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Child safety

Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jennifer L Pilgrim, Elizabeth L Jenkins, Yeliena Baber, David Caldicott, Olaf H Drummer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatal poisonings in children comprise a small proportion of cases investigated by an Australian coroner; however, they present a major opportunity for death prevention. This study aimed to examine fatal child poisonings in Australia to 1) estimate the rate of acute poisoning deaths in children; 2) describe the key characteristics of the cohort; and 3) describe the outcomes of coronial recommendations made as a death prevention measure. DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alessandro Consolaro, Esi M Morgan, Gabriella Giancane, Silvia Rosina, Stefano Lanni, Angelo Ravelli
Information technology in paediatric rheumatology has seen several exciting developments in recent years. The new multidimensional questionnaires for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, and juvenile autoinflammatory diseases integrate all major parent- and child-reported outcomes (PCROs) used in these diseases into a single tool, and provide an effective guide to manage, document change in health, assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, and verify the parent and child satisfaction with illness outcome...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Yunzhu Meng, Wansoo Pak, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik, Costin D Untaroiu
Child pedestrian protection deserves more attention in vehicle safety design since they are the most vulnerable road users who face the highest mortality rate. Pediatric Finite Element (FE) models could be used to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms during crashes in order to mitigate them. Thus, the objective of the study was to develop a computationally efficient (simplified) six-year-old (6YO-PS) pedestrian FE model and validate it based on the latest published pediatric data. The 6YO-PS FE model was developed by morphing the existing GHBMC adult pedestrian model...
October 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Diane VonBehren, Molly M Killion, Carol Burke, Betsy Finkelmeier, Brigit Zamora
Three teams of perinatal expert nurses participated in planning and designing a new maternity unit, operationalizing the move to the new space, and evaluating care processes and workflows after the move. The hospitals involved were University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital, Prentice Women's Hospital of Northwestern Memorial Healthcare in Chicago, IL, and Florida Hospital Orlando, Florida Hospital for Women. Although each team discussed specific details and lessons learned, there is remarkable consistency among the experiences of these teams and with the discussion of the process by the team at Mercy Hospital St...
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Michele M Many, Mindy E Kronenberg, Amy B Dickson
Reflective supervision is considered a key practice component for any infant mental health provider to work effectively with young children and their families. This article will provide a brief history and discussion of reflective supervision followed by a case study demonstrating the importance of reflective supervision in the context of child-parent psychotherapy (CPP; A.F. Lieberman, C. Ghosh Ippen, & P. Van Horn, ; A.F. Lieberman & P. Van Horn, , 2008). Given that CPP leverages the caregiver-child relationship as the mechanism for change in young children who have been impacted by stressors and traumas, primary objectives of CPP include assisting caregivers as they understand the meaning of their child's distress and improving the caregiver-child relationship to make it a safe and supportive space in which the child can heal...
