examined the distribution of scores by demographics, other cognitive measures, and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)...
November 14, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136228/opioid-prescription-use-in-nursing-home-residents-with-advanced-dementia
#8
Charlotte Griffioen, Bettina S Husebo, Elisabeth Flo, Monique A A Caljouw, Wilco P Achterberg
Background: Although proper pain treatment may require opioids, discussion continues about possible undertreatment or overtreatment in persons with advanced dementia. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of pain, frequency of opioid prescription use, and factors associated with strong opioid prescription use in nursing homes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and Subjects: Eighteen Norwegian nursing homes; 327 persons with advanced dementia and behavioral disturbances participated...
November 9, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131309/deaths-from-resident-to-resident-aggression-in-australian-nursing-homes
#9
Briony Murphy, Lyndal Bugeja, Jennifer Pilgrim, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and nature of deaths from resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes in Australia. DESIGN: National population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Accredited nursing homes in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Residents whose deaths resulted from RRA and were reported to the coroner between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. MEASUREMENTS: Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors were collected through review of the paper-based coroners' files...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126372/exercise-improves-recognition-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-for-rats-modelling-vascular-dementia
#10
Juntao Dong, Jingpu Zhao, Yangyang Lin, Huiying Liang, Xiaokuo He, Xiuyuan Zheng, Minghong Sui, Zhiqiang Zhuang, Tiebin Yan
OBJECTIVES: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may induce involuntary exercise and make beneficial effects on vascular dementia (VD) by strengthening the BDNF-pCREB-mediated pathway and hippocampal plasticity. Whether FES improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was investigated by establishing a VD model. METHODS: The VD rats were administered with two weeks of voluntary exercise, forced exercise, or involuntary exercise induced with FES...
November 10, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121965/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induces-post-stroke-dementia-following-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#11
Dong Bin Back, Kyoung Ja Kwon, Dong-Hee Choi, Chan Young Shin, Jongmin Lee, Seol-Heui Han, Hahn Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is one of the major consequences after stroke. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) can induce vascular cognitive impairment and potentiate amyloid pathology. We investigated how CCH contributes to the development of PSD after stroke in the context of neuroinflammation and amyloid pathology. METHODS: We designed a unique animal model for PSD. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery in rats mimicking acute territorial infarct, which was followed by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) surgery mimicking CCH...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113605/rapid-review-of-cognitive-screening-instruments-in-mci-proposal-for-a-process-based-approach-modification-of-overlapping-tasks-in-select-widely-used-instruments
#12
Unai Díaz-Orueta, Alberto Blanco-Campal, Teresa Burke
BACKGROUND: A detailed neuropsychological assessment plays an important role in the diagnostic process of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). However, available brief cognitive screening tests for this clinical population are administered and interpreted based mainly, or exclusively, on total achievement scores. This score-based approach can lead to erroneous clinical interpretations unless we also pay attention to the test taking behavior or to the type of errors committed during test performance...
November 8, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110334/frontotemporal-dementia-with-trans-activation-response-dna-binding-protein-43-presenting-with-catatonic-syndrome
#13
Ryohei Watanabe, Ito Kawakami, Mitsumoto Onaya, Shinji Higashi, Nobutaka Arai, Haruhiko Akiyama, Masato Hasegawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Catatonia is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms such as immobility, mutism, stupor, stereotypy, echophenomena, catalepsy, automatic obedience, posturing, negativism, gegenhalten and ambitendency. This syndrome occurs mostly in mood disorder and schizophrenic patients, and is related to neuronal dysfunction involving the frontal lobe. Some cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with catatonia have been reported, but these cases were not examined by autopsy. Here, we report on a FTD case which showed catatonia after the first episode of brief psychotic disorder...
