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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440965/concurrent-pulmonary-sequestration-and-pulmonary-hydatid-cyst-in-a-child-a-case-report
#1
Dawood Yusef, Shadi Hamouri, Yousef Odeh
Pulmonary sequestration (PS) happens when an area of the lung receives its arterial blood supply from systemic circulation, resulting in a non-functional lesion (Intralobar or extralobar). Hydatid cyst results from infection of the tapeworm Echinococcus. We report a case of hydatid cyst existed concurrently with intralobar PS. A 12-year-old girl presented with recurrent hemoptysis of 2 years duration. Serology for Echinococcus granulosus was positive. CT chest suggested intralobar PS in the right middle lobe, which was surgically removed...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440920/pediatric-pulmonology-year-in-review-2016-part-2
#2
REVIEW
Richard Auten, Clement Ren, Ozge Yilmaz, Terry L Noah
Pediatric Pulmonology continues to publish research and clinical topics related to the entire range of children's respiratory disorders. As we have done annually in recent years, we here summarize some of the past year's publications in our major topic areas, as well as selected literature in these areas from other core journals relevant to our discipline. This review (Part 2) covers selected articles on neonatology, asthma, physiology and lung function testing, and infectious diseases.
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440853/antibiotic-strategies-for-eradicating-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Simon C Langton Hewer, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in most people with cystic fibrosis. Once chronic infection is established, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is virtually impossible to eradicate and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early infection may be easier to eradicate.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006, 2009 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with cystic fibrosis eradicates the organism, delays the onset of chronic infection, and results in clinical improvement...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440606/pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-radiation-induced-myocardial-fibrosis
#4
Li Kun Liu, Weiwei Ouyang, Xing Zhao, Sheng Fa Su, Yan Yang, Wen Jin Ding, Da Xian Luo, Zhi Xu He, Bing Lu
Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered radiation-induced heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440565/lower-limb-muscle-function-and-exercise-performance-in-lung-cancer
#5
EDITORIAL
Matthew Maddocks, Catherine Granger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440478/overexpression-of-secretory-phospholipase-a2-iia-supports-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-via-her-erbb-elicited-signaling-in-lung-and-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Shan Lu, Zhongyun Dong
Resistance to conventional chemotherapies remains a significant clinical challenge in treatment of cancer. The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have properties necessary for tumor initiation, resistance to therapy, and progression. HER/ERBB‑elicited signaling supports CSC properties. Our previous studies revealed that secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2‑IIa) is overexpressed in both prostate and lung cancer cells, leading to an aberrant high level in the interstitial fluid, i.e., tumor microenvironment and blood...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440399/%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-promotes-lung-adenocarcinoma-metastasis-through-upregulating-fibronectin-expression
#7
Yan Li, Liyun Miao, Min Yu, Minke Shi, Yongsheng Wang, Jun Yang, Yonglong Xiao, Hourong Cai
α1-antitrypsin (AAT) has been recognized to be associated with lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which AAT promotes tumor metastasis remain to be investigated. Herein, we first examined AAT expression in a panel of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 88 lung adenocarcinoma patients undergoing curative resection, using immunohistochemical methods. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with high AAT expression showed a significantly shorter overall survival compared to those with low AAT expression by Kaplan-Meier method (P=0...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440285/ionizing-radiation-abrogates-the-pro-tumorigenic-capacity-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-co-implanted-in-xenografts
#8
Maria Tunset Grinde, Jørg Vik, Ketil André Camilio, Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Turid Hellevik
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundantly present in solid tumors and affect tumorigenesis and therapeutic responses. In the context of clinical radiotherapy, the impact of irradiated CAFs to treatment outcomes is largely unexplored. Aiming at improving radiotherapy efficacy, we have here explored the effect of radiation on the inherent pro-tumorigenic capacity of CAFs in animals. Ionizing radiation was delivered to cultured CAFs as single-high or fractionated doses. Tumor development was compared in mice receiving A549 lung tumor cells admixed with irradiated or control CAFs...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439989/using-size-controlled-multicellular-spheroids-of-murine-adenocarcinoma-cells-to-efficiently-establish-pulmonary-tumors-in-mice
#9
Tomoko Nishikawa, Yutaro Tanaka, Makiya Nishikawa, Kosuke Kusamori, Narumi Mizuno, Yuya Mizukami, Yuka Ogino, Kazunori Shimizu, Satoshi Konishi, Yuki Takahashi, Yoshinobu Takakura
Previous studies demonstrated that multicellular spheroids developed using polydimethylsiloxane-based microwells exhibited superior functions, such as insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, over suspended cells. To successfully apply these spheroids, the effect of spheroid size on cellular functions must be determined. In this study, using murine adenocarcinoma colon26 cells, we examined whether such spheroids were useful for developing tumor-bearing animal models, which requires the efficient and stable engraftment of cancer cells at implanted sites and/or metastatic sites...
