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Critical speed (CS) exercise

James S Hogg, James G Hopker, Sarah L Coakley, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake test (SPV) may offer effective training prescription metrics for athletes. This study aimed to examine whether SPV-derived data could be used for training prescription. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active male and female runners were randomly assigned between two training groups: (1) Standardised (STND) and (2) Self-Paced (S-P). Participants completed 4 running sessions a week using a global positioning system-enabled (GPS) watch: 2 × interval sessions; 1 × recovery run; and 1 × tempo run...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Anssi Saari, Nathan D Dicks, Mark E Hartman, Robert W Pettitt
A 3-min all-out exercise test (3MT) for running has been developed to determine critical speed (CS) and finite capacity for running speeds >CS (D') which allow for the prediction of time limits (TLIMs) associated with running different distances. Most team sports require shuttle running; however, the 3MT was validated for uninterrupted, track running and not shuttle running. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of shuttle running 3MT to determine critical speed (CS) and D'. A total of 12 subjects were tested using a baseline 3MT along with three separate distance time-trials of all-out shuttle running to determine true CS and D'...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Christoph Triska, Bettina Karsten, Alfred Nimmerichter, Harald Tschan
Whilst Critical Speed (CS) has been successfully translated from the laboratory into the field, this translation is still outstanding for the related maximum running distance (D'). Using iso-duration exhaustive laboratory and field runs, this study investigated the potential interchangeable use of both parameters, D' and CS. After an incremental exercise test, 10 male participants (age: 24.9±2.1 yrs; height: 180.8±5.8 cm; body mass: 75.3±8.6 kg; V̇ ˙VO2peak 52.9±3.1 mL∙min(-1)∙kg(-1)) performed 3 time-to-exhaustion runs on a treadmill followed by 3 exhaustive time-trial runs on a-400 m athletics outdoor track...
July 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Robert W Pettitt
The use of personal records (PRs) for running different distances may be used to derive critical speed (CS) and the finite capacity for running speeds exceeding CS (D'). Using CS and D', individualized speed-time and distance-time relationships can be modeled (ie, time limits associated with running at a given speed or a given distance can be derived via linear regression with a high degree of accuracy). The running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) has emerged as a method for estimating CS and D' on a large group of athletes in a single visit...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Carl J Ade, Ryan M Broxterman, Jesse C Craig, Susanna J Schlup, Samuel L Wilcox, Thomas J Barstow
BACKGROUND: Missions to terrestrial destinations (i.e., asteroids, the Moon, and Mars) will consist of physically challenging mission-critical tasks. These tasks, coupled with the negative physiological effects of prolonged microgravity exposure, create a plausible situation in which physical requirements may exceed an astronaut's physical capacity. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of aerobic fitness and muscular strength parameters with performance during two field tests designed to simulate upper-body mission-critical activities...
November 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Aaron A Solomonson, Nathan D Dicks, Whitney J Kerr, Robert W Pettitt
Load carriage is a necessary burden for tactical athletes. A combination of training modes, including aerobic conditioning and progressive load carriage, may lead to improved performance. The critical speed (CS) concept enables the practitioner to prescribe high-intensity interval training (HIIT) time limits (TLIMs) from a single 3-minute all-out exercise test (3 MT). We sought to examine the effect of a standard load carriage (18.86 kg) on CS and the finite running capacity > CS (D'). A group of trained subjects (age: 26 ± 5 years, height: 181 ± 4 cm, body mass [BM]: 90 ± 14 kg) completed a loaded and unloaded (UL) 3 MT...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Carl J Ade, Ryan M Broxterman, Jesse C Craig, Susanna J Schlup, Samuel L Wilcox, Thomas J Barstow
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise capacity provides information regarding cardiorespiratory health and physical capacity. However, in many populations the ability to measure whole-body or leg aerobic exercise capacity is limited due to physical disability or lack of appropriate equipment. Clinically there is a need to evaluate aerobic capacity in individuals who cannot use their legs for locomotion. In astronauts the habitable space for exercise testing in the next generation of space exploration systems may be restricted and may not support the traditional lower body testing...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
L Mille-Hamard, C Breuneval, A S Rousseau, P Grimaldi, V L Billat
High- or moderate-intensity endurance training leads to mitochondrial biogenesis via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) signaling pathway. Although this pathway is stimulated during acute exercise, the relationship between its activity and the intensity of the exercise has not been characterized. In animal studies, individualized running speeds have not previously been assessed. Here, we sought to determine whether this pathway was modulated after a bout of exhaustive exercise at different relative intensities (at and over critical speed (CS))...
July 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Faruk Turgay, Ali Rıza Şişman, Aylin Çeçen Aksu
AIM: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antiatherosclerotic enzyme located on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The effects of anaerobic exercise on PON1 activity are unknown. Here we investigated the effects of anaerobic judo training on three different activities of same PON1 enzyme (TDPON1), including basal PON1, salt-stimulated PON1 (SPON1), and arylesterase (AE) activities, of serum, HDL, and HDL subgroups (HDLs; HDL and its subgroups) and its relationship with PON1-Q192R phenotype (PON1P)...
