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Phonological impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102620/when-does-speech-sound-disorder-matter-for-literacy-the-role-of-disordered-speech-errors-co-occurring-language-impairment-and-family-risk-of-dyslexia
#1
Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
BACKGROUND: This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors. METHOD: Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were assessed at the start of formal reading instruction (age 5½), using measures of phoneme awareness, word-level reading and spelling; and 3 years later (age 8), using measures of word-level reading, spelling and reading comprehension...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093277/evaluating-the-relationship-between-sublexical-and-lexical-processing-in-speech-perception-evidence-from-aphasia
#2
Heather Dial, Randi Martin
Several studies have reported that aphasic patients may perform substantially better on lexical than sublexical perception tasks (e.g., Miceli, Gainotti, Caltagirone, & Masullo, 1980). These findings challenge claims made by models of speech perception which assume obligatory sublexical processing (e.g., McClelland & Elman, 1986; Norris, 1994). However, prior studies have not closely matched the phonological similarity of targets and distractors or task demands of the sublexical and lexical perception tasks...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077012/phonological-working-memory-deficits-in-adhd-revisited
#3
Joseph S Raiker, Lauren M Friedman, Sarah A Orban, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Mark D Rapport
OBJECTIVE: The current study dissociates lower level information-processing abilities (visual registration/encoding, visual-to-phonological conversion, and response output) and examines their contribution to ADHD-related phonological working memory (PHWM) deficits. METHOD: Twenty children with ADHD and 15 typically developing (TD) children completed tasks assessing PHWM, visual registration/encoding, visual-to-phonological conversion, and response output. RESULTS: Relative to TD children, children with ADHD exhibited deficient visual registration/encoding ( d = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036410/interactive-book-reading-to-accelerate-word-learning-by-kindergarten-children-with-specific-language-impairment-identifying-an-adequate-intensity-and-variation-in-treatment-response
#4
Holly L Storkel, Krista Voelmle, Veronica Fierro, Kelsey Flake, Kandace K Fleming, Rebecca Swinburne Romine
Purpose: This study sought to identify an adequate intensity of interactive book reading for new word learning by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and to examine variability in treatment response. Method: An escalation design adapted from nontoxic drug trials (Hunsberger, Rubinstein, Dancey, & Korn, 2005) was used in this Phase I/II preliminary clinical trial. A total of 27 kindergarten children with SLI were randomized to 1 of 4 intensities of interactive book reading: 12, 24, 36, or 48 exposures...
December 30, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025016/negative-induced-mood-influences-word-production-an-event-related-potentials-study-with-a-covert-picture-naming-task
#5
J A Hinojosa, U Fernández-Folgueiras, J Albert, G Santaniello, M A Pozo, A Capilla
The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the effects of mood on phonological encoding processes involved in word generation. For this purpose, negative, positive and neutral affective states were induced in participants during three different recording sessions using short film clips. After the mood induction procedure, participants performed a covert picture naming task in which they searched letters. The negative compared to the neutral mood condition elicited more negative amplitudes in a component peaking around 290ms...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011436/phonological-abilities-in-literacy-impaired-children-brain-potentials-reveal-deficient-phoneme-discrimination-but-intact-prosodic-processing
#6
Claudia Männel, Gesa Schaadt, Franziska K Illner, Elke van der Meer, Angela D Friederici
Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands...
November 27, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#7
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920731/do-you-read-how-i-read-systematic-individual-differences-in-semantic-reliance-amongst-normal-readers
#8
Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Gaston Madrid, Karalyn E Patterson
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913156/the-oral-spelling-profile-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-the-nature-of-the-graphemic-representation
#9
Silvia Primativo, Keir X X Yong, Timothy J Shakespeare, Sebastian J Crutch
Spelling is a complex cognitive task where central and peripheral components are involved in engaging resources from many different cognitive processes. The present paper aims to both characterize the oral spelling deficit in a population of patients affected by a neurodegenerative condition and to clarify the nature of the graphemic representation within the currently available spelling models. Indeed, the nature of graphemic representation as a linear or multi-componential structure is still debated. Different hypotheses have been raised about its nature in the orthographic lexicon, with one positing that graphemes are complex objects whereby quantity and identity are separately represented in orthographic representations and can thus be selectively impaired...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875715/common-and-divergent-neural-correlates-of-anomia-in-amnestic-and-logopenic-presentations-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Cristian E Leyton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Kirrie J Ballard
The majority of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) cases harbour Alzheimer pathology, suggesting that lv-PPA constitutes an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, even if caused by Alzheimer pathology, the clinical manifestations of lv-PPA differ from those observed in the typical or amnestic AD presentation: in lv-PPA, aphasia is the main feature while amnestic AD is characterised by impaired episodic memory. Anomia or impaired naming, however, is present in both AD presentations...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852336/underlying-manifestations-of-developmental-phonological-disorders-in-french-speaking-pre-schoolers
