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Critical velocity exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560605/pacing-in-swimming-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Katie E McGibbon, D B Pyne, M E Shephard, K G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Pacing strategy, or how energy is distributed during exercise, can substantially impact athletic performance and is considered crucial for optimal performance in many sports. This is particularly true in swimming given the highly resistive properties of water and low mechanical efficiency of the swimming action. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pacing strategies utilised by competitive swimmers in competition and their reproducibility, and to examine the impact of different pacing strategies on kinematic, metabolic and performance variables...
March 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522557/cardiac-electrophysiological-adaptations-in-the-equine-athlete-restitution-analysis-of-electrocardiographic-features
#2
Mengye Li, Karan R Chadda, Gareth D K Matthews, Celia M Marr, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Exercising horses uniquely accommodate 7-8-fold increases in heart rate (HR). The present experiments for the first time analysed the related adaptations in action potential (AP) restitution properties recorded by in vivo telemetric electrocardiography from Thoroughbred horses. The horses were subjected to a period of acceleration from walk to canter. The QRS durations, and QT and TQ intervals yielded AP conduction velocities, AP durations (APDs) and diastolic intervals respectively. From these, indices of active, λ = QT/(QRS duration), and resting, λ0 = TQ/(QRS duration), AP wavelengths were calculated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463516/sustained-exercise-trained-juvenile-black-carp-mylopharyngodon-piceus-at-a-moderate-water-velocity-exhibit-improved-aerobic-swimming-performance-and-increased-postprandial-metabolic-responses
#3
Xiuming Li, Yaoguang Zhang, Xiaojin Li, Hua Zheng, Jianglan Peng, Shijian Fu
The objectives of this study were to examine whether sustained exercise training at four water velocities, i.e. nearly still water (control), 1 body length (BL) s-1 , 2 BL s-1 and 4 BL s-1 , has effects on swimming performance and digestive metabolism in juvenile black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus ). The results demonstrated that fish subjected to sustained training at 2 and 4 BL s-1 showed significantly higher critical swimming speed ( U crit ) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) over the control group...
February 20, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435760/prescribing-6-weeks-of-running-training-using-parameters-from-a-self-paced-maximal-oxygen-uptake-protocol
#4
James S Hogg, James G Hopker, Sarah L Coakley, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake test (SPV) may offer effective training prescription metrics for athletes. This study aimed to examine whether SPV-derived data could be used for training prescription. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active male and female runners were randomly assigned between two training groups: (1) Standardised (STND) and (2) Self-Paced (S-P). Participants completed 4 running sessions a week using a global positioning system-enabled (GPS) watch: 2 × interval sessions; 1 × recovery run; and 1 × tempo run...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401192/examination-of-a-multi-ingredient-pre-workout-supplement-on-total-volume-of-resistance-exercise-and-subsequent-strength-and-power-performance
#5
Haley C Bergstrom, M Travis Byrd, Brian J Wallace, Jody L Clasey
This study examined the acute effects of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on: 1) total, lower, and upper body volume of resistance exercise; and 2) the subsequent lower body strength (isokinetic leg extension and flexion), lower (vertical jump [VJ] height), upper body power (bench-throw velocity [BTv]), and cycle ergometry performance (critical power [CP] and anaerobic work capacity [AWC]). Twelve men completed baseline strength and power measures prior to two experimental visits, supplement (SUP) and placebo (PL)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249083/effects-of-strength-training-on-the-physiological-determinants-of-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208757/critical-velocity-determined-by-a-non-exhaustive-method-in-subjects-with-copd
#7
Marceli Rocha Leite, Juliana Souza Uzeloto, Bruna Spolador de Alencar Silva, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire, Fabiano Francisco de Lima, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Dionei Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is an effective and low-cost tool for COPD rehabilitation. Thus, validating a non-exhaustive method to determine a patient's anaerobic threshold would be a very interesting tool in practical settings. We aimed to test the reproducibility of critical velocity values determined in a non-exhaustive manner (CVNE ) and tolerance for exercise performed at this physiological marker in subjects with COPD. METHODS: Twelve subjects with COPD were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
March 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176384/the-use-of-mobile-applications-to-collect-data-in-sport-health-and-exercise-science-a-narrative-review
#8
Daniel J Peart, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Matthew P Shaw
Mobile devices are ubiquitous in the population, and most have the capacity to download applications (apps). Some apps have been developed to collect physiological, kinanthropometric and performance data, however the validity and reliability of such data is often unknown. An appraisal of such apps is warranted as mobile apps may offer an alternative method of data collection for practitioners and athletes with money, time and space constraints. This article identifies and critically reviews the commercially available apps that have been tested in the scientific literature, finding evidence to support the measurement of resting heart through photoplethysmograpy, heart rate variability, range of motion, barbell velocity, vertical jump, mechanical variables during running, and distances covered during walking, jogging and running...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158392/high-postural-costs-and-anaerobic-metabolism-during-swimming-support-the-hypothesis-of-a-u-shaped-metabolism-speed-curve-in-fishes
#9
Valentina Di Santo, Christopher P Kenaley, George V Lauder
Swimming performance is considered a key trait determining the ability of fish to survive. Hydrodynamic theory predicts that the energetic costs required for fishes to swim should vary with speed according to a U-shaped curve, with an expected energetic minimum at intermediate cruising speeds and increasing expenditure at low and high speeds. However, to date no complete datasets have shown an energetic minimum for swimming fish at intermediate speeds rather than low speeds. To address this knowledge gap, we used a negatively buoyant fish, the clearnose skate Raja eglanteria , and took two approaches: a classic critical swimming speed protocol and a single-speed exercise and recovery procedure...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#10
