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Critical velocity exercise

M Crabolu, D Pani, L Raffo, A Cereatti
Determining the center of rotation (CoR) of joints is fundamental to the field of human movement analysis. CoR can be determined using a magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) using a functional approach requiring a calibration exercise. We systematically investigated the influence of different experimental conditions that can affect precision and accuracy while estimating the CoR, such as (a) angular joint velocity, (b) distance between the MIMU and the CoR, (c) type of the joint motion implemented, (d) amplitude of the angular range of motion, (e) model of the MIMU used for data recording, (f) amplitude of additive noise on inertial signals, and (g) amplitude of the errors in the MIMU orientation...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
K J Williams, A Babber, R Ravikumar, A H Davies
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common and symptoms can be debilitating and lethal. Risk management, exercise, radiological and surgical intervention are all valuable therapies, but morbidity and mortality rates from this disease are increasing. Circulatory enhancement can be achieved using simple medical electronic devices, with claims of minimal adverse side effects. The evidence for these is variable, prompting a review of the available literature. METHODS: Embase and Medline were interrogated for full text articles in humans and written in English...
September 17, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dylan C Sieck, Matthew R Ely, Steven A Romero, Meredith J Luttrell, Pedro M Abdala, John R Halliwill
Adequate cerebral perfusion is necessary to maintain consciousness in upright humans. Following maximal anaerobic exercise, cerebral perfusion can become compromised and result in syncope. It is unknown whether post-exercise reductions in cerebral perfusion can lead to visual-cognitive deficits prior to the onset of syncope, which would be of concern for emergency workers and warfighters, where critical decision making and intense physical activity are combined. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if reductions in cerebral blood velocity, induced by maximal anaerobic exercise and head-up tilt, result in visual-cognitive deficits prior to the onset of syncope...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
Badrane Zinoubi, Henry Vandewalle, Tarak Driss
The concepts of power law and critical speed (SCrit) have been applied to the analysis of individual running performances. We have analysed the results of two exceptional runners (Nurmi and Gebrselassie) and 11 physical education students (PES) who performed three exhausting running exercises. Power laws can accurately describe the relationships between exhaustion time (tlim) and distance (Dlim) or speed (S) [Dlim = ktlim and S = ktlim ] in elite runners and PES. However, the validity of the application of power laws must be verified for higher values of tlim in non-elite runners...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Julio Torres-Torrelo, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Juan José González-Badillo
This study aimed to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training or combined resistance training and change of direction exercises on physical performance and motor skills in futsal players. Thirty-four futsal players were divided into full squat group (SG, n = 12), combined full squat and change of direction exercises group (S+CDG, n = 12) and control group (CG, n = 10). The resistance training for SG consisted of full squat with low load (~45-58% 1RM) and low volume (4-6 repetitions), whereas the S+CDG performed the same resistance training program combined with loaded change of direction...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Gavin Williams, Louise Ada, Leanne Hassett, Meg E Morris, Ross Clark, Adam L Bryant, John Olver
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of disability in young adults aged 15 to 45 years. Mobility limitations are prevalent, and range in severity from interfering with basic day-to-day tasks to restricting participation in higher level social, leisure, employment and sporting activities. Despite the prevalence and severity of physical impairments, such as poor balance and spasticity, the main contributor to mobility limitations following traumatic brain injury is low muscle power generation...
July 2016: Journal of Physiotherapy
Judith Hocking, Julian McNeil, Jared Campbell
AIM: The systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for improving gross motor skills (GMSs) in people with an intellectual disability aged 6 years and older. There is a lack of physical therapy research for GMSs in this population, and no prior systematic review. People with an intellectual disability may require specific teaching approaches within therapy interventions to accommodate their cognitive and learning needs. People with an intellectual disability who suffer from GMS deficits can benefit from physical therapy to help improve their GMSs...
June 2, 2016: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
Paulo C do Nascimento Salvador, Juliano Dal Pupo, Ricardo D De Lucas, Rafael A de Aguiar, Francimara B Arins, Luiz G A Guglielmo
do Nascimento Salvador, PC, Dal Pupo, J, De Lucas, RD, de Aguiar, RA, Arins, FB, and Guglielmo, LGA. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics of maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters and middle-distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2857-2863, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics parameters during maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters (SPR) and middle-distance runners (MDR). Twelve SPR (age 20.6 ± 3.4 years; and body mass 74...
October 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marie E McNeely, Marina M Mai, Ryan P Duncan, Gammon M Earhart
Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD) are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model, which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson's (D4PD)...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Miriam Fenkes, Holly A Shiels, John L Fitzpatrick, Robert L Nudds
Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change...
