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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340321/exploring-the-relationship-between-cognition-and-functional-verbal-reasoning-in-adults-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-at-six-months-post-injury
#1
Petra Avramović, Belinda Kenny, Emma Power, Skye McDonald, Robyn Tate, Louise Hunt, Sheila MacDonald, Rob Heard, Leanne Togher
OBJECTIVE(S): This study aims to determine the association between cognitive impairment and functional verbal reasoning in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), at six months post-injury. METHOD(S): 38 participants with severe TBI were assessed using the four tasks on the Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES) [1] and a battery of neuropsychological tests at 6 months post injury in a cross-sectional observational study...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334080/cortical-thickness-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-through-late-childhood-adolescence-and-adulthood-a-large-scale-mri-study
#2
Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, John D Lewis, Penelope Kostopoulos, Felix Carbonell, Alan C Evans
Neuroimaging studies in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have provided inconsistent evidence of cortical abnormality. This is probably due to the small sample sizes used in most studies, and important differences in sample characteristics, particularly age, as well as to the heterogeneity of the disorder. To address these issues, we assessed abnormalities in ASD within the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange data set, which comprises data from approximately 1100 individuals (~6-55 years). A subset of these data that met stringent quality control and inclusion criteria (560 male subjects; 266 ASD; age = 6-35 years) were used to compute age-specific differences in cortical thickness in ASD and the relationship of any such differences to symptom severity of ASD...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333849/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-males-with-sex-chromosome-aneuploidy-xxy-klinefelter-syndrome-xyy-and-xxyy
#3
Nicole R Tartaglia, Rebecca Wilson, Judith S Miller, Jessica Rafalko, Lisa Cordeiro, Shanlee Davis, David Hessl, Judith Ross
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental concerns in males with sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) (XXY/Klinefelter syndrome, XYY, XXYY) include symptoms seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as language impairments and social difficulties. We aimed to: (1) evaluate ASD characteristics in research cohorts of SCA males under DSM-IV compared to DSM-5 criteria, and (2) analyze factors associated with ASD diagnoses in SCA. METHODS: Evaluation of participants with XXY/KS (n=20), XYY (n=57) and XXYY (n=21) included medical history, cognitive/adaptive testing, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and DSM ASD criteria...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326463/relationship-between-selenium-lead-and-mercury-in-red-blood-cells-of-saudi-autistic-children
#4
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny, Hussain Al Dera
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Environmental contribution to ASD is due in large part to the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) as toxic heavy metals or due to a poor detoxification ability as the phenotype of this disorder. Selenium (Se) as an antioxidant element that counteracts the neurotoxicity of Hg, and Pb, presumably through the formation of nontoxic complexes...
March 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323282/an-autism-associated-serotonin-transporter-variant-disrupts-multisensory-processing
#5
J K Siemann, C L Muller, C G Forsberg, R D Blakely, J Veenstra-VanderWeele, M T Wallace
Altered sensory processing is observed in many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with growing evidence that these impairments extend to the integration of information across the different senses (that is, multisensory function). The serotonin system has an important role in sensory development and function, and alterations of serotonergic signaling have been suggested to have a role in ASD. A gain-of-function coding variant in the serotonin transporter (SERT) associates with sensory aversion in humans, and when expressed in mice produces traits associated with ASD, including disruptions in social and communicative function and repetitive behaviors...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322981/imaging-genetics-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-linking-genetics-and-brain-imaging-in-the-pursuit-of-the-underlying-neurobiological-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a wide range of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions that affect an individual in several aspects of social communication and behavior. Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have dramatically increased our understanding of ASD etiology through the identification of several autism risk genes, most of which serve important functions in synaptic plasticity and protein synthesis. However, despite significant progress in this field of research, the characterization of the neurobiological mechanisms by which common genetic risk variants might operate to give rise to ASD symptomatology has proven to be far more difficult than expected...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316774/glutathione-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-brain-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-mrs-study
#7
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon A Meyer, Bernd Feige, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Andreas Riedel, Dieter Ebert, Thomas Lange, Volkmar Glauche, Monica Biscaldi, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon J Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by difficulties in social communication, unusually restricted, repetitive behavior and interests, and specific abnormalities in language and perception. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and probably heterogeneous. In a subgroup of patients, toxic environmental exposure might lead to an imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant systems. Previous serum and postmortem studies measuring levels of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular free radical scavenger in the brain, have supported the hypothesis that this compound might play a role in the pathophysiology of autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#8
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301091/shorter-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-social-impairment-and-comorbidities-in-asd
#9
Olivia J Veatch, James S Sutcliffe, Zachary E Warren, Brendan T Keenan, Melissa H Potter, Beth A Malow
Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301083/age-specific-autistic-like-behaviors-in-heterozygous-fmr1-ko-female-mice
#10
Manon Gauducheau, Valerie Lemaire-Mayo, Francesca R D'Amato, Diego Oddi, Wim E Crusio, Susanna Pietropaolo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Surprisingly, most existing studies on the Fmr1-KO mouse model for FXS have focused on males, although FX women, who are mostly heterozygous for the Fmr1 mutation, are known to exhibit several behavioral deficits, including autistic-like features. Furthermore, most animal research has been carried out on adults only; so that little is known about the age progression of the behavioral phenotype of Fmr1 mutants, which is a crucial issue to optimize the impact of therapeutic interventions...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299880/rates-of-autism-and-potential-risk-factors-in-children-with-congenital-heart-defects
#11
Jessica L Bean Jaworski, Thomas Flynn, Nancy Burnham, Jesse L Chittams, Therese Sammarco, Marsha Gerdes, Judy C Bernbaum, Robert R Clancy, Cynthia B Solot, Elaine H Zackai, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, J William Gaynor
OBJECTIVE: Atypical development, behavioral difficulties, and academic underachievement are common morbidities in children with a history of congenital heart defects and impact quality of life. Language and social-cognitive deficits have been described, which are associated with autism spectrum disorders. The current study aimed to assess the rates of autism spectrum disorders in a large sample of children with a history of congenital heart defects and to assess medical, behavioral, and individual factors that may be associated with the risk of autism spectrum disorders...
