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RNA epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156520/long-noncoding-rna-linc00961-inhibits-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Bin Jiang, Jing Liu, Yu-Hong Zhang, Dong Shen, Shaoping Liu, Feng Lin, Jun Su, Qing-Feng Lin, Shuai Yan, Yong Li, Wei-Dong Mao, Zhi-Li Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) expression has been found to be misregulated in multiple human cancers, and a growing number of studies have revealed that lncRNAs can function as important oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In this study, we identified a lncRNA-LINC00961, which was significantly down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Decreased LINC00961 was associated with NSCLC patients advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and shorter survival time. Further experiments demonstrated that LSD1 could directly bind to LINC00961 promoter regions and epigenetically repress its transcription in NSCLC cells...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152579/streptococcus-pneumoniae-tigr4-phase-locked-opacity-variants-differ-in-virulence-phenotypes
#2
Melissa B Oliver, Ankita Basu Roy, Ranjit Kumar, Elliot J Lefkowitz, W Edward Swords
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading human pathogen that can cause serious localized and invasive diseases. Pneumococci can undergo a spontaneous and reversible phase variation that is reflected in colony opacity and which allows the population to adapt to different host environments. Generally, transparent variants are adapted for nasopharyngeal colonization, whereas opaque variants are associated with invasive disease. In recent work, colony phase variation was shown to occur by means of recombination events to generate multiple alleles of the hsdS targeting domain of a DNA methylase complex, which mediates epigenetic changes in gene expression...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152092/the-long-non-coding-rna-particle-is-associated-with-wwox-and-the-absence-of-fra16d-breakage-in-osteosarcoma-patients
#3
Valerie Bríd O'Leary, Doris Maugg, Jan Smida, Daniel Baumhoer, Michaela Nathrath, Saak Victor Ovsepian, Michael John Atkinson
Breakage of the fragile site FRA16D disrupts the WWOX (WW Domain Containing Oxidoreductase) tumor suppressor gene in osteosarcoma. However, the frequency of breakage is not sufficient to explain the rate of WWOX loss in pathogenesis. The involvement of non-coding RNA transcripts is proposed due to their accumulation at fragile sites, where they are advocated to influence specific chromosomal regions associated with malignancy. The long ncRNA PARTICLE (promoter of MAT2A antisense radiation-induced circulating long non-coding RNA) is transiently elevated in response to irradiation and influences epigenetic silencing modification within WWOX...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151979/effects-of-triple-effective-rna-terna-on-the-inhibition-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#4
Yuwen Xue, Tiejun Li, Shuyan Liu, York Yuanyuan Zhu, Guilan Wang, Luyu Fu, Li Chen
The occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complicate process involved in genetic mutation and epigenetic regulation. Successful HCC therapy needs multi-targets be involved. The aim of this study was to provide a triple effective RNA (teRNA) which composed of the specific siRNAs targeting NET-1 and VEGF and dsRNA activating TLR3, and explored its anti-HCC roles and mechanism. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, MTT, Annexin V-FITC flow cytometry, Transwell and in-vitro Angiogenesis assay were used to measure the cell biological functions and protein expression analysis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151929/identification-of-circular-rna-signature-in-bladder-cancer
#5
Xiao Yang, Wenbo Yuan, Jun Tao, Peng Li, Chengdi Yang, Xiaheng Deng, Xiaolei Zhang, Jingyuan Tang, Jie Han, Jingzi Wang, Pengchao Li, Qiang Lu, Min Gu
Circular RNA (circRNA) comprises a class of endogenous species of RNA consisting of a circular loop that is crucial for genetic and epigenetic regulation. The significance of circRNA in bladder cancer (BCa) remains to be investigated. Here we performed genome‑wide circRNA analysis of 5 paired tumour and adjacent normal tissue samples from BCa patients via next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Next we confirmed NGS data in a separate set of 32 paired BCa samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150345/hydrostatic-pressure-as-epigenetic-modulator-in-chondrocyte-cultures-a-study-on-mirna-155-mirna-181a-and-mirna-223-expression-levels
#6
Anna De Palma, Sara Cheleschi, Nicola Antonio Pascarelli, Stefano Giannotti, Mauro Galeazzi, Antonella Fioravanti
Mechanical stimuli and hydrostatic pressure (HP) play an important role in the regulation of chondrocytes metabolism. Growing evidence demonstrated the ability of mechanical loading to modulate the expression of microRNA (miRNA) involved in chondrocytes homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The expression of miR-155, miR-181a and miR-223 in normal and OA chondrocyte cultures, and their potential modifications following exposure to three hours of a cyclic HP (1-5 MPa, frequency 0.25 Hz) were investigated...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150295/paternal-transmission-of-early-life-traumatization-through-epigenetics-do-fathers-play-a-role