April 25, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439270/cytokine-regulation-of-na-k-cl-cotransporter-1-and-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-potential-role-in-pulmonary-inflammation-and-edema-formation
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Weidenfeld, Wolfgang M Kuebler
Pulmonary edema, a major complication of lung injury and inflammation, is defined as accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lungs leading to impaired diffusion of respiratory gases. Lung fluid balance across the alveolar epithelial barrier protects the distal airspace from excess fluid accumulation and is mainly regulated by active sodium transport and Cl(-) absorption. Increased hydrostatic pressure as seen in cardiogenic edema or increased vascular permeability as present in inflammatory lung diseases such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes a reversal of transepithelial fluid transport resulting in the formation of pulmonary edema...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439103/brain-age-predicts-mortality
#11
J H Cole, S J Ritchie, M E Bastin, M C Valdés Hernández, S Muñoz Maniega, N Royle, J Corley, A Pattie, S E Harris, Q Zhang, N R Wray, P Redmond, R E Marioni, J M Starr, S R Cox, J M Wardlaw, D J Sharp, I J Deary
Age-associated disease and disability are placing a growing burden on society. However, ageing does not affect people uniformly. Hence, markers of the underlying biological ageing process are needed to help identify people at increased risk of age-associated physical and cognitive impairments and ultimately, death. Here, we present such a biomarker, 'brain-predicted age', derived using structural neuroimaging. Brain-predicted age was calculated using machine-learning analysis, trained on neuroimaging data from a large healthy reference sample (N=2001), then tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=669), to determine relationships with age-associated functional measures and mortality...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439091/abdominal-adiposity-intensifies-the-negative-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-korean-men
#12
H-J Kim, J-H Park, J-Y Min, K-B Min, Y-S Seo, J M Yun, H Kwon, J-I Kim, B Cho
BACKGROUND: Some studies have provided the possibility that adipose tissue may mediate air pollution-induced lung dysfunction. Studies using quantified fat mass data are needed to understand the biological mechanisms between adipocyte and air pollution in lung function. We aimed to investigate whether abdominal adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) modifies the effects of air pollution on lung function in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 1876 men who visited one of two health checkup centers were recruited for this study...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439010/cyclops-reveals-human-transcriptional-rhythms-in-health-and-disease
#13
Ron C Anafi, Lauren J Francey, John B Hogenesch, Junhyong Kim
Circadian rhythms modulate many aspects of physiology. Knowledge of the molecular basis of these rhythms has exploded in the last 20 years. However, most of these data are from model organisms, and translation to clinical practice has been limited. Here, we present an approach to identify molecular rhythms in humans from thousands of unordered expression measurements. Our algorithm, cyclic ordering by periodic structure (CYCLOPS), uses evolutionary conservation and machine learning to identify elliptical structure in high-dimensional data...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438639/targeting-interleukin-17-signalling-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-disease-mechanistic-concepts-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Abraham B Roos, Martin R Stampfli
It is widely accepted that compromised lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is, at least in part, a consequence of persistent airway inflammation caused by particles and noxious gases present in cigarette smoke and indoor air pollution from burning biomass fuel. Currently, the World Health Organization estimates that 80 million people have moderate or severe COPD worldwide. While there is a global need for effective medical treatment, current therapeutic interventions have shown limited success in preventing disease pathology and progression...
