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Critical velocity exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249083/effects-of-strength-training-on-the-physiological-determinants-of-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208757/critical-velocity-determined-by-a-non-exhaustive-method-in-subjects-with-copd
#2
Marceli Rocha Leite, Juliana Souza Uzeloto, Bruna Spolador de Alencar Silva, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire, Fabiano Francisco de Lima, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Dionei Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is an effective and low-cost tool for COPD rehabilitation. Thus, validating a non-exhaustive method to determine a patient's anaerobic threshold would be a very interesting tool in practical settings. We aimed to test the reproducibility of critical velocity values determined in a non-exhaustive manner (CVNE) and tolerance for exercise performed at this physiological marker in subjects with COPD. METHODS: Twelve subjects with COPD were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
December 5, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176384/the-use-of-mobile-applications-to-collect-data-in-sport-health-and-exercise-science-a-narrative-review
#3
Daniel J Peart, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Matthew P Shaw
Mobile devices are ubiquitous in the population, and most have the capacity to download applications (apps). Some apps have been developed to collect physiological, kinanthropometric and performance data, however the validity and reliability of such data is often unknown. An appraisal of such apps is warranted as mobile apps may offer an alternative method of data collection for practitioners and athletes with money, time and space constraints. This article identifies and critically reviews the commercially available apps that have been tested in the scientific literature, finding evidence to support the measurement of resting heart through photoplethysmograpy, heart rate variability, range of motion, barbell velocity, vertical jump, mechanical variables during running, and distances covered during walking, jogging and running...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158392/high-postural-costs-and-anaerobic-metabolism-during-swimming-support-the-hypothesis-of-a-u-shaped-metabolism-speed-curve-in-fishes
#4
Valentina Di Santo, Christopher P Kenaley, George V Lauder
Swimming performance is considered a key trait determining the ability of fish to survive. Hydrodynamic theory predicts that the energetic costs required for fishes to swim should vary with speed according to a U-shaped curve, with an expected energetic minimum at intermediate cruising speeds and increasing expenditure at low and high speeds. However, to date no complete datasets have shown an energetic minimum for swimming fish at intermediate speeds rather than low speeds. To address this knowledge gap, we used a negatively buoyant fish, the clearnose skate Raja eglanteria, and took two approaches: a classic critical swimming speed protocol and a single-speed exercise and recovery procedure...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#5
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
November 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867128/severely-impaired-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-patients-with-recently-decompensated-systolic-heart-failure
#6
Justin McNair Canada, Cory Ross Trankle, Leo Francis Buckley, Salvatore Carbone, Nayef Antar Abouzaki, Dinesh Kadariya, Keyur Shah, Richard Cooke, Michael Christopher Kontos, Jaideep Patel, Pranav Mankad, Aaron Schatz, Amit Bhatnagar, Ross Arena, Benjamin Wallace Van Tassell, Antonio Abbate
Hospital admission for decompensated heart failure marks a critical inflection point in a patient's health. Despite the improvement in signs or symptoms during hospitalization, patients have a high likelihood of readmission, reflecting a lack of resolution of the underlying condition. Surprisingly, no studies have characterized the cardiorespiratory fitness of such patients. Fifty-two patients (38 [73%] male, age 57 [52 to 65] years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31% [24 to 38]) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing 4 (1 to 10) days after hospital discharge, when stable and without overt signs of volume overload...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816504/validity-and-reliability-of-the-3-min-all-out-running-test-to-measure-critical-velocity-in-hot-environments
#7
Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Ching-Feng Cheng, Wei-Chieh Hsu, Del P Wong
This study's aim was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the 3-min all-out running test (3MRT) in hot environments. Twelve male sprinters (age 21.2 ± 1.8 years; height 1.78 ± 0.01 m; weight 71.0 ± 1.6 kg; [Formula: see text] 55.0 ± 1.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed an incremental exercise test in a laboratory, during which the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and [Formula: see text] were determined. In addition, they performed two 3MRTs on an outdoor track in a hot environment, during which the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic capacity (D') were estimated...
August 17, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596738/intensity-and-duration-based-options-to-regulate-endurance-training
#8
Peter Hofmann, Gerhard Tschakert
The regulation of endurance training is usually based on the prescription of exercise intensity. Exercise duration, another important variable of training load, is rarely prescribed by individual measures and mostly set from experience. As the specific exercise duration for any intensity plays a substantial role regarding the different kind of cellular stressors, degree, and kind of fatigue as well as training effects, concepts integrating the prescription of both intensity and duration within one model are needed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542091/normative-data-for-critical-speed-and-d-for-high-level-male-rugby-players
#9
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474195/effects-of-temperature-and-fatigue-on-the-metabolism-and-swimming-capacity-of-juvenile-chinese-sturgeon-acipenser-sinensis
#10
Xi Yuan, Yi-Hong Zhou, Ying-Ping Huang, Wen-Tao Guo, David Johnson, Qing Jiang, Jin-Jie Jing, Zhi-Ying Tu
Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a critically endangered species. A flume-type respirometer, with video, was used to conduct two consecutive stepped velocity tests at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. Extent of recovery was measured after the 60-min recovery period between trials, and the recovery ratio for critical swimming speed (U crit) averaged 91.88% across temperatures. Temperature (T) effects were determined by comparing U crit, oxygen consumption rate (MO 2), and tail beat frequency (TBF) for each temperature...