#7
Enrique d'Harcourt Rowold, Lara Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Traumatizing events are known to have consequences for the victim which may lead to the development of several well-known mental disorders. Recent research has shown that traumatic events may affect not only the victims' lives, but also that of their progeny. It is generally accepted that this transmission of trauma occurs through parental behavior; however as has been recently discovered, the effects of trauma may also be inherited due to induced alterations in gene expression. These changes, so called epigenetic modifications, illuminate the interaction between genes and the environment...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149060/epigenetic-regulation-of-viral-biological-processes
#8
REVIEW
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
It is increasingly clear that DNA viruses exploit cellular epigenetic processes to control their life cycles during infection. This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. For each type of virus, what is known about the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and regulatory RNA in epigenetic regulation of the virus infection will be discussed. The mechanisms used by certain viruses to dysregulate the host cell through manipulation of epigenetic processes and the role of cellular cofactors such as BRD4 that are known to be involved in epigenetic regulation of host cell pathways will also be covered...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144820/pheochromocytoma-a-genetic-and-diagnostic-update
#9
Leilani B Mercado-Asis, Katherine I Wolf, Ivana Jochmanova, David Taïeb
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal locations, respectively. Upon suspicion of PPGL, specific metabolomic, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological studies are performed to prove, localize, treat, and monitor disease progression. Recently, improved diagnostic tools allow physicians to accurately diagnose PPGL, even in patients presenting with small (less than 1 cm) or biochemically silent tumors, which previously delayed proper detection and treatment...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144509/circular-rna-expression-is-suppressed-by-androgen-receptor-ar-regulated-adenosine-deaminase-that-acts-on-rna-adar1-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Liang Shi, Peijian Yan, Yuelong Liang, Yin Sun, Jiliang Shen, Senjun Zhou, Hui Lin, Xiao Liang, Xiujun Cai
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous malignancy as a result of complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. HCC is characterized by a clear gender disparity for which there is lack of a clear mechanistic understanding. Androgen receptor (AR) is thought to be critical for such bias. Meanwhile, the potential function of circular RNA (circRNA), regulated by RNA editing enzyme, remained largely unknown in malignancy till now. By utilizing circRNA microarray survey coupled with in vitro analysis, we analyzed the influence of AR on circRNA expression in HCC...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143818/visualization-of-chemical-modifications-in-the-human-80s-ribosome-structure
#11
S Kundhavai Natchiar, Alexander G Myasnikov, Hanna Kratzat, Isabelle Hazemann, Bruno P Klaholz
Chemical modifications of human ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are introduced during biogenesis and have been implicated in the dysregulation of protein synthesis, as is found in cancer and other diseases. However, their role in this phenomenon is unknown. Here we visualize more than 130 individual rRNA modifications in the three-dimensional structure of the human ribosome, explaining their structural and functional roles. In addition to a small number of universally conserved sites, we identify many eukaryote- or human-specific modifications and unique sites that form an extended shell in comparison to bacterial ribosomes, and which stabilize the RNA...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139335/shprh-as-a-new-player-in-ribosomal-rna-transcription-and-its-potential-role-in-homeostasis-of-ribosomal-dna-repeats
#12
Deokjae Lee, Jun Hong Park, Shinseog Kim, Seon-Gyeong Lee, Kyungjae Myung
There are hundreds of copies of rDNA repeats in mammalian chromosomes and the ratio of active, poised, or inactive rDNA is regulated in epigenetic manners. Recent studies demonstrated that a post-DNA replication repair enzyme, SHPRH affects rRNA transcription by recognizing epigenetic markers on rDNA promoters and unveiled potential links between DNA repair and ribosome biogenesis (1) . This study suggests that SHPRH could be a link between mTOR-mediated epigenetic regulations and rRNA transcription, while concomitantly affecting genomic integrity...