April 21, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438491/immunomodulatory-functions-of-neuronal-guidance-proteins
#15
REVIEW
Valbona Mirakaj, Peter Rosenberger
Neuronal guidance proteins (NGPs) were originally identified for their role during the embryonic development of the nervous system. Recent years have seen the discovery of NGP functions during immune responses. In this context, NGPs were demonstrated to control leukocyte migration and the release of cytokines during conditions of acute inflammation, such as lung injury or sepsis. However, NGPs also display potent actions in the resolution of inflammation, chronic inflammatory conditions, the development of atherosclerosis, and during ischemia followed by reperfusion...
April 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438350/microrna-505-modulates-cancer-proliferation-and-migration-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-inverse-regulation-of-fzd4
#16
Hong Li, Tian Yang, Qian Ning, Dong Shang, Yan Yao, Zhongmin Sun
OBJECTIVES: The current study is to evaluate the functional role of microRNA-505 (miR-505) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to examine miR-505 expression in tumors of NSCLC patients and NSCLC cell lines. Lentiviruses of miR-505 mimics and miR-505 inhibitor were used to upregulate or downregulate miR-505 in NSCLC cell lines, A549 and H810 cells. Their effects on NSCLC in vitro growth, migration and in vivo growth were evaluated by proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity assays, respectively...
March 31, 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437651/population-attributable-risk-associated-with-lung-cancer-induced-by-residential-radon-in-canada-sensitivity-to-relative-risk-model-and-radon-probability-density-function-choices-in-memory-of-professor-jan-m-zielinski
#17
Mo'tassem Al-Arydah
Indoor radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) estimates the proportion of lung cancer cases associated with indoor radon exposure. Different relative risk (RR) models have been used in the literature to calculate PAR. The aim of this study is to assess how sensitive PAR is to the relative risk model and radon probability distribution functions choices. METHODS: Using Canadian observed first floor radon data collected by Health Canada during the period October 2010 to March 2011, seven common PAR radon models used for North American miners and dwelling scenarios were applied...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437377/microrna-21-is-required-for-local-and-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-multiple-organ-protection-against-sepsis
#18
Ping Jia, Xiaoli Wu, Yan Dai, Jie Teng, Yi Fang, Jiachang Hu, Jianzhou Zou, Mingyu Liang, Xiaoqiang Ding
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis, triggered by microbial infection, is a common and life-threatening systemic illness, often leads to impaired function of vital organs. Ischemic preconditioning induced by transient brief episodes of ischemia is a powerful innate mechanism of organ protection. We have reported that a 15-minute renal ischemic preconditioning substantially attenuated subsequent renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we investigate whether a brief ischemia and reperfusion in kidney can provide protection at local and remote sites against sepsis-induced organ injury, and whether this protection is microRNA-21 dependent...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437264/magnesium-sulphate-improves-pulmonary-function-after-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Hye-Min Sohn, Sang-Hoon Jheon, Sunwoo Nam, Sang-Hwan Do
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung volumes are unavoidable after lung resection surgery. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) administration has been reported to reduce the requirement for neuromuscular blocking drugs and postoperative analgesics in surgical patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of MgSO4 on pulmonary function after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). DESIGN: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A university tertiary care centre...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436850/pulmonary-lobe-segmentation-with-probabilistic-segmentation-of-the-fissures-and-a-groupwise-fissure-prior
#20
Felix Bragman, Jamie McClelland, Joseph Jacob, John Hurst, David Hawkes
A fully automated, unsupervised lobe segmentation algorithm is presented based on a probabilistic segmentation of the fissures and the simultaneous construction of a population model of the fissures. A two-class probabilistic segmentation segments the lung into candidate fissure voxels and the surrounding parenchyma. This was combined with anatomical information and a groupwise fissure prior to drive non-parametric surface fitting to obtain the final segmentation. The performance of our fissure segmentation was validated on 30 patients from the COPDGene cohort, achieving a high median F1-score of 0:90 and showed general insensitivity to filter parameters...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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