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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634495/choking-hazards-are-current-product-testing-methods-for-small-parts-adequate
#1
Athena Neofotistos, Nancy Cowles, Ragini Sharma
Choking on small parts remains one of the leading causes of death and injury in infants and toddlers. The current method of testing for small parts, created by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has become outdated and has yet to be changed despite the many deaths and injuries of children. The method uses a device called the small parts test fixture (SPTF) that is supposed to mimic the size of a fully expanded throat of a toddler. If a product does not fit inside the cavity of the SPTF, then it is deemed safe to play with because it "will not fit" in the esophagus of a child...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628899/correlates-of-child-abuse-potential-among-african-american-and-latina-mothers-a-developmental-ecological-perspective
#2
Adriana Espinosa, Lesia M Ruglass, Naomi Dambreville, Alina Shevorykin, Ron Nicholson, Kelly M Sykes
The child victimization rate in the US has rapidly grown over the past five years. Today, nine out of every 1000 children are victims of some type of child maltreatment, and lifetime costs of child victimization exceed $100 billion per year. Effective policies promoting fairness and child safety must target the most salient indicators of child maltreatment. In this study, we examined three groups of risk factors for child abuse potential with the goal of identifying the most prominent indicators in a sample of 170 African-American and Latina mothers...
June 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624364/decision-making-in-swiss-home-like-childbirth-a-grounded-theory-study
#3
Yvonne Meyer, Franziska Frank, Franziska Schläppy Muntwyler, Valerie Fleming, Jessica Pehlke-Milde
BACKGROUND: Decision-making in midwifery, including a claim for shared decision-making between midwives and women, is of major significance for the health of mother and child. Midwives have little information about how to share decision-making responsibilities with women, especially when complications arise during birth. AIM: To increase understanding of decision-making in complex home-like birth settings by exploring midwives' and women's perspectives and to develop a dynamic model integrating participatory processes for making shared decisions...
June 14, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622589/improving-outcomes-for-babies-and-toddlers-in-child-welfare-a-model-for-infant-mental-health-intervention-and-collaboration
#4
Susan Chinitz, Hazel Guzman, Ellen Amstutz, Joaniko Kohchi, Miriam Alkon
Children under three comprise a sizable and growing proportion of foster care placements. Very young children who enter the child welfare system experience disruptions of critical attachments that are essential to this formative stage of brain development, as well as other traumatic events, leaving them at great risk for lifelong impairments. To reverse these concerning outcomes, babies who have been removed from their homes require intensive, relationship-based interventions that promote secure attachment to a primary caregiver and holistic attention the child's developmental needs...
June 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619858/ptsd-acute-stress-performance-and-decision-making-in-emergency-service-workers
#5
Cheryl Regehr, Vicki R LeBlanc
Despite research identifying high levels of stress and traumatic stress symptoms among those in the emergency services, the impact of these symptoms on performance and hence public safety remains uncertain. This review paper discusses a program of research that has examined the effects of prior critical incident exposure, acute stress, and current post-traumatic symptoms on the performance and decision-making during an acutely stressful event among police officers, police communicators, paramedics and child protection workers...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619408/children-crossing-streets-the-cognitive-task-of-pedestrians-across-nations
#6
David C Schwebel
BACKGROUND: About 100,000 children die worldwide in pedestrian crashes, more than 90% of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, most existing research on children's ability to cross the street is conducted in high-income countries (HICs). OBJECTIVE: The present study discusses 4 ways pedestrian behavior in LMICs differs from that in HICs, influencing both children's ability to cross streets safely and adult efforts to train children in pedestrian safety...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616094/arbaclofen-in-fragile-x-syndrome-results-of-phase-3-trials
#7
Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Randi Hagerman, Jeannie Visootsak, Dejan Budimirovic, Walter E Kaufmann, Maryann Cherubini, Peter Zarevics, Karen Walton-Bowen, Paul Wang, Mark F Bear, Randall L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Arbaclofen improved multiple abnormal phenotypes in animal models of fragile X syndrome (FXS) and showed promising results in a phase 2 clinical study. The objective of the study is to determine safety and efficacy of arbaclofen for social avoidance in FXS. METHODS: Two phase 3 placebo-controlled trials were conducted, a flexible dose trial in subjects age 12-50 (209FX301, adolescent/adult study) and a fixed dose trial in subjects age 5-11 (209FX302, child study)...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615050/conceptualizing-physical-activity-parenting-practices-using-expert-informed-concept-mapping-analysis
#8
Louise C Mâsse, Teresia M O'Connor, Andrew W Tu, Sheryl O Hughes, Mark R Beauchamp, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children's participation in physical activity...