#11
Françoise Brosseau-Lapré, Susan Rvachew
This study examined the psycholinguistic profiles of Quebec French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD). The purpose was to determine whether the endophenotypes that have been identified in English-speaking children with DPD are similarly associated with speech impairment in French-speaking children. Seventy-two children with DPD and ten children with normally developing speech, aged four to six years, received a comprehensive assessment battery that included measures at the phenotype level (i...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849243/moyamoya-disease-impact-on-the-performance-of-oral-and-written-language
#12
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto Ferraz, Maria de Lourdes Merighi Tabaquim
Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848086/the-roles-of-cognitive-and-language-abilities-in-predicting-decoding-and-reading-comprehension-comparisons-of-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment
#13
Alexandra A Lauterbach, Yujeong Park, Linda J Lombardino
This study aimed to (a) explore the roles of cognitive and language variables in predicting reading abilities of two groups of individuals with reading disabilities (i.e., dyslexia and specific language impairment) and (b) examine which variable(s) is the most predictive in differentiating two groups. Inclusion/exclusion criteria applied to categorize the two groups yielded a total of 63 participants (n = 44 for the dyslexia; n = 19 for the specific language impairment). A stepwise multiple regression approach was conducted to examine which cognitive and/or language variables made the largest contribution to reading abilities (i...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833037/atypical-neural-synchronization-to-speech-envelope-modulations-in-dyslexia
#14
Astrid De Vos, Sophie Vanvooren, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
A fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech could underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. In this study, the hypothesis of a neural synchronization impairment is investigated more specifically as a function of different neural oscillatory bands and temporal information rates in speech. Auditory steady-state responses to 4, 10, 20 and 40Hz modulations were recorded in normal reading and dyslexic adolescents to measure neural synchronization of theta, alpha, beta and low-gamma oscillations to syllabic and phonemic rate information...
January 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826071/possible-roles-for-fronto-striatal-circuits-in-reading-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Fabio Richlan, Fumiko Hoeft
Several studies have reported hyperactivation in frontal and striatal regions in individuals with reading disorder (RD) during reading-related tasks. Hyperactivation in these regions is typically interpreted as a form of neural compensation related to articulatory processing. Fronto-striatal hyperactivation in RD could however, also arise from fundamental impairment in reading related processes, such as phonological processing and implicit sequence learning relevant to early language acquisition. We review current evidence for the compensation hypothesis in RD and apply large-scale reverse inference to investigate anatomical overlap between hyperactivation regions and neural systems for articulation, phonological processing, implicit sequence learning...
January 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785760/dyslexic-children-show-atypical-cerebellar-activation-and-cerebro-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-orthographic-and-phonological-processing
#16
Xiaoxia Feng, Le Li, Manli Zhang, Xiujie Yang, Mengyu Tian, Weiyi Xie, Yao Lu, Li Liu, Nathalie N Bélanger, Xiangzhi Meng, Guosheng Ding
Previous neuroimaging studies have found atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia in either motor-related tasks or language tasks. However, studies investigating atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia have mostly used tasks tapping phonological processing. A question that is yet unanswered is whether the cerebellum in individuals with dyslexia functions properly during orthographic processing of words, as growing evidence shows that the cerebellum is also involved in visual and spatial processing...
October 27, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775648/language-problems-and-adhd-symptoms-how-specific-are-the-links
#17
Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752247/the-nature-of-verbal-short-term-impairment-in-dyslexia-the-importance-of-serial-order
#18
REVIEW
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750281/a-framework-for-crosslinguistic-nonword-repetition-tests-effects-of-bilingualism-and-socioeconomic-status-on-children-s-performance
#19
Shula Chiat, Kamila Polišenská
Purpose: As a recognized indicator of language impairment, nonword repetition has unique potential for distinguishing language impairment from difficulties due to limited experience and knowledge of a language. This study focused on a new Crosslinguistic Nonword Repetition framework, comprising 3 tests that vary the phonological characteristics of nonwords, in the quest for an assessment that minimizes effects of language experience and knowledge and thereby maximizes potential for assessing children with diverse linguistic experience...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744224/verbal-fluency-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Amélie M Achim, Arthur Kaladjian, Chrystel Besche-Richard
BACKGROUND: One of the main features of bipolar disorder (BD), besides mood dysregulation, is an alteration of the structure of language. Bipolar patients present changes in semantic contents, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody and abnormal speed of language highlighted with various experimental tasks. Verbal fluency tasks are widely used to assess the abilities of bipolar patients to retrieve and produce verbal material from the lexico-semantic memory. Studies using these tasks have however yielded discrepant results...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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