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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331352/factors-associated-with-voice-disorders-among-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#1
Amanda Cibelly Brito Gois, Leandro de Araújo Pernambuco, Kenio Costa de Lima
INTRODUCTION: During the aging process, natural modifications occur in the larynx and the structures involved in phonation which explain the specific characteristics found in the voices of elderly persons. When, at any moment, a voice fails and there is interference with communication, a voice disorder has occurred. This can generate disadvantages in communicative efficiency and have a negative impact on quality of life, compromising mechanisms of socialization, the maintenance of autonomy, and the sense of well-being...
December 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329513/the-behavioural-phenotype-of-potocki-lupski-syndrome-a-cross-syndrome-comparison
#2
Stacey Bissell, Lucy Wilde, Caroline Richards, Jo Moss, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are related genomic disorders, as duplication 17p11.2 (associated with PTLS) is the reciprocal recombination product of the SMS microdeletion. While SMS has a relatively well-delineated behavioural phenotype, the behavioural profile in PTLS is less well defined, despite purported associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the suggestion that some behaviours may be diametric to those seen in SMS. METHODS: Caregivers of individuals with PTLS (N = 34; M age = 12...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327799/what-is-needed-to-prepare-speech-pathologists-to-work-in-adult-palliative-care
#3
Ashleigh Pascoe, Lauren J Breen, Naomi Cocks
BACKGROUND: Speech pathologists have a pivotal role in palliative care, assisting patients with swallowing and communication disorders, yet very little is known about the preparedness of speech pathologists to work in this field. AIMS: To investigate the preparedness of speech pathologists for working in palliative care. The term 'palliative care' was viewed as an encompassing umbrella term incorporating the management/reduction of symptoms and improvement in a person's quality of life at any point of the disease progression...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327328/genetic-analysis-of-very-obese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Herman D Cortes, Rachel Wevrick
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by the triad of deficits in social interactions, deficits in communication, and repetitive behaviors. Common co-morbidities in syndromic forms of ASD include intellectual disability, seizures, and obesity. We asked whether very obese children with ASD had different behavioral, physical and genetic characteristics compared to children with ASD who were not obese. We found that very obese children with ASD had significantly poorer scores on standardized behavioral tests...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327218/online-communication-about-depression-and-anxiety-among-twitter-users-with-schizophrenia-preliminary-findings-to-inform-a-digital-phenotype-using-social-media
#5
Yulin Hswen, John A Naslund, John S Brownstein, Jared B Hawkins
Digital technologies hold promise for supporting the detection and management of schizophrenia. This exploratory study aimed to generate an initial understanding of whether patterns of communication about depression and anxiety on popular social media among individuals with schizophrenia are consistent with offline representations of the illness. From January to July 2016, posts on Twitter were collected from a sample of Twitter users who self-identify as having a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 203) and a randomly selected sample of control users (n = 173)...
January 12, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321841/reversed-gender-ratio-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-smith-magenis-syndrome
#6
Heidi Elisabeth Nag, Ann Nordgren, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Terje Nærland
Background: A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317608/epigenetics-and-cerebral-organoids-promising-directions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Sheena Louise Forsberg, Mirolyuba Ilieva, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 68 children in the US according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, and interests. Owing to disease complexity, only a limited number of treatment options are available mainly for children that alleviate but do not cure the debilitating symptoms. Studies confirm a genetic link, but environmental factors, such as medications, toxins, and maternal infection during pregnancy, as well as birth complications also play a role...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317216/multisensory-temporal-binding-window-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Han-Yu Zhou, Xin-Lu Cai, Michael Weigl, Peter Bang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and comparable in both patients with SSD (Hedges' g=0.91, 95%CI[0.62-1.19]; Z=6.21, p<...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316350/relationships-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty
#9
Roma A Vasa, Nicole L Kreiser, Amy Keefer, Vini Singh, Stewart H Mostofsky
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a dispositional risk factor involving maladaptive responding under conditions of uncertainty. Recent data indicate that IU is likely elevated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is positively correlated with anxiety. This study examined whether IU may be associated with ASD independent of anxiety. Relationships between anxiety, ASD, and IU were examined in 57 children with ASD without co-occurring intellectual disability and 32 control participants, ages 7-16 years...
January 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316336/enhancing-interactions-during-daily-routines-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-tutorial-for-parents-of-young-children-with-asd
#10
Lisa V Ibañez, Kenneth Kobak, Amy Swanson, Lisa Wallace, Zachary Warren, Wendy L Stone
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often experience difficulty participating in everyday home routines, such as bed time or bath time. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of an interactive, web-based parenting tutorial for improving children's engagement in daily routines (i.e., proximal outcomes) as well improving children's social communication and parenting efficacy and stress (i.e., broad outcomes). Parents of children with ASD between 18 and 60 months were randomly assigned to the Tutorial group (n = 52) or the Control group (n = 52)...
