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Antioxidant nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446919/high-nitrogen-supply-induces-physiological-responsiveness-to-long-photoperiod-in-barley
#1
Jian Zeng, Huajin Sheng, Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Yi Wang, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Shu Yuan, Yonghong Zhou
Photoperiod and nutrient nitrogen (N) supply influence the growth, development, and productivity of crops. This study examined the physiological, biochemical, and morpho-anatomical traits of NA5 and NA9, two barley cultivars with contrasting photoperiod lengths, under the combined treatment of photoperiod regime and N supply. Under long photoperiod, high N supply decreased net photosynthesis; decreased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a/b; decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; decreased ascorbate, glutathione, soluble protein, and soluble sugar; destroyed mesophyll cell integrity; and increased [Formula: see text], malondialdehyde, and proline in both NA5 and NA9...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445896/total-serum-antioxidant-capacity-in-healthy-normal-weight-and-asymptomatic-overweight-adults
#2
Ana Petelin, Paola Tedeschi, Annalisa Maietti, Mihaela Jurdana, Vincenzo Brandolini, Zala Jenko Pražnikar
Obesity and overweight are major contributors to the burden of chronic disease. Both are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation and by increased production of free radicals leading to oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether overweight and fat accumulation is associated with serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in men and women, irrespective of nutritional habits, nutrient intakes, physical activity, smoking, and other confounders, which may be responsible for modifying the association between serum TAC and overweight/obesity measures...
April 26, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440717/serum-carotenoid-interactions-in-premenopausal-women-reveal-%C3%AE-carotene-is-negatively-impacted-by-body-fat
#3
Emily Taylor Nuss, Ashley R Valentine, Zhumin Zhang, HuiChuan Jennifer Lai, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
Increasing body mass indices (BMIs) across the globe reflect pandemic shifts towards habitual positive energy imbalances. Excess body fat in individuals is often associated with high-energy and high-fat diets scanty in fresh produce. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments plentiful in many fruits and vegetables. They are well-known for provitamin A and antioxidant functions, but little research has been done related to carotenoid-body mass interactions. Serum carotenoids were analyzed relative to body fat to determine correlations between major serum carotenoids, retinol, BMI, fat mass, and lean mass...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429737/the-glutamate-cystine-xct-antiporter-antagonizes-glutamine-metabolism-and-reduces-nutrient-flexibility
#4
Chun-Shik Shin, Prashant Mishra, Jeramie D Watrous, Valerio Carelli, Marilena D'Aurelio, Mohit Jain, David C Chan
As noted by Warburg, many cancer cells depend on the consumption of glucose. We performed a genetic screen to identify factors responsible for glucose addiction and recovered the two subunits of the xCT antiporter (system xc(-)), which plays an antioxidant role by exporting glutamate for cystine. Disruption of the xCT antiporter greatly improves cell viability after glucose withdrawal, because conservation of glutamate enables cells to maintain mitochondrial respiration. In some breast cancer cells, xCT antiporter expression is upregulated through the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and contributes to their requirement for glucose as a carbon source...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428691/relationship-between-xanthine-oxidase-ischemia-modified-albumin-nitric-oxide-with-antioxidants-in-non-pregnants-pre-and-post-delivery-of-normal-pregnants-and-preeclampsia
#5
Vanishree Bambrana, C D Dayanand, Pushpa Kotur
Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder involves altered homeostasis of oxidants-antioxidants, inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. The present study aim was to determine the levels of oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, ischemia modified albumin and xanthine oxidase), nutrient antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E), enzyme antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase glutathione reductase), total antioxidant status (TAS) and its association with nitric oxide...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423878/effects-of-alfalfa-flavonoids-on-the-production-performance-immune-system-and-ruminal-fermentation-of-dairy-cows
#6
Jinshun Zhan, Caixia Wu, Mingmei Liu, Xiaoshuang Su, Kang Zhan, Chungang Zhang, Guoqi Zhao
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of flavonoids from alfalfa on production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) added 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60 and 100 mg alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of body weight (BW), respectively. The results showed that the feed intake and milk lactose content of the group receiving from 60 mg/kg...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422148/chemical-and-bioactive-profiling-and-biological-activities-of-coral-fungi-from-northwestern-himalayas
#7
Sapan Kumar Sharma, Nandini Gautam
Ramaria Fr. and Clavaria L. are the two major genera of coral mushrooms within families Gomphaceae and Clavariaceae, respectively. Besides having important role in forest ecology, some species of these are reported to possess high nutraceutical and bioactive potential. There is a hidden diversity of coral mushrooms in Northwestern Himalayas. Present studies describe the detailed biochemical profiling and antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of twelve coral mushroom species. Biochemical profiling of nutrients and nutraceuticals was done with standard techniques and by using HPLC, UPLC and GC...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417466/s-nitrosoglutathione-spraying-improves-stomatal-conductance-rubisco-activity-and-antioxidant-defense-in-both-leaves-and-roots-of-sugarcane-plants-under-water-deficit
#8
Neidiquele M Silveira, Fernanda C C Marcos, Lucas Frungillo, Bárbara B Moura, Amedea B Seabra, Ione Salgado, Eduardo C Machado, John T Hancock, Rafael V Ribeiro
Water deficit is a major environmental constraint on crop productivity and performance and nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule associated with many biochemical and physiological processes in plants under stressful conditions. This study aims to test the hypothesis that leaf spraying of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an NO donor, improves the antioxidant defense in both roots and leaves of sugarcane plants under water deficit, with positive consequences for photosynthesis. In addition, the role of key photosynthetic enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in maintaining CO2 assimilation of GSNO-sprayed plants under water deficit were evaluated...