November 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137412/long-non-coding-rna-snhg15-inhibits-p15-and-klf2-expression-to-promote-pancreatic-cancer-proliferation-through-ezh2-mediated-h3k27me3
#13
Zhonghua Ma, Hesuyuan Huang, Jirong Wang, Yan Zhou, Fuxing Pu, Qinghong Zhao, Peng Peng, Bingqing Hui, Hao Ji, Keming Wang
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is emerging as an critical regulator in multiple cancers, including pancreatic cancer (PC). Recently, lncRNA SNHG15 was found to be up-regulated in gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, exerting oncogenic effects. Nevertheless, the biological function and regulatory mechanism of SNHG15 remain unclear in pancreatic cancer (PC). In this study, we reported that SNHG15 expression was also upregulated in PC tissues, and its overexpression was remarkably associated with tumor size, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and lymph node metastasis in patients with PC...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137254/quaking-5-suppresses-aggressiveness-of-lung-cancer-cells-through-inhibiting-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#14
Xuexia Zhou, Xuebing Li, Cuiyun Sun, Cuijuan Shi, Dan Hua, Lin Yu, Yanjun Wen, Feng Hua, Qian Wang, Qinghua Zhou, Shizhu Yu
Quaking-5 (QKI-5) belongs to the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) family of RNA binding proteins and functions as a tumor suppressor in several human malignancies. In this study, we attempt to elucidate the role of QKI-5 in the pro-metastasis processes of lung cancer (LC) cells and the underlying mechanisms. We confirmed that QKI-5 was decreased in human LC tissues and cell lines, especially in high-metastatic cells. Moreover, QKI expression was positively correlated with LC patients' survival...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134693/microglia-from-offspring-of-dams-with-allergic-asthma-exhibit-epigenomic-alterations-in-genes-dysregulated-in-autism
#15
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Milo Careaga, Janine M LaSalle, Paul Ashwood
Dysregulation in immune responses during pregnancy increases the risk of a having a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women, and symptoms often worsen during pregnancy. We recently developed a mouse model of maternal allergic asthma (MAA) that induces changes in sociability, repetitive, and perseverative behaviors in the offspring. Since epigenetic changes help a static genome adapt to the maternal environment, activation of the immune system may epigenetically alter fetal microglia, the brain's resident immune cells...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133016/dynamic-transcriptional-control-of-macrophage-mirna-signature-via-inflammation-responsive-enhancers-revealed-using-a-combination-of-next-generation-sequencing-based-approaches
#16
Zsolt Czimmerer, Attila Horvath, Bence Daniel, Gergely Nagy, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Mate Kiss, Zsuzsanna Kolostyak, Szilard Poliska, Laszlo Steiner, Nikolas Giannakis, Tamas Varga, Laszlo Nagy
MicroRNAs are important components of the post-transcriptional fine-tuning of macrophage gene expression in physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanistic underpinnings and the cis-acting genomic factors of how macrophage polarizing signals induce miRNA expression changes are not well characterized. Therefore, we systematically evaluated the transcriptional basis underlying the inflammation-mediated regulation of macrophage microRNome using the combination of different next generation sequencing datasets...
November 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132937/arsenic-exposure-during-embryonic-development-alters-the-expression-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-5-gas5-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#17
Kevin K Caldwell, Alexander Hafez, Elizabeth Solomon, Matthew Cunningham, Andrea M Allan
Our previous studies suggest that prenatal arsenic exposure (50ppb) modifies epigenetic control of the programming of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling system in the developing mouse brain. These deficits may lead to long-lasting consequences, including deficits in learning and memory, increased depressive-like behaviors, and an altered set-point of GR feedback throughout life. To understand the arsenic-induced changes within the GR system, we assessed the impact of in utero arsenic exposure on the levels of the GR and growth arrest-specific-5 (Gas5), a noncoding RNA, across a key gestational period for GR programming (gestational days, GD 14-18) in mice...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130966/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-neonatal-kidney-from-offspring-of-protein-restricted-rats-reveals-abnormalities-in-intraflagellar-transport-proteins
#18
Xiaomei Liu, Jun Wang, Linlin Gao, Hao Liu, Caixia Liu
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that adverse events in utero can impair fetal development and lead to the development of kidney injury and hypertension in adulthood. We previously reported a lower kidney index, glomeruli number, and decreased glomerular filtration rate in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring induced by maternal protein malnutrition. To explore the molecular mechanisms linking impaired fetal growth to renal diseases, we investigated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the IUGR neonatal kidneys by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130960/piwi-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rna-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#19
Yi-Neng Han, Yuan Li, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and interact with PIWI proteins. piRNAs were primarily described in the germline, but emerging evidence revealed that piRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner among multiple human somatic tissue types as well and play important roles in transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, gene and protein regulation, genome rearrangement, spermatogenesis and germ stem-cell maintenance. PIWI proteins were first discovered in Drosophila and they play roles in spermatogenesis, germline stem-cell maintenance, self-renewal, retrotransposons silencing and the male germline mobility control...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126434/whole-blood-microrna-expression-pattern-differentiates-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-their-seropositive-first-degree-relatives-and-healthy-unrelated-control-subjects
#20
Vidyanand Anaparti, Irene Smolik, Xiaobo Meng, Victor Spicer, Neeloffer Mookherjee, Hani El-Gabalawy
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms can integrate gene-environment interactions that mediate disease transition from preclinical to clinically overt rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To better understand their role, we evaluated microRNA (miRNA, miR) expression profile in indigenous North American patients with RA who were positive for anticitrullinated protein antibodies; their autoantibody-positive, asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDRs); and disease-free healthy control subjects (HCs). METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from whole blood samples obtained from HC (n = 12), patients with RA (n = 18), and FDRs (n = 12)...
November 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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