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
December 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867128/severely-impaired-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-patients-with-recently-decompensated-systolic-heart-failure
#11
Justin McNair Canada, Cory Ross Trankle, Leo Francis Buckley, Salvatore Carbone, Nayef Antar Abouzaki, Dinesh Kadariya, Keyur Shah, Richard Cooke, Michael Christopher Kontos, Jaideep Patel, Pranav Mankad, Aaron Schatz, Amit Bhatnagar, Ross Arena, Benjamin Wallace Van Tassell, Antonio Abbate
Hospital admission for decompensated heart failure marks a critical inflection point in a patient's health. Despite the improvement in signs or symptoms during hospitalization, patients have a high likelihood of readmission, reflecting a lack of resolution of the underlying condition. Surprisingly, no studies have characterized the cardiorespiratory fitness of such patients. Fifty-two patients (38 [73%] male, age 57 [52 to 65] years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31% [24 to 38]) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing 4 (1 to 10) days after hospital discharge, when stable and without overt signs of volume overload...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816504/validity-and-reliability-of-the-3-min-all-out-running-test-to-measure-critical-velocity-in-hot-environments
#12
Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Ching-Feng Cheng, Wei-Chieh Hsu, Del P Wong
This study's aim was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the 3-min all-out running test (3MRT) in hot environments. Twelve male sprinters (age 21.2 ± 1.8 years; height 1.78 ± 0.01 m; weight 71.0 ± 1.6 kg; [Formula: see text] 55.0 ± 1.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed an incremental exercise test in a laboratory, during which the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and [Formula: see text] were determined. In addition, they performed two 3MRTs on an outdoor track in a hot environment, during which the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic capacity (D') were estimated...
August 17, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596738/intensity-and-duration-based-options-to-regulate-endurance-training
#13
Peter Hofmann, Gerhard Tschakert
The regulation of endurance training is usually based on the prescription of exercise intensity. Exercise duration, another important variable of training load, is rarely prescribed by individual measures and mostly set from experience. As the specific exercise duration for any intensity plays a substantial role regarding the different kind of cellular stressors, degree, and kind of fatigue as well as training effects, concepts integrating the prescription of both intensity and duration within one model are needed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542091/normative-data-for-critical-speed-and-d-for-high-level-male-rugby-players
#14
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
Kramer, M, Clark, IE, Jamnick, N, Strom, C, and Pettitt, RW. Normative data for critical speed and D' for high-level male rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 783-789, 2018-The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should, hypothetically, have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474195/effects-of-temperature-and-fatigue-on-the-metabolism-and-swimming-capacity-of-juvenile-chinese-sturgeon-acipenser-sinensis
#15
Xi Yuan, Yi-Hong Zhou, Ying-Ping Huang, Wen-Tao Guo, David Johnson, Qing Jiang, Jin-Jie Jing, Zhi-Ying Tu
Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a critically endangered species. A flume-type respirometer, with video, was used to conduct two consecutive stepped velocity tests at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. Extent of recovery was measured after the 60-min recovery period between trials, and the recovery ratio for critical swimming speed (Ucrit ) averaged 91.88% across temperatures. Temperature (T) effects were determined by comparing Ucrit , oxygen consumption rate (MO2 ), and tail beat frequency (TBF) for each temperature...
October 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445078/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-canoeing-performance
#16
Ming-Ta Yang, Mien-Mien Lee, Shu-Ching Hsu, Kuei-Hui Chan
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), and power at VO2 peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387692/the-role-of-sensory-augmentation-for-people-with-vestibular-deficits-real-time-balance-aid-and-or-rehabilitation-device
#17
REVIEW
K H Sienko, S L Whitney, W J Carender, C Wall
This narrative review highlights findings from the sensory augmentation field for people with vestibular deficits and addresses the outstanding questions that are critical to the translation of this technology into clinical and/or personal use. Prior research has demonstrated that the real-time use of visual, vibrotactile, auditory, and multimodal sensory augmentation technologies can improve balance during static and dynamic stance tasks within a laboratory setting. However, its application in improving gait requires additional investigation, as does its efficacy as a rehabilitation device for people with vestibular deficits...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057820/blood-flow-regulation-and-oxygen-uptake-during-high-intensity-forearm-exercise
#18
S K Nyberg, O K Berg, J Helgerud, E Wang
The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25 ± 2 yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound, and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff ) during 6-min bouts of 60, 80, and 100% of maximal work rate (WRmax ), respectively...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031762/effects-of-fatigue-on-throwing-performance-in-experienced-team-handball-players
#19
Alberto Nuño, Ignacio J Chirosa, Roland van den Tillaar, Rafael Guisado, Ignacio Martín, Isidoro Martinez, Luis J Chirosa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922660/combined-vision-and-wearable-sensors-based-system-for-movement-analysis-in-rehabilitation
#20
Sofija Spasojević, Tihomir V Ilić, Slađan Milanović, Veljko Potkonjak, Aleksandar Rodić, José Santos-Victor
BACKGROUND: Traditional rehabilitation sessions are often a slow, tedious, disempowering and non-motivational process, supported by clinical assessment tools, i.e. evaluation scales that are prone to subjective rating and imprecise interpretation of patient's performance. Poor patient motivation and insufficient accuracy are thus critical factors that can be improved by new sensing / processing technologies. OBJECTIVES: We aim to develop a portable and affordable system, suitable for home rehabilitation, which combines vision-based and wearable sensors...
March 23, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
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