April 17, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411961/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-respiratory-health-a-descriptive-review-of-the-last-five-years-literature
#9
REVIEW
E Verduci, A Martelli, V L Miniello, M Landi, B Mariani, M Brambilla, L Diaferio, D G Peroni
The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health respiratory effects of nutrients and dietary patterns during the first 1000 days from conception. Population of interest included children from birth to two years and their mothers (during pregnancy and lactation). Studies were searched on MEDLINE® and Cochrane database, inserting individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, 'nutrients', 'micronutrients', 'LC-PUFA', 'Mediterranean Diet', 'human milk', 'complementary food', 'pregnancy', 'respiratory disease', 'pulmonary disease', 'asthma', 'epigenetics', 'first 1000 days', 'maternal diet' and 'respiratory health'...
April 12, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405813/estimation-of-dietary-total-antioxidant-capacity-of-korean-adults
#10
Shinyoung Jun, Ock K Chun, Hyojee Joung
PURPOSE: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported to be inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. However, little is known about dietary TAC among the Korean population. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the dietary TAC of Korean adults and to document the major food sources. METHODS: We studied 33,581 Korean adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Dietary TAC was estimated from 1-day 24-h dietary recall data using a TAC database comprising antioxidant capacities of 42 dietary antioxidants, developed for common Korean foods...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403547/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-a-probiotic-enterococcus-faecium-dsm-7134-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-and-gut-health-status-in-weaning-pigs
#11
R X Lan, I H Kim
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been suggested as desirable antibiotic alternatives to pigs by improving gut health and growth performance. However, limited studies of the effectiveness of E. faecium in weaning pigs, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E. faecium DSM 7134 supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant parameters, volatile fatty acids concentration, intestinal histomorphology, and diarrhea score in weaning pig. RESULTS: E...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402181/chemical-composition-of-rosehips-from-different-rosa-species-an-alternative-source-of-antioxidants-for-food-industry
#12
Sandra Jiménez, Nerea Jiménez-Moreno, Asunción Luquin, Mariano Laguna, María Jesús Rodríguez-Yoldi, Carmen Ancín-Azpilicueta
It is important to explore new sources of natural additives because the demand for these compounds by consumers is increasing. These products also provide health benefits and help in food preservation. An unexplored source of nutrients and antioxidant compounds is rosehip, the fleshy fruit of roses. This work compares antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, neutral phenols and acidic phenols) content of four Rosa species rosehips: R. pouzinii, R. corymbifera, R. glauca and R. canina coming from different geographical zones...
April 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394261/folate-cycle-enzyme-mthfd1l-confers-metabolic-advantages-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Derek Lee, Iris Ming-Jing Xu, David Kung-Chun Chiu, Robin Kit-Ho Lai, Aki Pui-Wah Tse, Lynna Lan Li, Cheuk-Ting Law, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Larry Lai Wei, Cerise Yuen-Ki Chan, Chun-Ming Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong
Cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose and glutamine, which provide macromolecules and antioxidants that sustain rapid cell division. Metabolic reprogramming in cancer drives an increased glycolytic rate that supports maximal production of these nutrients. The folate cycle, through transfer of a carbon unit between tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, produces other metabolites that are essential for cell growth, including nucleotides, methionine, and the antioxidant NADPH...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391527/targeted-gene-disruption-coupled-with-metabolic-screen-approach-to-uncover-the-leafy-cotyledon1-like4-l1l4-function-in-tomato-fruit-metabolism
#14
Custódia Gago, Victoria Drosou, Konstantinos Paschalidis, Adriana Guerreiro, Graça Miguel, Dulce Antunes, Zoe Hilioti
Functional analysis of tomato L1L4 master transcription factor resulted in important metabolic changes affecting tomato fruit quality. Tomato fruits from mutant lines bearing targeted disruption of the heterotrimeric nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factor (TF) gene LEAFY-COTYLEDON1-LIKE4 (L1L4, NF-YB6), a master regulator of biosynthesis for seed storage proteins and fatty acids, were evaluated for metabolites content and morphology. Metabolic screens using LC-MS/MS-based analysis and physico-chemical methods in different L1L4 mutants of the fourth generation allowed a comparative assessment of the effects of the TF disruption...