November 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110137/-dementia-friendly-care-services-in-general-hospitals-representative-results-of-the-general-hospital-study-ghost
#14
Ingrid Hendlmeier, Horst Bickel, Johannes Baltasar Hessler, Joshua Weber, Magdalena Nora Junge, Sarah Leonhardt, Martina Schäufele
BACKGROUND: Mostly model projects report on special care services and procedures for general hospital patients with cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of special care services and procedures in general hospitals on the basis of a representative cross-sectional study. METHODS: From a list of all general hospitals in southern Germany we randomly selected a specified number of hospitals und somatic wards. The hospitals were visited and all older patients on the selected wards on that day were included in the study...
November 6, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109235/glial-draper-rescues-a%C3%AE-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Arpita Ray, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and reactive gliosis. Glial cells offer protection against AD by engulfing extracellular Aβ peptides, but the repertoire of molecules required for glial recognition and destruction of Aβ are still unclear. Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes). Neuronal expression of human Aβ42(arc) in adult flies results in robust Aβ accumulation, neurodegeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and reduced lifespan...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104092/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-physical-activity-in-the-general-population-findings-from-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Elvira Lara, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Nathalie Swinnen, Ai Koyanagi
INTRODUCTION: Despite the beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on cognition and the acknowledgement that MCI is a critical period for intervening to prevent dementia, little is known about the actual PA levels in people with MCI. This study investigates the relationship between MCI and compliance with PA recommendations. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa) (n=32,715; mean age=62...
November 6, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102236/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-portends-poor-prognosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Yoon Kim, Young Eun Kim, Eun Ok Park, Chae Won Shin, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia wherein a loss of REM sleep atonia manifests as dream-enactment, often violent. Aside from its significance as a predictor of PD, RBD in PD may imply more than merely screaming at night and experiencing sleep fragmentation. To probe its significance as a prognostic factor in PD, we performed a systematic literature review. Analysis of prospective studies reveals baseline RBD confers a higher risk of developing dementia and hallucinations. In cross-sectional studies, RBD is associated with the non-tremor predominant motor phenotype and autonomic dysfunction...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095373/good-and-bad-days-fluctuations-in-the-burden-of-informal-dementia-caregivers-an-experience-sampling-study
#18
Sandrine Pihet, Christina Moses Passini, Manuela Eicher
BACKGROUND: Informal dementia caregivers (IDCs) are often confronted with important fluctuations in care-related burden, commonly described as "good and bad days." These fluctuations are overlooked by traditional questionnaires focusing on the average experience. The experience sampling method (ESM) is based on the repeated collection of data in everyday life, thereby allowing the description of day-to-day fluctuations in IDC burden, and the identification of their correlates. ESM studies are still scarce among IDCs, with none focusing on day-to-day fluctuations in burden...
November 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089874/mistakes-too-few-to-mention-impaired-self-conscious-emotional-processing-of-errors-in-the-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#19
Carole S Scherling, Jessica Zakrzewski, Samir Datta, Robert W Levenson, Arthur P Shimamura, Virginia E Sturm, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of one's deficits, is a core feature of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We hypothesized that this deficit has its origins in failed emotional processing of errors. We studied autonomic and facial emotional reactivity to errors in patients with bvFTD (n = 17), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 20), and healthy controls (HC, n = 35) during performance of a timed two-alternative-choice button press task. Performance-related behavioral responses to errors were quantified using rates of error correction and post-error slowing of reaction times...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075567/prosocial-deficits-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-relate-to-reward-network-atrophy
#20
Virginia E Sturm, David C Perry, Kristie Wood, Alice Y Hua, Oscar Alcantar, Samir Datta, Katherine P Rankin, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Empathy and shared feelings of reward motivate individuals to share resources with others when material gain is not at stake. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects emotion- and reward-relevant neural systems. Although there is diminished empathy and altered reward processing in bvFTD, how the disease impacts prosocial behavior is less well understood. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (20 bvFTD, 15 Alzheimer's disease [AD], and 39 healthy controls) participated in this study...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
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