2015: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
C J Ade, R M Broxterman, J C Craig, S J Schlup, S L Wilcox, T J Barstow
The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between tests of fitness and two activities that simulate components of Lunar- and Martian-based extravehicular activities (EVA). Seventy-one subjects completed two field tests: a physical abilities test and a 10km Walkback test. The relationships between test times and the following parameters were determined: running V˙O2max, gas exchange threshold (GET), speed at V˙O2max (s-V˙O2max), highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism [critical speed (CS)], and the finite distance that could be covered above CS (D'): arm cranking V˙O2peak, GET, critical power (CP), and the finite work that can be performed above CP (W')...
November 1, 2014: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Andy Galbraith, James Hopker, Marco Cardinale, Brian Cunniffe, Louis Passfield
PURPOSE: To examine the training and concomitant changes in laboratory- and field-test performance of highly trained endurance runners. METHODS: Fourteen highly trained male endurance runners (mean ± SD maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 69.8 ± 6.3 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed this 1-y training study commencing in April. During the study the runners undertook 5 laboratory tests of VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy and 9 field tests to determine critical speed (CS) and the modeled maximum distance performed above CS (D')...
November 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andy Galbraith, James Hopker, Stephen Lelliott, Louise Diddams, Louis Passfield
PURPOSE: To compare critical speed (CS) measured from a single-visit field test of the distance-time relationship with the "traditional" treadmill time-to-exhaustion multivisit protocol. METHODS: Ten male distance runners completed treadmill and field tests to calculate CS and the maximum distance performed above CS (D'). The field test involved 3 runs on a single visit to an outdoor athletics track over 3600, 2400, and 1200 m. Two field-test protocols were evaluated using either a 30-min recovery or a 60-min recovery between runs...
November 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Wei He, Wei Xia, Zhen-Dong Cao, Shi-Jian Fu
To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS)], the tissue substrates (glycogen and glucose content of muscle and liver) and metabolite (the lactate content of plasma and muscle) content of exercise-trained (60% Ucrit for 4 weeks) and non-trained fish...
October 2013: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
R M Broxterman, C J Ade, D C Poole, C A Harms, T J Barstow
A validated expeditious method is needed to determine critical speed (CS) and the finite distance that can be covered above CS (D'). We tested the hypothesis that a single all-out 3-min running test would accurately determine CS and D'. Seven healthy subjects completed three constant-speed runs on a treadmill for the determination of CS and D', as well as an all-out 3-min test on a track for the determination of end-test speed (ES) and the distance above end-test speed (DES). ES (13.4 ± 2.8 km h(-1)) was not significantly different from the speed-1/time model CS (13...
January 15, 2013: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
R W Pettitt, N Jamnick, I E Clark
A 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) estimates critical power and the curvature constant for cycle ergometry validly; however, the mode of running has not been studied. We examined the efficacy of a running 3 MT, using global positioning sensor data, to predict outdoor racing performance. Women distance runners (n=14) were tested at preseason within a month prior to competing officially in either short or middle distance races. Critical speed (CS) (4.46±0.41 m/s) estimated from the 3 MT did not differ (p>0...
June 2012: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Veronique L Billat, Etienne Mouisel, Natacha Roblot, Judith Melki
With the generation of mouse models of human cardiovascular or neuromuscular disorders, the development of noninvasive methods to evaluate the physiological responses to exercise presents an important challenge. The possibility for determining critical speed (CS) in the mouse model was examined according to strain (CD1, C57BL/6J, FVB/N) and sex. Sixty mice performed four exhaustive runs on a treadmill to determine their CS. Twenty-one performed an incremental test to determine the velocity at the lactate threshold...
April 2005: Journal of Applied Physiology
V Billat, J C Renoux, J Pinoteau, B Petit, J P Koralsztein
Previous studies had concluded that the treadmill velocity-endurance time hyperbolic relationship for runs could be accuratly approached with a regression at condition that bouts of exercise duration were included between 2 and 12 min. This regression allows to calculate the critical speed (CS) defined as the slope of the regression of work (distance) on time to exhaustion, the anaerobic running capacity (ARC) being the intercept of this line (Monod & Scherrer, 1965). The purpose of this investigation was to give practical indication concerning the choice of the velocities in reference to the maximal aerobic speed (MAS i...
May 1995: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
K Wakayoshi, T Yoshida, M Udo, T Kasai, T Moritani, Y Mutoh, M Miyashita
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the concept of the critical power could be applied to competitive swimming by using critical swimming speed (CS) as determined both in the swimming flume (CS-flume) and in the normal swimming pool (CS-pool) and whether CS could be utilized as a practical index for assessing a swimmer's endurance performance. CS defined as the swimming speed which could be theoretically maintained continuously without exhaustion was expressed as the slope of a regression line between swimming distance (D) and its duration (T) obtained at various swimming speeds...
July 1992: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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