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Phonological impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727489/third-person-singular-s-in-typical-development-and-specific-language-impairment-input-and-neighbourhood-density
#1
Justin B Kueser, Laurence B Leonard, Patricia Deevy
The purpose of this study was to examine factors promoting the use of third person singular -s by 23 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 21 children with typical development (TD). Relative proportions of third person singular -s forms in the input (input proportion) were calculated for 25 verbs based on data from an American English corpus of child-directed speech. Neighbourhood density values were also collected for these verbs. With previously collected probes of third person singular -s use for each of these verbs, we found with logistic regression that input proportion was positively associated with the likelihood of third person singular -s use for both groups...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723964/development-of-the-korean-adult-reading-test-kart-to-estimate-premorbid-intelligence-in-dementia-patients
#2
Dahyun Yi, Eun Hyun Seo, Ji Young Han, Bo Kyung Sohn, Min Soo Byun, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Suzy Ahn, Jong Inn Woo, Jongho Jun, Dong Young Lee
We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710937/developmental-surface-and-phonological-dyslexia-in-both-greek-and-english
#3
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
July 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704379/fractionating-nonword-repetition-the-contributions-of-short-term-memory-and-oromotor-praxis-are-different
#4
Saloni Krishnan, Katherine J Alcock, Daniel Carey, Lina Bergström, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Frederic Dick
The ability to reproduce novel words is a sensitive marker of language impairment across a variety of developmental disorders. Nonword repetition tasks are thought to reflect phonological short-term memory skills. Yet, when children hear and then utter a word for the first time, they must transform a novel speech signal into a series of coordinated, precisely timed oral movements. Little is known about how children's oromotor speed, planning and co-ordination abilities might influence their ability to repeat novel nonwords, beyond the influence of higher-level cognitive and linguistic skills...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691167/exploring-the-link-between-visual-perception-visual-motor-integration-and-reading-in-normal-developing-and-impaired-children-using-dtvp-2
#5
Stéphanie Bellocchi, Mathilde Muneaux, Andréa Huau, Yohana Lévêque, Marianne Jover, Stéphanie Ducrot
Reading is known to be primarily a linguistic task. However, to successfully decode written words, children also need to develop good visual-perception skills. Furthermore, motor skills are implicated in letter recognition and reading acquisition. Three studies have been designed to determine the link between reading, visual perception, and visual-motor integration using the Developmental Test of Visual Perception version 2 (DTVP-2). Study 1 tests how visual perception and visual-motor integration in kindergarten predict reading outcomes in Grade 1, in typical developing children...
July 10, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679003/stability-of-the-cortical-sensory-waveforms-the-p1-n1-p2-complex-and-t-complex-of-auditory-evoked-potentials
#6
Monica Wagner, Valerie L Shafer, Evis Haxhari, Kevin Kiprovski, Katherine Behrmann, Tara Griffiths
Purpose: Atypical cortical sensory waveforms reflecting impaired encoding of auditory stimuli may result from inconsistency in cortical response to the acoustic feature changes within spoken words. Thus, the present study assessed intrasubject stability of the P1-N1-P2 complex and T-complex to multiple productions of spoken nonwords in 48 adults to provide benchmarks for future studies probing auditory processing deficits. Method: Response trials were split (split epoch averages) for each of 4 word types for each subject and compared for similarity in waveform morphology...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659653/effects-of-semantic-context-on-access-to-words-of-low-imageability-in-deep-phonological-dysphasia-a-treatment-case-study
#7
Laura Mary McCarthy, Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar, Francine Kohen, Nadine Martin
BACKGROUND: Deep dysphasia is a relatively rare subcategory of aphasia, characterised by word repetition impairment and a profound auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM) limitation. Repetition of words is better than nonwords (lexicality effect) and better for high-image than low-image words (imageability effect). Another related language impairment profile is phonological dysphasia, which includes all of the characteristics of deep dysphasia except for the occurrence of semantic errors in single word repetition...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656532/current-controversies-on-wernicke-s-area-and-its-role-in-language
#8
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Binder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the study is to assess historical anatomical and functional definitions of Wernicke's area in light of modern lesion and neuroimaging data. RECENT FINDINGS: "Wernicke's area" has become an anatomical label usually applied to the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and adjacent supramarginal gyrus. Recent evidence shows that this region is not critical for speech perception or for word comprehension. Rather, it supports retrieval of phonological forms (mental representations of phoneme sequences), which are used for speech output and short-term memory tasks...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655044/identification-and-remediation-of-phonological-and-motor-errors-in-acquired-sound-production-impairment
#9
Adam Buchwald, Bernadine Gagnon, Michele Miozzo
Purpose: This study aimed to test whether an approach to distinguishing errors arising in phonological processing from those arising in motor planning also predicts the extent to which repetition-based training can lead to improved production of difficult sound sequences. Method: Four individuals with acquired speech production impairment who produced consonant cluster errors involving deletion were examined using a repetition task. We compared the acoustic details of productions with deletion errors in target consonant clusters to singleton consonants...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654032/assessing-working-memory-in-children-the-comprehensive-assessment-battery-for-children-working-memory-cabc-wm
#10
Kathryn Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray, Mary Alt, Nelson Cowan, Samuel Green, Trudy Kuo, Tiffany P Hogan
The Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children - Working Memory (CABC-WM) is a computer-based battery designed to assess different components of working memory in young school-age children. Working memory deficits have been identified in children with language-based learning disabilities, including dyslexia(1)(,)(2) and language impairment(3)(,)(4), but it is not clear whether these children exhibit deficits in subcomponents of working memory, such as visuospatial or phonological working memory. The CABC-WM is administered on a desktop computer with a touchscreen interface and was specifically developed to be engaging and motivating for children...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631953/a-morpho-phonological-past-tense-processing-as-a-clinical-marker-in-sli-efl-learners
#11
Elena Even-Simkin
The clinical marker in specific language impairment (SLI) population is the subject of considerable debate. SLI is the one of the frequently diagnosed atypical language phenomena found among early school-age children (McArthur et al., 2000; Spear-Swerling, 2006). For example, children with SLI have difficulty applying the Past Tense rule to verbs, even though they can accurately repeat phonologically similar forms of the words (Hoeffner & McClelland, 1993). In this study, I discuss the grammatical deficits in the SLI population by studying the generation of both 'regular' and 'irregular' English Past Tense forms and explain how the rates of the correct use of the 'irregular' versus 'regular' form may be considered as a clinical SLI marker...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601572/corpus-callosum-atrophy-as-a-marker-of-clinically-meaningful-cognitive-decline-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-impact-on-employment-status
#12
Athanasios Papathanasiou, Lambros Messinis, Petros Zampakis, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos
Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593865/the-semiology-of-benign-focal-epilepsy-with-affective-symptoms
#13
Fábio A Nascimento, Márcio A Sotero de Menezes, Cristiane A Simão, Bruno T Takeshita, Samanta F Blattes da Rocha, Pedro A Kowacs
Benign focal epilepsy with affective symptoms (BFEAS) is a rare childhood epilepsy syndrome essentially characterized by "epileptic attacks with affective symptoms of a terrifying type". Since the original description, approximately 50 cases have been reported. To our knowledge, however, none of the studies included video-EEG data. Herein, we detail the electroclinical features of a neurodevelopmentally normal 9-year-old boy with epilepsy since the age of 2 years. His seizure semiology essentially consisted of nocturnal focal seizures featuring abrupt fear and autonomic phenomena (such as excessive sweating, repeated swallowing, and coughing), associated with impaired consciousness...
June 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590881/effects-of-irrelevant-background-speech-on-eye-movements-during-reading
#14
Guoli Yan, Zhu Meng, Nina Liu, Liyuan He, Kevin B Paterson
The irrelevant speech effect (ISE) refers to the impairment of visual information processing by background speech. Prior research on the ISE has focused on short-term memory for visually-presented word lists. The present research extends this work by using measurements of eye movements to examine effects of irrelevant background speech during Chinese reading. This enabled an examination of the ISE for a language in which access to semantic representations is not strongly mediated by phonology. Participants read sentences while exposed to meaningful irrelevant speech, meaningless speech (scrambled meaningful speech) or silence...
June 7, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590148/the-phonological-memory-profile-of-preschool-children-who-make-atypical-speech-sound-errors
#15
Rebecca Waring, Patricia Eadie, Susan Rickard Liow, Barbara Dodd
Previous research indicates that children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have underlying phonological memory deficits. The SSD population, however, is diverse. While children who make consistent atypical speech errors (phonological disorder/PhDis) are known to have executive function deficits in rule abstraction and cognitive flexibility, little is known about their memory profile. Sixteen monolingual preschool children with atypical speech errors (PhDis) were matched individually to age-and-gender peers with typically developing speech (TDS)...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577444/auditory-processing-deficits-are-sometimes-necessary-and-sometimes-sufficient-for-language-difficulties-in-children-evidence-from-mild-to-moderate-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#16
Lorna F Halliday, Outi Tuomainen, Stuart Rosen
There is a general consensus that many children and adults with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment display deficits in auditory processing. However, how these deficits are related to developmental disorders of language is uncertain, and at least four categories of model have been proposed: single distal cause models, risk factor models, association models, and consequence models. This study used children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) to investigate the link between auditory processing deficits and language disorders...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569544/novel-reading-index-for-identifying-disordered-reading-skill-development-a-preliminary-study
#17
Brianne Mohl, Noa Ofen, Lara L Jones, Joseph E Casey, Jeffrey A Stanley
Children with ADHD are at high risk of developing a Reading Disability (RD), although the reasons remain unclear. ADHD-associated impairments, including processing speed, can complicate clinical evaluation for a co-occurring RD diagnosis. We propose a novel metric to (a) assess reading development and (b) provide an alternative method to classifying readers that may aid investigations for etiologies of RD in ADHD. Specifically, as both phonological decoding and word recognition skills are important precursors of reading fluency, we propose a new quantitative method comparing these skills after accounting for variations in perception, motor response, or processing speeds...
June 1, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549355/predictors-of-language-gains-among-school-age-children-with-language-impairment-in-the-public-schools
#18
Laura M Justice, Hui Jiang, Jessica A Logan, Mary Beth Schmitt
Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The sample included 272 kindergartners and first-graders with language impairment who participated in a larger study titled "Speech-Therapy Experiences in the Public Schools...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547010/language-development-and-impairment-in-children-with-mild-to-moderate-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#19
Lorna F Halliday, Outi Tuomainen, Stuart Rosen
Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including measures of phonological processing, receptive and expressive vocabulary and grammar, word and nonword reading, and parental report of communication skills...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544439/effects-of-cognitive-impairment-on-prosodic-parameters-of-speech-production-planning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Céline De Looze, Noémie Moreau, Laurent Renié, Finnian Kelly, Alain Ghio, Audrey Rico, Bertrand Audoin, François Viallet, Jean Pelletier, Caterina Petrone
Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
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