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Phonological impairment

Cristina Caciolo, Paolo Alfieri, Giorgia Piccini, Maria Cristina Digilio, Francesca Romana Lepri, Marco Tartaglia, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari
BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies affecting development and function of multiple systems. Over the years, researchers have attempted to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of KS in cohorts of patients enrolled on the basis of clinical assessment. The availability of molecular testing now allows for recruitment of patients with confirmed KS due to KMT2D and KDM6A. METHODS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of individuals with molecularly confirmed diagnosis of KS, and determine the extent of heterogeneity occurring in these profiles between individuals with clinical diagnosis of KS with and without mutations in KMT2D...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Irene Minkina, Nadine Martin, Kristie A Spencer, Diane L Kendall
Purpose: This study explored the relationship between anomia and verbal short-term memory (STM) in the context of an interactive activation language processing model. Method: Twenty-four individuals with aphasia and reduced STM spans (i.e., impaired immediate serial recall of words) completed a picture-naming task and a word pair repetition task (a measure of verbal STM). Correlations between verbal STM and word retrieval errors made on the picture-naming task were examined...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sara De Felice, Cristina Romani, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Liana Palermo
We provide an in-depth analysis of language functions in early-treated adults with phenylketonuria (AwPKUs, N = 15-33), as compared to age- and education-matched controls (N = 24-32; N varying across tasks), through: a. narrative production (the Cinderella story), b. language pragmatics comprehension (humour, metaphors, inferred meaning), c. prosody discrimination d. lexical inhibitory control and planning (Blocked Cyclic Naming; Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Burgess & Shallice, 1997). AwPKUs exhibited intact basic language processing (lexical retrieval, phonology/articulation, sentence construction)...
February 28, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti, Roberta Penge
This pilot study is to investigate the influence of a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) comorbidity in a group of children with learning disability (LD). Reading and writing were assessed to investigate if the coexistence of a motor impairment can worsen writing quality, speed, and reading accuracy. A sample of 33 LD children (aged 7-11 years) was divided in two subgroups, on the base of their scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children: LD-only (n = 14) and LD with a comorbidity for DCD (LD-DCD, n = 19)...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Lotte Meteyard, Arpita Bose
Purpose: Impaired naming is one of the most common symptoms in aphasia, often treated with cued picture naming paradigms. It has been argued that semantic cues facilitate the reliable categorization of the picture, and phonological cues facilitate the retrieval of target phonology. To test these hypotheses, we compared the effectiveness of phonological and semantic cues in picture naming for a group of individuals with aphasia. To establish the locus of effective cueing, we also tested whether cue type interacted with lexical and image properties of the targets...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Agnese Capodieci, Alice Serafini, Alice Dessuki, Cesare Cornoldi
The writing abilities of children with ADHD symptoms were examined in a simple dictation task, and then in two conditions with concurrent verbal or visuospatial working memory (WM) loads. The children with ADHD symptoms generally made more spelling mistakes than controls, and the concurrent loads impaired their performance, but with partly different effects. The concurrent verbal WM task prompted an increase in the phonological errors, while the concurrent visuospatial WM task prompted more non-phonological errors, matching the Italian phonology, but not the Italian orthography...
February 20, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Matthew Goldrick
Romani, Galuzzi, Guariglia, and Goslin (Comparing phoneme frequency, age of acquisition and loss in aphasia: Implications for phonological universals. Cognitive Neuropsychology) used speech error data from individuals with acquired impairments to argue that independent from articulatory complexity, within-language distributional regularities influence the processing of sound structure in speech production. Converging evidence from unimpaired speakers is reviewed, focusing on speech errors in language production...
October 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
S Franceschini, S Mascheretti, S Bertoni, V Trezzi, C Andreola, S Gori, A Facoetti
Dyslexia (D) is a neurodevelopmental reading disorder characterized by phonological and orthographic deficits. Before phonological decoding, reading requires a specialized orthographic system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different spatial locations. The magnocellular-dorsal (MD) stream rapidly process the spatial location of visual stimuli controlling visuo-spatial attention. To investigate the visuo-spatial attention efficiency during orthographic processing, inhibition of return (IOR) was measured in adults with and without D in a lexical decision task...
