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Antioxidant nutrients

San-Lang Wang, Hsin-Ting Li, Li-Jie Zhang, Zhi-Hu Lin, Yao-Haur Kuo
The culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. TKU036, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soils, showed high antioxidant activity (85%) when cultured in a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium at 37 °C for three days. Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA) was isolated and found to be the major antioxidant in the culture supernatant of the SPP-containing medium fermented by Paenibacillus sp. TKU036. Tryptophan was also present in the culture supernatant. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed that HGA and tryptophan were produced via fermentation but did not pre-exist in the unfermented SPP-containing medium...
October 12, 2016: Marine Drugs
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor M Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Soil pollution by heavy metals/metalloids (HMMs) is a problem worldwide. To prevent dispersion of contaminated particles by erosion, the maintenance of a vegetative cover is needed. Successful plant establishment in multi-polluted soils can be hampered not only by HMM toxicities, but also by soil nutrient deficiencies and the co-occurrence of abiotic stresses. Some plant species are able to thrive under these multi-stress scenarios often linked to marked fluctuations in environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments involved in Zygophyllum fabago acclimative responses to conditions prevailing in HMM-enriched mine-tailings piles, during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Isabel Cristina da Silva Haas, Isabela Maia Toaldo, Jefferson Santos de Gois, Daniel L G Borges, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Marilde T Bordignon-Luiz
Grape and grape derivatives contain a variety of antioxidants that have gain increasing interest for functional foods applications. The chemical composition of grapes is mainly related to grape variety and cultivation factors, and each grape constituent exhib its unique characteristics regarding its bioactive properties. This study investigated the chemical composition and the effect of drying on the bioactive content of the non-pomace constituent obtained in the processing of organic and conventional grape juices from V...
October 13, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Chelsea Anderson, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler, Hazel B Nichols
Higher levels of oxidative stress, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, have been associated with chronic diseases such as CVD and some cancers. Improvements in diet and physical activity may help reduce oxidative stress; however, previous studies regarding associations between lifestyle factors and F2-isoprostane concentrations have been inconsistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether physical activity and intakes of fruits/vegetables, antioxidant nutrients, dietary fat subgroups and alcohol are associated with concentrations of F2-isoprostane and the major F2-isoprostane metabolite...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Alessandra Durazzo, Silvia Lisciani, Emanuela Camilli, Paolo Gabrielli, Stefania Marconi, Loretta Gambelli, Altero Aguzzi, Massimo Lucarini, Giuseppe Maiani, Gaetana Casale, Luisa Marletta
This work aims at evaluating the main nutrients (proximate, minerals), their contribution for Dietary Reference Values in Italian population, and the antioxidant properties of some popular dishes prepared in a dedicated lab-kitchen: spaghetti alle vongole, pomodori al riso, gateau di patate, carciofi alla romana, pan di Spagna. Results showed that nutrient contents and energy value varied extensively because of the variety and the nature of ingredients in the analyzed dishes, and thus defined different daily nutrient intakes and their association with health effects...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tingting Ma, Xiangyu Sun, Jinmei Zhao, Yilin You, Yushan Lei, Guitian Gao, Jicheng Zhan
The nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of China domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. Results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. Additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to the product region...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Dominik D Alexander, Paula E Miller, Ashley J Vargas, Douglas L Weed, Sarah S Cohen
The possible relationship between dietary cholesterol and cardiac outcomes has been scrutinized for decades. However, recent reviews of the literature have suggested that dietary cholesterol is not a nutrient of concern. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of egg intake (a significant contributor to dietary cholesterol) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through August 2015 to identify prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for egg consumption in association with CHD or stroke...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
A Parmigiani, A V Budanov
Sestrins are a family of stress-responsive genes that have evolved to attenuate damage induced by stress caused to the cell. By virtue of their antioxidant activity, protein products of Sestrin genes prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the cell, thereby attenuating the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. In parallel, Sestrins participate in several signaling pathways that control the activity of the target of rapamycin protein kinase (TOR). TOR is a crucial sensor of intracellular and extracellular conditions that promotes cell growth and anabolism when nutrients and growth factors are abundant...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Kubilay Yıldırım, Senem Uylaş
Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of plants. Despite its low abundance in soils, it could be highly toxic to plants in especially arid and semi-arid environments. Poplars are known to be tolerant species to B toxicity and accumulation. However, physiological and gene regulation responses of these trees to B toxicity have not been investigated yet. Here, B accumulation and tolerance level of black poplar clones were firstly tested in the current study. Rooted cutting of these clones were treated with elevated B toxicity to select the most B accumulator and tolerant genotype...
