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Critical velocity (CV) exercise speed

Argyris G Toubekis, Savvas P Tokmakidis
To avoid any improper training load, the speed of endurance training needs to be regularly adjusted. Both the lactate threshold (LT) velocity and the velocity corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS) are valid and reliable indices of swimming aerobic endurance and commonly used for evaluation and training pace adjustment. Alternatively, critical velocity (CV), defined as the velocity that can be maintained without exhaustion and assessed from swimming performance of various distances, is a valid, reliable, and practical index of swimming endurance, although the selection of the proper distances is a determinant factor...
June 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Abbie E Smith-Ryan, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout, Kristina L Kendall
The use of β-alanine in sport is widespread. However, the effects across all sport activities are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-alanine supplementation on high-intensity running performance and critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic running capacity (ARC). Fifty recreationally trained men were randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to a β-alanine group (BA, 2 × 800 mg tablets, 3 times daily; CarnoSyn; n = 26) or placebo group (PL, 2 × 800 mg maltodextrin tablets, 3 times daily; n = 24)...
October 2012: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
A E Smith, D H Fukuda, E D Ryan, K L Kendall, J T Cramer, J Stout
This study evaluated the effects of creatine (Cr) loading and sex differences on aerobic running performance. 27 men (mean±SD; age: 22.2±3.1 years, ht: 179.5±8.7 cm, wt: 78.0±9.8 kg) and 28 women (age: 21.2±2.1 years, ht: 166.0±5.8 cm, wt: 63.4±8.9 kg) were randomly assigned to either creatine (Cr, di-creatine citrate; n=27) or a placebo (PL; n=28) group, ingesting 1 packet 4 times daily (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Aerobic power (maximal oxygen consumption: VO2max) was assessed before and after supplementation using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill...
December 2011: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Abbie E Smith, Kristina L Kendall, David H Fukuda, Joel T Cramer, Jeffrey R Stout
This study was designed to compare critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic running capacity (ARC) estimates using the criterion method of four runs with two and three combination bouts to reduce the time and energy demands of the subjects. Twenty-eight men and women (mean ± SD; age = 21.9 ± 3.0 years; stature = 171.7 ± 9.7 cm; body mass = 69.7 ± 13.4 kg) performed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine peak velocity (PV) at maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max). Four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted on separate days with 110% PV, 90% PV (day 1), 100% PV and 105% PV (day 2)...
April 2011: Physiological Measurement
Christophe Schnitzler, Gregory Heck, Jean-Claude Chatard, Viviane Ernwein
The accuracy of a simple field test, the 3-minute, 30-second endurance capacity test (3'30'' ECT), was evaluated in 12 moderately trained athletes. It consisted of 10 3-minute running bouts, separated by 30-second passive recoveries. The first 5 bouts were performed at 75% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS, which was previously determined), and the last 5 were at a self-selected speed. The result of this test is a speed called Vend, expressed in km.h and calculated as the mean speed for the last 5 bouts. The critical velocity (CV) and the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) were also determined...
August 2010: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Abbie E Smith, David H Fukuda, Kristina L Kendall, Jeffrey R Stout
BACKGROUND: A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. METHODS: Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean +/- SD age = 21.1 +/- 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 +/- 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 +/- 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3...
2010: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Pietro E di Prampero, Jeanne Dekerle, Carlo Capelli, Paola Zamparo
In supra-maximal exercise to exhaustion, the critical velocity (cv) is conventionally calculated from the slope of the distance (d) versus time (t) relationship: d = I + St. I is assumed to be the distance covered at the expense of the anaerobic capacity, S the speed maintained on the basis of the subject's maximal O(2) uptake (VO2max) This approach is based on two assumptions: (1) the energy cost of locomotion per unit distance (C) is constant and (2) VO2max is attained at the onset of exercise. Here we show that cv and the anaerobic distance (d (anaer)) can be calculated also in swimming, where C increases with the velocity, provided that VO2max its on-response, and the C versus v relationship are known...
January 2008: European Journal of Applied Physiology
M Buchheit, P B Laursen, G P Millet, F Pactat, S Ahmaidi
The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of the critical velocity (CV) and the endurance index (EI) to assess endurance performance during intermittent exercise. Thirteen subjects performed two intermittent runs: 15-s runs intersected with 15 s of passive recovery (15/15) and 30-s runs with 30-s rest (30/30). Runs were performed until exhaustion at three intensities (100, 95 and 90 % of the speed reached at the end of the 30 - 15 intermittent fitness test, V (IFT)) to calculate i) CV from the slope of the linear relationship between the total covered distance and exhaustion time (ET) (iCV); ii) anaerobic distance capacity from the Y-intercept of the distance/duration relationship (iADC); and iii) EI from the relationship between the fraction of V (IFT) at which the runs were performed and the log-transformed ET (iEI)...
April 2008: International Journal of Sports Medicine
A G Toubekis, A P Tsami, S P Tokmakidis
The purpose of the present study was to compare the critical swimming velocity (CV) in children, with the lactate threshold (LT) and the velocity corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x l(-1) (V4). Twenty swimmers (ten females and ten males, mean +/- SD age: 12.9 +/- 1.1 years, body weight: 51.2 +/- 10.0 kg, height: 157.1 +/- 9.7 cm) performed four repetitions of 200 m swimming with increasing intensity (80, 85, 90 and 100% of their 200 m maximum velocity), interspersed with 15 minutes of passive rest...
February 2006: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Helen Carter, Jamie S M Pringle, Andrew M Jones, Jonathan H Doust
The purpose of the present study was to examine comprehensively the kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) during treadmill running across the moderate, heavy and severe exercise intensity domains. Nine subjects [mean (SD age, 27 (7) years; mass, 69.8 (9.0) kg; maximum VO2, VO2max, 4,137 (697) ml x min(-1)] performed a series of "square-wave" rest-to-exercise transitions of 6 min duration at running speeds equivalent to 80% and 100% of the VO2 at lactate threshold (LT; moderate exercise); and at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the difference between the VO2 at LT and VO2max (delta heavy and severe exercise)...
February 2002: European Journal of Applied Physiology
K Wakayoshi, T Yoshida, T Kasai, T Moritani, Y Mutoh, M Miyashita
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the critical velocity (CV) as the swimming speed which can be theoretically maintained for a very long time without exhaustion could be applied to estimate the swimmer's endurance performance. CV was based on the concept of critical power originality established by Monod and Scherrer (1965) and extended by Moritani et al. (1981), and expressed as the slope of a regression line between swimming distance (D) at each velocity and its sustained time (T)...
May 1992: Annals of Physiological Anthropology, Seiri Jinruigaku Kenkyūkai Kaishi
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