February 13, 2018: Brain and Language
Cristina Mei, Evelina Fedorenko, David J Amor, Amber Boys, Caitlyn Hoeflin, Peter Carew, Trent Burgess, Simon E Fisher, Angela T Morgan
Recurrent deletions of a ~600-kb region of 16p11.2 have been associated with a highly penetrant form of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Yet prior findings have been based on a small, potentially biased sample using retrospectively collected data. We examine the prevalence of CAS in a larger cohort of individuals with 16p11.2 deletion using a prospectively designed assessment battery. The broader speech and language phenotype associated with carrying this deletion was also examined. 55 participants with 16p11...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Barbara Arfé, Maria Montanaro, Elena Mottura, Michele Scaltritti, Renzo Manara, Giuseppe Basso, Laura Sainati, Raffaella Colombatti
Language deficits in multilingual children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that selective language deficits in this population could relate to an impaired frontal lobe functioning often associated with high-risk homozygous HbS disease (HbSS). In all, 32 children from immigrant communities with HbSS SCD aged 6 to 12 years (mean age = 9.03, n = 9 with silent infarcts) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (mean age = 9.14) were tested on their naming skills, phonological and semantic fluency, attention, and selected executive functions (response inhibition and planning skills)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Dolors Girbau
PURPOSE: This paper examines whether bilingual children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) showed limited comprehension of Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences and/or morphosyntactic priming compared to children with Typical Language Development (TLD) and adults. We analyzed the relation of these morphosyntactic processes to other psycholinguistic abilities, according to the MUC (Memory-Unification-Control) model. METHOD: Ten bilingual native Spanish-speaking children with SLI (8;3-10;6) and 10 age-matched children with TLD (7;6-10;10) received a psycholinguistic evaluation in Spanish-English...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Qi Chen, Erica Middleton, Daniel Mirman
Impaired object naming is a core deficit in post-stroke aphasia, which can manifest as errors of commission - producing an incorrect word or a non-word - or as errors of omission - failing to attempt to name the object. Detailed behavioural, computational, and neurological investigations of errors of commission have played a key role in the development of neurocognitive models of word production. In contrast, the neurocognitive basis of omission errors is radically underspecified despite being a prevalent phenomenon in aphasia and other populations...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
John E Marsh, Jingqi Yang, Pamela Qualter, Cassandra Richardson, Nick Perham, François Vachon, Robert W Hughes
Task-irrelevant speech impairs short-term serial recall appreciably. On the interference-by-process account, the processing of physical (i.e., precategorical) changes in speech yields order cues that conflict with the serial-ordering process deployed to perform the serial recall task. In this view, the postcategorical properties (e.g., phonology, meaning) of speech play no role. The present study reassessed the implications of recent demonstrations of auditory postcategorical distraction in serial recall that have been taken as support for an alternative, attentional-diversion, account of the irrelevant speech effect...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Adrià Rofes, Andrea Talacchi, Barbara Santini, Giampietro Pinna, Lyndsey Nickels, Roelien Bastiaanse, Gabriele Miceli
BACKGROUND: The relationship between spontaneous speech and formal language testing in people with brain tumors (gliomas) has been rarely studied. In clinical practice, formal testing is typically used, while spontaneous speech is less often evaluated quantitatively. However, spontaneous speech is quicker to sample and may be less prone to test/retest effects, making it a potential candidate for assessing language impairments when there is restricted time or when the patient is unable to undertake prolonged testing...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Hélène Guiraud, Nathalie Bedoin, Sonia Krifi-Papoz, Vania Herbillon, Aurélia Caillot-Bascoul, Sibylle Gonzalez-Monge, Véronique Boulenger
BACKGROUND: Perception of speech rhythm requires the auditory system to track temporal envelope fluctuations, which carry syllabic and stress information. Reduced sensitivity to rhythmic acoustic cues has been evidenced in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), impeding syllabic parsing and speech decoding. Our study investigated whether these children experience specific difficulties processing fast rate speech as compared with typically developing (TD) children. METHOD: Sixteen French children with SLI (8-13 years old) with mainly expressive phonological disorders and with preserved comprehension and 16 age-matched TD children performed a judgment task on sentences produced 1) at normal rate, 2) at fast rate or 3) time-compressed...
2018: PloS One
Daniela Paolieri, Alejandra Marful, Luis Morales, María Teresa Bajo
Aging has traditionally been related to impairments in name retrieval. These impairments have usually been explained by a phonological transmission deficit hypothesis or by an inhibitory deficit hypothesis. This decline can, however, be modulated by the educational level of the sample. This study analyzed the possible role of these approaches in explaining both object and face naming impairments during aging. Older adults with low and high educational level and young adults with high educational level were asked to repeatedly name objects or famous people using the semantic-blocking paradigm...
2018: PloS One
Nicole Landi, Jeffrey G Malins, Stephen J Frost, James Magnuson, Peter Molfese, Kayleigh Ryherd, Jay G Rueckl, William E Mencl, Kenneth R Pugh
Word learning depends not only on efficient online binding of phonological, orthographic and lexical information, but also on consolidation of new word representations into permanent lexical memory. Work on word learning under a variety of contexts indicates that reading and language skill impact facility of word learning in both print and speech. In addition, recent research finds that individuals with language impairments show deficits in both initial word form learning and in maintaining newly learned representations over time, implicating mechanisms associated with maintenance that may be driven by deficits in overnight consolidation...
January 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Stacey L Pavelko, R Jane Lieberman, Jamie Schwartz, Debbie Hahs-Vaughn
Purpose: Name writing is one aspect of emergent writing that has been used to understand emergent literacy development. Name-writing skills and the relationship of name writing to other emergent literacy skills have not been studied extensively in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Children with SLI consistently demonstrate delays in phonological awareness (PA), alphabet knowledge (AK), print awareness, and emergent writing. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of PA, AK, and letter writing to name writing in children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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