April 8, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390713/host-mediated-effects-of-phytonutrients-in-ruminants-a-review
#15
J Oh, E H Wall, D M Bravo, A N Hristov
Plants produce an extensive array of organic compounds derived from secondary metabolism that may be useful in animal nutrition because of their chemical makeup. These plant-derived bioactive compounds, also referred to as phytonutrients (PN) or phytobiotics, have been shown to express antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria, yeast, and fungi and have been investigated as rumen modifiers in ruminant nutrition. Studies have reported that PN may inhibit deamination of AA and methanogenesis in the rumen and shift fermentation toward propionate and butyrate...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387036/antioxidant-activity-polyphenolic-contents-and-essential-oil-composition-of-pimpinella-anisum-l-as-affected-by-zinc-fertilizer
#16
Vahid Tavallali, Sadegh Rahmati, Atefeh Bahmanzadegan
BACKGROUND: Antioxidant activity and essential oil content may considerably vary with respect to the environmental conditions, especially nutrient availability. Among the micronutrients, zinc is needed by plants in small amounts, but yet crucial to plant development. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc fertilization on the antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum fruit. RESULTS: Foliar application of Zn fertilizer considerably increased the number of detected essential oil components up to forty five...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363084/the-metabolic-syndrome-induces-early-changes-in%C3%A2-the-swine-renal-medullary-mitochondria
#17
Alfonso Eirin, John R Woollard, Christopher M Ferguson, Kyra L Jordan, Hui Tang, Stephen C Textor, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with nutrient surplus and kidney hyperfiltration, accelerating chronic renal failure. Mitochondria can be overwhelmed by substrate excess, leading to inefficient energy production and thereby tissue hypoxia. Mitochondrial dysfunction is emerging as an important determinant of renal damage, but whether it contributes to MetS-induced renal injury remains unknown. We hypothesized that early MetS induces kidney mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction, which would be notable in the vulnerable renal medulla...
March 11, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362852/novel-phosphate-activated-macrophages-prevent-ectopic-calcification-by-increasing-extracellular-atp-and-pyrophosphate
#18
Ricardo Villa-Bellosta, Magda R Hamczyk, Vicente Andrés
PURPOSE: Phosphorus is an essential nutrient involved in many pathobiological processes. Less than 1% of phosphorus is found in extracellular fluids as inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) in solution. High serum Pi level promotes ectopic calcification in many tissues, including blood vessels. Here, we studied the effect of elevated Pi concentration on macrophage polarization and calcification. Macrophages, present in virtually all tissues, play key roles in health and disease and display remarkable plasticity, being able to change their physiology in response to environmental cues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359208/omega-3-fortified-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement
#19
Shashank Gaur, Elizabeth M Sloffer, Ankur Ojha, Falguni Patra, Dharmendra Shukla, Nicki J Engeseth, Pramthesh R Patel, Juan E Andrade
BACKGROUND: Incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) sources to lipid-based nutrition supplement (LNS) formulations for undernourished populations presents a challenge due to reduced shelf life and poor consumer acceptability. OBJECTIVE: To systematically develop an omega-3-fortified LNS formulation, using flaxseed oil (FO), by optimizing its processing stability and evaluating its sensory acceptance. METHODS: LNS formulations were formulated to yield approximately 452 kcal, 13...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349873/cadmium-spiked-soil-modulates-root-organic-acids-exudation-and-ionic-contents-of-two-differentially-cd-tolerant-maize-zea-mays-l-cultivars
#20
M Tariq Javed, M Sohail Akram, Kashif Tanwir, Hassan Javed Chaudhary, Qasim Ali, Eva Stoltz, Sylvia Lindberg
Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars [cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μmol/kg soil...
March 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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