March 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Martin J Barwood, Holly Burrows, Jess Cessford, Stuart Goodall
INTRODUCTION: Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) evokes the life threatening cold shock response (CSR) which increases the risk of drowning. Consequently, the safety behaviour selected is critical in determining survival; the present advice is to 'float first' and remain stationary (i.e. rest). We examined whether leg only exercise (i.e., treading water; 'CWI-Kick') immediately on CWI could reduce the symptoms of the CSR, offset the reduction in cerebral blood flow that is known to occur and reduce the CSR's symptoms of breathlessness...
February 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
H B Larsen, A W Sheel
Today the Kenyan dominance in middle- and long-distance running is so profound that it has no equivalence to any other sport in the world. Critical physiological factors for performance in running include maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), fractional VO2max utilization and running economy (energetic cost of running). Kenyan and non-Kenyan elite runners seem to be able to reach very high, but similar maximal oxygen uptake levels just as there is some indication that untrained Kenyans and non-Kenyans have a similar VO2max...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
David Rodriguez-Rosell, Felipe Franco-Márquez, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, Juan M Yáñez-García, José M González-Suárez, Juan J González-Badillo
PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of low-load, high-velocity resistance training (RT) combined with plyometrics on physical performance in pre-peak-height-velocity (PHV) soccer players. METHODS: Thirty young soccer players from the same academy were randomly assigned to either a strength training (STG, n = 15) or a control group (CG, n = 15). Strength training consisted of full squat exercise with low load (45-58% 1RM) and low volume (4-8 repetitions/set) combined with jumps and sprints twice a week over 6 wk of preseason...
March 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Haley C Bergstrom, Terry J Housh, Kristen C Cochrane, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Jorge M Zuniga, Samuel L Buckner, Jacob A Goldsmith, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson, Joel T Cramer
PURPOSE: This study examined: (1) the sustainability of the critical heart rate (CHR) minus 5 b min(-1) (CHR - 5) and CHR plus 5 b min(-1) (CHR + 5); (2) the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), velocity, [Formula: see text], minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), breathing frequency (f b ), and electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) responses during treadmill running at CHR - 5 and CHR + 5 to determine what factors underlie the perception of effort when heart rate (HR) is held constant; and (3) the relationships among RPE, [Formula: see text], and HR, to determine which variable(s) reflect exhaustion during exercise performed at a constant HR...
October 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Vanessa Helena Pereira, Maria Carolina Traina Gama, Filipe Antônio Barros Sousa, Theodore Gyle Lewis, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros Manchado-Gobatto
The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models...
2015: Scientific Reports
L Mille-Hamard, C Breuneval, A S Rousseau, P Grimaldi, V L Billat
High- or moderate-intensity endurance training leads to mitochondrial biogenesis via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) signaling pathway. Although this pathway is stimulated during acute exercise, the relationship between its activity and the intensity of the exercise has not been characterized. In animal studies, individualized running speeds have not previously been assessed. Here, we sought to determine whether this pathway was modulated after a bout of exhaustive exercise at different relative intensities (at and over critical speed (CS))...
July 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Baptiste Morel, David M Rouffet, Damien Saboul, Samuel Rota, Michel Clémençon, Christophe A Hautier
Rapid force production is critical to improve performance and prevent injuries. However, changes in rate of force/torque development caused by the repetition of maximal contractions have received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (T(peak)) on the overall performance (i.e. mean torque, T(mean)) decrease during repeated maximal contractions and to investigate the contribution of contractile and neural mechanisms to the alteration of the various mechanical variables...
2015: PloS One
Elizabeth Lawinger, Tim L Uhl, Mark Abel, Srinath Kamineni
OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of this study was to examine the use of triaxial accelerometers in measuring upper-extremity motions to monitor upper-extremity-exercise compliance. There were multiple questions investigated, but the primary objective was to investigate the correlation between visually observed arm motions and triaxial accelerometer activity counts to establish fundamental activity counts for the upper extremity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, basic research...
August 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Haley C Bergstrom, Terry J Housh, Kristen C Cochrane, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Samuel L Buckner, Jacob A Goldsmith, Jorge M Zuniga, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson, Joel T Cramer
The mathematical model used to estimate critical power has been applied to heart rate (HR) measurements during cycle ergometry to derive a fatigue threshold called the critical heart rate (CHR). This study had 2 purposes: (a) determine if the CHR model for cycle ergometry could be applied to treadmill running and (b) examine the times to exhaustion (Tlim) and the VO2 responses during constant HR runs at the CHR. Thirteen runners (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 3 years) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion...
August 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Robert Naeije, Michele D'Alto, Paul R Forfia
There has been a lot of progress in measurement techniques of the pulmonary circulation in recent years, and this has required updating of basic physiological knowledge. Pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) are normally low and dependent on left atrial pressure (LAP) and cardiac output (CO). Therefore, defining the functional state of the pulmonary circulation for the detection of pulmonary vascular disease or evaluation of disease progression requires measurements of PAP, LAP and CO. Invasive measurements have lately improved by a better definition of zero leveling and of the effects of intrathoracic pressure changes, and understanding of the inherent limitations of fluid-filled thermodilution catheters...
March 2015: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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