January 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307081/immune-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-could-they-hold-promise-for-causative-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Dominika Gładysz, Amanda Krzywdzińska, Kamil K Hozyasz
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in language and communication development, social behavior, and the occurrence of stereotypic patterns of behavior and interests. Despite substantial speculation about causes of ASD, its exact etiology remains unknown. Recent studies highlight a link between immune dysfunction and behavioral traits. Various immune anomalies, including humoral and cellular immunity along with abnormalities at the molecular level, have been reported. There is evidence of altered immune function both in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307039/subgrouping-autism-based-on-symptom-severity-leads-to-differences-in-the-degree-of-convergence-between-core-feature-domains
#12
Allison Whitten, Kathryn E Unruh, Robin L Shafer, James W Bodfish
Existing models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) disagree as to whether the core features should be conceptualized as convergent (related) or divergent (unrelated), and the few previous studies addressing this question have found conflicting results. We examined standardized parent ratings of symptoms from three domains (social, communication, repetitive behaviors) in large samples of typically developing children, children with ASD, and ASD subgroups. Our results suggest that the most evidence for divergence lies in typically developing children and lower severity ASD cases, while more evidence for convergence is found in a subset of cases with more severe impairment on any core feature...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306985/children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-have-unstable-neural-responses-to-sound
#13
Sebastian Otto-Meyer, Jennifer Krizman, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diverse, manifesting in a wide array of phenotypes. However, a consistent theme is reduced communicative and social abilities. Auditory processing deficits have been shown in individuals with ASD-these deficits may play a role in the communication difficulties ASD individuals experience. Specifically, children with ASD have delayed neural timing and poorer tracking of a changing pitch relative to their typically developing peers. Given that accurate processing of sound requires highly coordinated and consistent neural activity, we hypothesized that these auditory processing deficits stem from a failure to respond to sound in a consistent manner...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#14
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306056/subclinical-maternal-depressive-symptoms-modulate-right-inferior-frontal-response-to-inferring-affective-mental-states-of-adults-but-not-of-infants
#15
Koji Shimada, Ryoko Kasaba, Takashi X Fujisawa, Nobuko Sakakibara, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Being a mother of young children increases the risk of depression characterised by deficits in inferring what a person is feeling, i.e., affective theory of mind (aToM). Despite the adverse consequences for mothers, children, families, and society as a whole, little is known of how the brain functions underlying aToM ability are affected by subclinical maternal depressive symptoms, and act as a risk indicator for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS: Thirty healthy mothers with varying levels of depressive symptoms underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing mind-reading tasks based on the emotional expressions of adult eyes and infant faces...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301575/warburg-effect-hypothesis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. In ASD, the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focus this review on the hypothesis of Warburg effect stimulated by the overexpression of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway in ASD. Upregulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway induces aerobic glycolysis, named Warburg effect, through activation of glucose transporter (Glut), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1), lactate dehydrogenase kinase-A (LDH-A) and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH)...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298441/impact-of-auditory-integrative-training-ait-on-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-its-effect-on-behavioural-and-social-emotions-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#17
Laila Al-Ayadhi, Abdulrahman Alhowikan, Dost Halepoto
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of auditory integrative training (AIT) on inflammatory biomarker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and to assess its effect on social behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study 15 subjects (14 males, I female) with ASD aged 3-12 years were recruited. All subjects were screened for autism by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Plasma levels of TGF-β1 in all subjects were measured using sandwich enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) immediately after the AIT sessions and after 1 and 3 months...
January 3, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295738/psychiatry-in-a-dish-stem-cells-and-brain-organoids-modeling-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Mirolyba Ilieva, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Morten Thorsen, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disease, the neurobiological links remain unclear. A large amount of evidence suggests that pathological processes taking place in early embryonic neurodevelopment might be responsible for later manifestation of autistic symptoms...
November 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294940/what-makes-police-officers-act-police-response-to-instances-of-intimate-partner-violence
#19
Amy Peirone, Betty Jo Barrett, Chi Ho Cheung, Nazim Habibov
Using data from the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS Cycle 23: Victimization main file), this study assessed the relationship between individual and neighborhood-level factors and police response to spousal violence in Canada. A total of 890 participants in the GSS reported experiences of spousal violence within the previous 5 years, with approximately 22% of these victims reporting direct contact with the police because of the violence. Among this subsample of victims who had police contact, we evaluated the extent to which individual-level factors (sociodemographic and violence characteristics) and neighborhood-level factors (perceptions of social disorder and the presence of police facilities in one's community) were related to distinct types of police response to reported spousal violence...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289753/babbling-development-as-seen-in-canonical-babbling-ratios-a-naturalistic-evaluation-of-all-day-recordings
#20
Chia-Cheng Lee, Yuna Jhang, George Relyea, Li-Mei Chen, D Kimbrough Oller
Canonical babbling (CB) is critical in forming foundations for speech. Research has shown that the emergence of CB precedes first words, predicts language outcomes, and is delayed in infants with several communicative disorders. We seek a naturalistic portrayal of CB development, using all-day home recordings to evaluate the influences of age, language, and social circumstances on infant CB production. Thus we address the nature of very early language foundations and how they can be modulated. This is the first study to evaluate possible interactions of language and social circumstance in the development of babbling...
December 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
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