May 4, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445078/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-canoeing-performance
#11
Ming-Ta Yang, Mien-Mien Lee, Shu-Ching Hsu, Kuei-Hui Chan
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387692/the-role-of-sensory-augmentation-for-people-with-vestibular-deficits-real-time-balance-aid-and-or-rehabilitation-device
#12
K H Sienko, S L Whitney, W J Carender, C Wall
This narrative review highlights findings from the sensory augmentation field for people with vestibular deficits and addresses the outstanding questions that are critical to the translation of this technology into clinical and/or personal use. Prior research has demonstrated that the real-time use of visual, vibrotactile, auditory, and multimodal sensory augmentation technologies can improve balance during static and dynamic stance tasks within a laboratory setting. However, its application in improving gait requires additional investigation, as does its efficacy as a rehabilitation device for people with vestibular deficits...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057820/blood-flow-regulation-and-oxygen-uptake-during-high-intensity-forearm-exercise
#13
Stian Kwak Nyberg, Ole Kristian Berg, Jan Helgerud, Eivind Wang
The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25±2yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff) during 6-minutes bouts of 60, 80 and 100% of maximal work rate (WRmax), respectively...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031762/effects-of-fatigue-on-throwing-performance-in-experienced-team-handball-players
#14
Alberto Nuño, Ignacio J Chirosa, Roland van den Tillaar, Rafael Guisado, Ignacio Martín, Isidoro Martinez, Luis J Chirosa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922660/combined-vision-and-wearable-sensors-based-system-for-movement-analysis-in-rehabilitation
#15
Sofija Spasojević, Tihomir V Ilić, Slađan Milanović, Veljko Potkonjak, Aleksandar Rodić, José Santos-Victor
BACKGROUND: Traditional rehabilitation sessions are often a slow, tedious, disempowering and non-motivational process, supported by clinical assessment tools, i.e. evaluation scales that are prone to subjective rating and imprecise interpretation of patient's performance. Poor patient motivation and insufficient accuracy are thus critical factors that can be improved by new sensing / processing technologies. OBJECTIVES: We aim to develop a portable and affordable system, suitable for home rehabilitation, which combines vision-based and wearable sensors...
March 23, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890536/estimation-of-the-center-of-rotation-using-wearable-magneto-inertial-sensors
#16
M Crabolu, D Pani, L Raffo, A Cereatti
Determining the center of rotation (CoR) of joints is fundamental to the field of human movement analysis. CoR can be determined using a magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) using a functional approach requiring a calibration exercise. We systematically investigated the influence of different experimental conditions that can affect precision and accuracy while estimating the CoR, such as (a) angular joint velocity, (b) distance between the MIMU and the CoR, (c) type of the joint motion implemented, (d) amplitude of the angular range of motion, (e) model of the MIMU used for data recording, (f) amplitude of additive noise on inertial signals, and (g) amplitude of the errors in the MIMU orientation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638628/non-invasive-management-of-peripheral-arterial-disease
#17
REVIEW
K J Williams, A Babber, R Ravikumar, A H Davies
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common and symptoms can be debilitating and lethal. Risk management, exercise, radiological and surgical intervention are all valuable therapies, but morbidity and mortality rates from this disease are increasing. Circulatory enhancement can be achieved using simple medical electronic devices, with claims of minimal adverse side effects. The evidence for these is variable, prompting a review of the available literature. METHODS: Embase and Medline were interrogated for full text articles in humans and written in English...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550986/post-exercise-syncope-wingate-syncope-test-and-visual-cognitive-function
#18
Dylan C Sieck, Matthew R Ely, Steven A Romero, Meredith J Luttrell, Pedro M Abdala, John R Halliwill
Adequate cerebral perfusion is necessary to maintain consciousness in upright humans. Following maximal anaerobic exercise, cerebral perfusion can become compromised and result in syncope. It is unknown whether post-exercise reductions in cerebral perfusion can lead to visual-cognitive deficits prior to the onset of syncope, which would be of concern for emergency workers and warfighters, where critical decision making and intense physical activity are combined. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if reductions in cerebral blood velocity, induced by maximal anaerobic exercise and head-up tilt, result in visual-cognitive deficits prior to the onset of syncope...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442329/modeling-of-running-performances-in-humans-comparison-of-power-laws-and-critical-speed
#19
Badrane Zinoubi, Henry Vandewalle, Tarak Driss
Zinoubi, B, Vandewalle, H, and Driss, T. Modeling of running performances in humans: comparison of power laws and critical speed. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1859-1867, 2017-The concepts of power law and critical speed (SCrit) have been applied to the analysis of individual running performances. We have analyzed the results of 2 exceptional runners (Nurmi and Gebrselassie) and 11 physical education students (PESs) who performed 3 exhausting running exercises. Power laws can accurately describe the relationships between exhaustion time (tlim) and distance (Dlim) or speed (S) (Equation is included in full-text article...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414074/light-load-maximal-lifting-velocity-full-squat-training-program-improves-important-physical-and-skill-characteristics-in-futsal-players
#20
Julio Torres-Torrelo, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Juan José González-Badillo
This study aimed to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training or combined resistance training and change of direction exercises on physical performance and motor skills in futsal players. Thirty-four futsal players were divided into full squat group (SG, n = 12), combined full squat and change of direction exercises group (S+CDG, n = 12) and control group (CG, n = 10). The resistance training for SG consisted of full squat with low load (~45-58% 1RM) and low volume (4-6 repetitions), whereas the S+CDG performed the same resistance training program combined with loaded change of direction...
May 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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