October 19, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Ujjal Poddar, Vibhor Borkar, Surender Kumar Yachha, Anshu Srivastava
Background and study aims: In view of the paucity of literature, we carried out this audit to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N- butyl, 2-cynoacrylate glue injection therapy in secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices in children. Patients and methods: Consecutive children (≤ 18 years) with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension who presented with bleeding from gastric varices and who had undergone cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy were included. They were evaluated for safety, efficacy and complications...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Nicolás Merchante, Sofía Ibarra, Boris Revollo, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo, Esperanza Merino, Marcial Delgado-Fernández, Marta Montero-Alonso, Francisco Téllez, Maria J Galindo, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Maria A García, Carlos Mínguez, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Miguel Del Toro, Juan A Pineda
OBJECTIVE: To report the real-life results of sorafenib use in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The GEHEP-002 cohort ( ID: NCT02785835) has recruited 302 HCC cases diagnosed in HIV-infected patients from 32 centers from Spain. RIS-HEP12 study included 44 (14%) cases that have received at least one dose of sorafenib. The overall survival after the start of treatment (OSaT) was the main efficacy outcome...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Fengcai Zhu, Henri Deckx, Raphaele Roten, Bart Michiels, Michal Sarnecki
AIM: Compare efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of Hepavax-Gene TF (thimerosal free) vaccine with comparator in Chinese neonates. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, stratified study was conducted at multiple sites in China in healthy neonates, consisting of three doses of Hepavax-Gene TF or Engerix-B vaccines administered at birth, one and six months of age, with a six month follow-up after vaccination. Based on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of mothers, infants were assigned to one of two study strata for mothers positive for HBV infection (Stratum 1), with or without active replicating virus (Substrata 1a, 1b) and for HBV negative mothers (Stratum 2)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
John W Hafner, Stephanie J Kok, Huaping Wang, Dale L Wren, Mary E Aitken, Beverly K Miller, Byron L Anderson, Kathy W Monroe
OBJECTIVES: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of childhood fatality, making use of properly installed child passenger restraint system (CRS) a public health priority. Motor vehicle crashes in rural environments are associated with increased injuries and fatalities, and overall CRS use tends to be lower compared with urban populations. However, it remains unclear if proper installation of car seats is lower in a rural population compared with a similar matched urban population...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Zhongzhi Jia, Guomin Jiang, Feng Tian, Chunfu Zhu, Xihu Qin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Over the past two decades, several advances have been made in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) radioembolization has recently been made a treatment option for patients with HCC and PVTT. However, there is still a need to systematicly evaluate the outcomes of 90 Y radioembolization for HCC and PVTT. We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of 90 Y radioembolization for HCC and PVTT...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Pina Violano, Linda Roney, Kirsten Bechtel
BACKGROUND: Pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities are at a higher risk of injury as they cross streets. We sought to describe the incidence of pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities at two highly traveled urban intersections after the implementation of a pedestrian safety intervention at one of the intersections. METHODS: This was an observational field study of two urban intersections. Two investigators were stationed at each of the four corners of the intersection...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Sarah P Justvig, Justine Li, Giuseppina Caravella, Minqin Chen, Hua Wang, Lisa A Benz Scott, Susmita Pati
While CHW interventions improve health outcomes, evidence identifying specific domains of CHW-delivered support resulting in positive outcomes is limited. Our goals were to identify domains of CHW-delivered support that assist families with adhering to recommended pediatric care; and, to identify predictors of successful completion of an enriched medical home intervention (EMHI) using trained CHWs making home visits to provide health education and support positive health behaviors. We performed a prospective descriptive study of 88 families participating in a protocol-based EMHI...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Jennifer Jao, Rohan Hazra, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. DISCUSSION: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Isabelle Bragard, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Nesrine Farhat, Marie Solowianiuk, Mariane Saliba, Anne-Marie Etienne, Katharina Schumacher
OBJECTIVES: Residents beginning their specialization in pediatrics and emergency medicine (EM) are rapidly involved in oncall duties. Early acquisition of crisis resource management by novice residents is essential for patient safety, but traditional training may be insufficient. Our aim was to investigate the impact of a 2-day simulation-based course on residents to manage pediatric and neonatal patients. METHODS: First year residents participated in the course...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Eszter Szilassy, Jess Drinkwater, Marianne Hester, Cath Larkins, Nicky Stanley, William Turner, Gene Feder
We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group...
October 14, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Sharon A Carstairs, Leone C A Craig, Debbi Marais, Kirsty Kiezebrink
The first year of a child's life is a key period of transition from an exclusive milk diet to solid foods to meet growing nutritional demands. An increased requirement for nutrients includes the introduction of protein-rich solid foods, such as seafood, which additionally provides valuable omega-3 fatty acids. However, consumption of seafood is low in the British child population. The aim of this study was to identify maternal perceptions of the factors that can influence the decision on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding using a multi-method qualitative study design...
October 10, 2016: Appetite
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
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