March 16, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299627/analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-gene-methylation-in-autistic-males-in-a-chinese-han-population
#12
Xuelai Wang, Shuang Liang, Yi Sun, Haixin Li, Fumio Endo, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Noriko Saitoh, Lijie Wu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder with abnormalities of social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors. The higher prevalence of ASD in men implies a potential relationship between sex hormones and ASD etiology. The ESR2 gene encodes estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) and plays an important role during brain development. A relationship between ESR2 and ASD has been suggested by studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA and protein expression levels in ASD patients...
March 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296973/quantitative-analysis-of-disfluency-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-language-impairment
#13
Heather MacFarlane, Kyle Gorman, Rosemary Ingham, Alison Presmanes Hill, Katina Papadakis, Géza Kiss, Jan van Santen
Deficits in social communication, particularly pragmatic language, are characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Speech disfluencies may serve pragmatic functions such as cueing speaking problems. Previous studies have found that speakers with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) speakers in the types and patterns of disfluencies they produce, but fail to provide sufficiently detailed characterizations of the methods used to categorize and quantify disfluency, making cross-study comparison difficult...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291690/social-cognitive-brain-function-and-connectivity-during-visual-perspective-taking-in-autism-and-schizophrenia
#14
Shaun M Eack, Jessica A Wojtalik, Matcheri S Keshavan, Nancy J Minshew
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental conditions that are characterized by significant social impairment. Emerging genomic and neurobiological evidence has increasingly pointed to shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in the two disorders. Overlap in social impairment may reflect similar underlying neural dysfunction in social-cognitive brain networks, yet few studies have directly compared brain function and communication between those with ASD and schizophrenia...
March 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291301/-acute-dystonia-due-to-aripiprazole-use-in-two-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-first-five-years-of-life
#15
Mustafa Küçükköse, Bürge Kabukçu Başay
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impairment in social interactions, in verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of interest and behavior within the first 3 years of life. Pharmacologic interventions may be needed for the treatment of temper tantrums, aggression, hyperactivity, and stereotypes in children with ASD. The approval of aripiprazole by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for the treatment of temper tantrums in children and adolescents with ASD has gained increased interest for the use in these patients...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287754/characterizing-autism-relevant-social-behavior-in-poodles-via-owner-report
#16
Rachel M Zamzow, Lisa Lit, Shelley Hamilton, David Q Beversdorf
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287270/parent-reported-differences-between-school-aged-girls-and-boys-on-the-autism-spectrum
#17
Rebecca Sutherland, Antoinette Hodge, Susan Bruck, Debra Costley, Helen Klieve
More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided insights regarding the characteristics of boys and girls (as perceived by parents) as well as some demographic information. There were very few differences reported regarding communication and social strengths and difficulties of boys and girls with autism...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285893/motor-and-verbal-perspective-taking-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-changes-in-social-interaction-with-people-and-tools
#18
Breanna E Studenka, Sandra L Gillam, Daphne Hartzheim, Ronald B Gillam
BACKGROUND: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have difficulty communicating with others nonverbally, via mechanisms such as hand gestures, eye contact and facial expression. Individuals with ASD also have marked deficits in planning future actions (Hughes, 1996), which might contribute to impairments in non-verbal communication. Perspective taking is typically assessed using verbal scenarios whereby the participant imagines how an actor would interact in a social situation (e...
March 9, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285719/-exploring-joint-attention-processes-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
A de Gaulmyn, R Miljkovitch, M Montreuil
OBJECTIVES: Symptoms in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, appear at an early age. Research consensus shows impairments in communication and especially joint attention, defined as the capacity to intentionally share attention between two persons or a person and an object. Recent studies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focus on infants' processes associated to joint attention, such as visual and auditive regulation, attentional engagement and social motivation. The present research's objective is to examine the role of these factors in joint attention...
March 9, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284787/sensory-over-responsivity-and-social-cognition-in-asd-effects-of-aversive-sensory-stimuli-and-attentional-modulation-on-neural-responses-to-social-cues
#20
Shulamite A Green, Leanna M Hernandez, Hilary C Bowman, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a common condition in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that is associated with greater social impairment. However, the mechanisms through which sensory stimuli may affect social functioning are not well understood. This study used fMRI to examine brain activity while interpreting communicative intent in 15 high-functioning youth with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants completed the task with and without a tactile sensory distracter, and with and without instructions directing their attention to relevant social cues...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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