June 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614135/cancer-in-pregnancy-safety-and-efficacy-of-systemic-therapies
#9
Ingrid Boere, Christianne Lok, Tineke Vandenbroucke, Frédéric Amant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer in pregnancy has become increasingly frequent. It has become clear that for specific cancers under well defined circumstances, oncological treatment in pregnancy can be well tolerated and feasible for both mother and fetus. Continued critical assessment of the available literature and registration of cancer in pregnancy cases and outcomes for mother and child are necessary to work toward implementing optimal cancer treatment during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Physiologic changes in pregnancy may alter distribution and efficacy of systemic therapy...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606747/hot-tea-and-tiny-tots-don-t-mix-a-cross-sectional-survey-on-hot-beverage-scalds
#10
J D Burgess, R M Kimble, K A Watt, C M Cameron
OBJECTIVE: Hot beverage scalds are a leading cause of burns in young children. The aim of this study was to look at the circumstances surrounding these injuries in terms of setting, mechanism, supervision and first aid to inform a prevention campaign. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was delivered via iPad to parents and caregivers presenting with a child aged 0-36 months with a hot beverage scald at a major paediatric burns centre. RESULTS: Of the 101 children aged 0-36 months that presented with a hot beverage scald over a 12-month period, 54 participants were included...
June 9, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606106/perceptions-of-measles-pneumonia-and-meningitis-vaccines-among-caregivers-in-shanghai-china-and-the-health-belief-model-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Abram L Wagner, Matthew L Boulton, Xiaodong Sun, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zhuoying Huang, Irene A Harmsen, Jia Ren, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603426/efficacy-and-safety-of-tace-in-combination-with-sorafenib-for-the-treatment-of-tace-refractory-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-chinese-patients-a-retrospective-study
#12
Jianbing Wu, An Li, Jiajin Yang, Yanjun Lu, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and sorafenib (SOR) are well-established treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of SOR combined with TACE in the treatment of patients with TACE-refractory, advanced-stage HCC. METHODS: This retrospective study included 61 patients with TACE-refractory advanced HCC. Patients were divided into TACE + SOR (n=30) and TACE (n=31) treatment groups. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics, overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events (AEs) were compared between the two groups...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602893/daily-uptake-of-mycotoxins-tdi-might-not-be-protective-for-nursed-infants
#13
G H Degen, F Partosch, K Muñoz, U Gundert-Remy
Exclusive breast feeding is recommended by international bodies for the first six months of life. Because of the presence of contaminants, breast feeding might lead to toxicologically relevant exposure of the nursed child. Exposure towards mycotoxins is of specific interest because of their widespread occurrence in food and of their toxicological profile. We calculated the relationship between maternal intake at the level of the existing TDIs and the exposure in the nursed infants of several mycotoxins to evaluate whether maternal exposure at the TDI is also safe for the nursed infant...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600160/family-based-obesity-prevention-for-infants-design-of-the-mothers-others-randomized-trial
#14
Heather M Wasser, Amanda L Thompson, Chirayath M Suchindran, Eric A Hodges, Barbara D Goldman, Eliana M Perrin, Myles S Faith, Cynthia M Bulik, M Jane Heinig, Margaret E Bentley
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to test the efficacy of a family-based, multi-component intervention focused on infants of African-American (AA) mothers and families, a minority population at elevated risk for pediatric obesity, versus a child safety attention-control group to promote healthy weight gain patterns during the first two years of life. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS: The design is a two-group randomized controlled trial among 468 AA pregnant women in central North Carolina...