September 19, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Brianna F Moore, Maggie L Clark, Annette Bachand, Stephen J Reynolds, Tracy L Nelson, Jennifer L Peel
INTRODUCTION: Antioxidant-rich diets may lessen the adverse metabolic responses triggered by exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), but no studies have investigated these potential interactions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the interaction between diet and exposure to SHS on HbA1c levels among 2,551 children, ages 12-19 years, who participated in the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Exposure to SHS was assessed by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), cotinine, and self-report...
September 27, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Xin-Chun Huang, Yuko Inoue-Aono, Yuji Moriyasu, Pei-Ying Hsieh, Wei-Ming Tu, Shae-Chien Hsiao, Wan-Neng Jane, Hsin-Yun Hsu
Autophagy is a self-protection process against reactive oxygen species (ROS). The intracellular level of ROS increased when cells were cultured under nutrient starvation. Antioxidants such as glutathione and ascorbic acid play an important role in ROS removal. However, the cellular redox state in the autophagic pathway is still unclear. Herein, we developed a new redox-sensitive probe with a disulfide-linked silica scaffold to enable the sensing of the reduction environment in cell organelles. This redox-responsive silica nanoprobe (ReSiN) could penetrate the plant cell wall and release fluorescent molecules in response to redox states...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Eliana Baez, Valentina Echeverria, Ricardo Cabezas, Marco Ávila-Rodriguez, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, George E Barreto
Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic, and structural functions, and when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke, and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactate, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters, and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Archita Das, Varadarajan Sudhahar, Gin-Fu Chen, Ha Won Kim, Seock-Won Youn, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Jay Yang, Junghun Kweon, Bayasgalan Surenkhuu, Masuko Ushio-Fukai, Tohru Fukai
Copper (Cu), an essential nutrient, promotes wound healing, however, target of Cu action and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Cu chaperone Antioxidant-1 (Atox1) in the cytosol supplies Cu to the secretory enzymes such as lysyl oxidase (LOX), while Atox1 in the nucleus functions as a Cu-dependent transcription factor. Using mouse cutaneous wound healing model, here we show that Cu content (by X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy) and nuclear Atox1 are increased after wounding, and that wound healing with and without Cu treatment is impaired in Atox1(-/-) mice...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anisur Rahman, Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Masayuki Fujita
The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) alters different physiological and biochemical attributes that affect plant growth and yield. In our study, we investigated the regulatory role of supplemental manganese (Mn) on hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29) seedlings under Cd-stress conditions. Exposure of 14-d-old seedlings to 0.3mM CdCl2 for three days caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and higher Cd accumulation. Higher Cd uptake caused oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG)...
September 20, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Franco De Michieli, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Kalandar Ameer
Avocados have a high content of phytochemicals especially antioxidants with potential neuroprotective effect. Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. There is evidence for increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Nisreen Kweider, Berthold Huppertz, Werner Rath, Jessica Lambertz, Rebecca Caspers, Mohamed ElMoursi, Ulrich Pecks, Mamed Kadyrov, Athanassios Fragoulis, Thomas Pufe, Christoph Jan Wruck
OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as a pathological decreased fetal growth. Oxidative stress has been connected to the restriction in the fetal growth. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant response. The effect Nrf2 on fetal-placental development has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we evaluated the placental and fetal growth in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) and Nrf2-wild type mice (Nrf2-WT) throughout pregnancy...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Abdolkarim Mahrooz
A growing interest exists in documenting the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in different human diseases including, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancers, aging, and several neurological disorders. Three aspects of PON1 has attracted the attention of researchers: (1) hydrolyzing and detoxifying of toxic organophosphorous compounds such as nerve gases; (2) antioxidative activity in hydrolyzing oxidized phospholipids in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL); (3) interaction with various drugs...
September 15, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Lijiao Kan, Shaoping Nie, Jielun Hu, Sunan Wang, Steve W Cui, Yawen Li, Sifan Xu, Yue Wu, Junqiao Wang, Zhouya Bai, Mingyong Xie
Detailed characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans was performed. The kidney beans contained high levels of dietary fiber (29.32-46.77%), resistant starch (9.16-18.09%) and protein (22.06-32.63%) but low levels of lipid (1.05-2.83%) and sugars (1.55-9.07%). The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. The ratio of essential amino acid to the total amino acid was ranged from 0.29 to 0...
September 6, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Antoni Sureda, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Miquel Martorell, Pilar Buil-Cosiales, Amelia Marti, Antoni Pons, Josep A Tur, Miguel Ángel Martinez-Gonzalez
SCOPE: This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase activity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (MeDiet+EVOO) or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED study). METHODS AND RESULTS: 75 participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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