June 6, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599864/the-anorectic-agent-lorcaserin-disturbs-estrous-cyclicity-and-produces-endometrial-hyperplasia-without-affecting-ovarian-population-in-female-rats
#15
Raghda T Abdel Latif, Sawsan A Zaitone, Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb, Nabila N El Maraghy
AIMS: The present study aims to investigate the effect of the new anorectic agent, lorcaserin, on estrous cyclicity, reproductive hormones and folliculogenesis in female mature rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups; Group i: control group. Group ii-iv: rats treated with lorcaserin (5, 10 or 30mg/kg/day, p.o.), respectively. The treatment continued for 28days. KEY FINDINGS: Lorcaserin (5 or 10mg/kg) caused estrous cycle disturbance in 40% of treated rats while the high dose (30mg/kg) produced disturbances in 100% of the treated rats...
June 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599581/changing-management-of-gallstone-related-disease-in-pregnancy-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#16
Jonas Hedström, Johan Nilsson, Roland Andersson, Bodil Andersson
OBJECTIVES: Gallstone-related disease is the second most common non-obstetric cause, following appendicitis, for acute abdomen in pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate treatment strategies, changes over time and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with symptomatic gallstone-related disease during pregnancy admitted to Skane University hospital in Lund and Malmö 2001-2015 were analysed retrospectively. Information regarding the patient, pregnancy and fetus/child was recorded...
June 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598790/croi-2017-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Joyce Jones, Barbara S Taylor, Hong-Van Tieu, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured exciting preclinical data on investigational antiretroviral agents with good in vitro efficacy and long half-lives. Investigational medications, including bictegravir, demonstrated excellent efficacy and tolerability, as did dual-agent therapy with dolutegravir paired with rilpivirine or with lamivudine. Dolutegravir monotherapy proved inadvisable due to virologic failure and resistance. The gap between high- and low-income settings along the HIV care continuum is narrowing, with Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia approaching the 90-90-90 targets established by the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), whereas communities in the Southern United States are falling behind...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595614/a-multicentre-randomised-intervention-study-of-the-paediatric-early-warning-score-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Claus Sixtus Jensen, Hanne Aagaard, Hanne Vebert Olesen, Hans Kirkegaard
BACKGROUND: Patients' evolving critical illness can be predicted and prevented. However, failure to identify the signs of critical illness and subsequent lack of appropriate action for patients developing acute and critical illness remain a problem. Challenges in assessing whether a child is critically ill may be due to children's often uncharacteristic symptoms of serious illness. Children may seem relatively unaffected until shortly before circulatory and respiratory failure and cardiac arrest...
June 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#19
Bruce C Schuster, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592620/phase-ii-study-of-first-line-trebananib-plus-sorafenib-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Jean-Frederic Blanc, Steven Miles, Tom Ganten, Jörg Trojan, Jonathan Cebon, Andre K Liem, Lara Lipton, Charu Gupta, Benjamin Wu, Michael Bass, Ellen Hollywood, Jennifer Ma, Margaret Bradley, Jason Litten, Leonard B Saltz
LESSONS LEARNED: Trebananib leveraging anti-angiogenic mechanism that is distinct from the classic sorafenib anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition did not demonstrate improved progression-free survival at 4 months in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In support of previously reported high Ang-2 levels' association with poor outcome in HCC for patients, trebananib treatment with lower baseline Ang-2 at study entry was associated with improved overall survival to 22 months and may suggest future studies to be performed within the context of low baseline Ang-2...
June 7, 2017: Oncologist
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