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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775094/developmental-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment-distinct-syntactic-profiles
#1
Hélène Delage, Stephanie Durrleman
Recent work exploring syntax in developmental dyslexia (DD) has identified morphosyntactic deficits, striking parallelisms between children with DD and specific language impairment (SLI). The question remains open if the underlying causes for such deficits are related to difficulties in phonology, which is affected in DD, or to working memory, as has been previously reported for SLI. We focus on the production of third person accusative clitic pronouns (ACC3) and of homophonous definite determiners in French-speaking children with DD and SLI as well as typically developing (TD) controls...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725839/executive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#2
Itaru Tamura, Asako Takei, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Michio Nonaka, Sanae Homma, Fumio Moriwaka
The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(SCA3). We examined 15 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3 and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age, years of education, and intellectual ability. We administered verbal memory (word recall and word recognition) and executive function tasks (word fluency test, forward and backward digit and visual span tests, Kana Pick-out Test, Trail Making Test, and conflicting instructions and a Go/NoGo task from the Frontal Assessment Battery)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713237/effective-instruction-for-persisting-dyslexia-in-upper-grades-adding-hope-stories-and-computer-coding-to-explicit-literacy-instruction
#3
Robert Thompson, Steve Tanimoto, Ruby Dawn Lyman, Kira Geselowitz, Kristin Kawena Begay, Kathleen Nielsen, William Nagy, Robert Abbott, Marshall Raskind, Virginia Berninger
Children in grades 4 to 6 ( N =14) who despite early intervention had persisting dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling) were assessed before and after computerized reading and writing instruction aimed at subword, word, and syntax skills shown in four prior studies to be effective for treating dyslexia. During the 12 two-hour sessions once a week after school they first completed HAWK Letters in Motion© for manuscript and cursive handwriting, HAWK Words in Motion© for phonological, orthographic, and morphological coding for word reading and spelling, and HAWK Minds in Motion© for sentence reading comprehension and written sentence composing...
May 2018: Education and information technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709764/episodic-traces-and-statistical-regularities-paired-associate-learning-in-typical-and-dyslexic-readers
#4
Manon Wyn Jones, Jan-Rouke Kuipers, Sinead Nugent, Angelina Miley, Gary Oppenheim
Learning visual-phonological associations is a key skill underlying successful reading acquisition. However, we are yet to understand the cognitive mechanisms that enable efficient learning in good readers, and those which are aberrant in individuals with developmental dyslexia. Here, we use a repeated cued-recall task to examine how typical and reading-impaired adults acquire novel associations between visual and phonological stimuli, incorporating a looking-at-nothing paradigm to probe implicit memory for target locations...
April 27, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706915/the-impact-of-morphological-awareness-on-word-reading-and-dictation-in-chinese-early-adolescent-readers-with-and-without-dyslexia
#5
Sylvia Chanda Kalindi, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness in understanding Chinese word reading and dictation among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers in Hong Kong as well as the cognitive-linguistic profile of early adolescent readers with dyslexia. Fifty-four readers with dyslexia in Grades 5 and 6 were compared with 54 chronological age-matched (CA) typical readers on the following measures of cognitive-linguistic and literacy skills: morphological awareness, phonological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, vocabulary knowledge, verbal short-term memory (STM), Chinese word reading, and dictation (or spelling)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691983/worddriver-1-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-an-app-supported-decoding-intervention-for-children-with-reading-impairment
#6
Antonette Seiler, Suze Leitão, Mara Blosfelds
BACKGROUND: Fluent word reading is a key characteristic of skilled reading, yet most children with reading disorders have impaired word-reading skills. Previous research has demonstrated that multi-component interventions targeting phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle are effective for children with reading disorders. However, about 25% of children fail to respond to these interventions. While it has been difficult to isolate the active ingredient, the findings of some studies suggest that tasks targeting phonological recoding and orthographic processing are essential elements in improving decoding...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681826/frontal-phonological-agraphia-and-acalculia-with-impaired-verbal-short-term-memory-due-to-left-inferior-precentral-gyrus-lesion
#7
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Emi Furukawa, Masanori Kurihara, Izumi Sugimoto
We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679920/optimizing-text-for-an-individual-s-visual-system-the-contribution-of-visual-crowding-to-reading-difficulties
#8
Sung Jun Joo, Alex L White, Douglas J Strodtman, Jason D Yeatman
Reading is a complex process that involves low-level visual processing, phonological processing, and higher-level semantic processing. Given that skilled reading requires integrating information among these different systems, it is likely that reading difficulty-known as dyslexia-can emerge from impairments at any stage of the reading circuitry. To understand contributing factors to reading difficulties within individuals, it is necessary to diagnose the function of each component of the reading circuitry. Here, we investigated whether adults with dyslexia who have impairments in visual processing respond to a visual manipulation specifically targeting their impairment...
March 23, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667706/preliteracy-impairments-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#9
Shelley S Arnold, Jonathan M Payne, Jennifer Lorenzo, Kathryn N North, Belinda Barton
AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the preliteracy abilities of young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to identify which of these abilities best predicted conventional literacy (spelling). METHOD: Forty-two children with NF1 (23 males, 19 females; mean age [SD] 5y 6mo [6mo]) were compared with 32 unaffected children (15 males, 17 females; mean age [SD] 5y 4mo [6mo]). All children completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment including measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid automatic naming) and letter-sound knowledge...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648863/is-the-phonological-similarity-effect-in-working-memory-due-to-proactive-interference
#10
Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Philip T Quinlan
Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment attributable to phonological similarity. Although this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory (STM) task. We use the method of serial reconstruction to test this in an experiment contrasting the standard paradigm in which successive sequences are drawn from the same set of phonologically similar or dissimilar words and one in which the vowel sound on which similarity is based is switched from trial to trial, a manipulation analogous to that producing release from PI in the Peterson task...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627942/orthostatic-hypotension-acutely-impairs-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Michela Sforza, Francesca Assogna, Domiziana Rinaldi, Giuliano Sette, Stefania Tagliente, Francesco E Pontieri
Orthostatic hypotension is a frequent non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, with negative prognostic role on cognitive functions. Here we measured the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on executive functions in Parkinson's disease patients devoid of hypertension, carotid artery stenosis, and significant chronic cerebrovascular pathology. Measurements were carried out during regular visits in outpatient setting. Twenty-eight Parkinson's disease patients were recruited and studied along scheduled outpatient visits...
April 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620405/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-predictors-of-social-problems-in-adhd-a-bayesian-framework
#12
Michael J Kofler, Sherelle L Harmon, Paula A Aduen, Taylor N Day, Kristin E Austin, Jamie A Spiegel, Lauren Irwin, Dustin E Sarver
OBJECTIVE: Social problems are a key area of functional impairment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and converging evidence points to executive dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ADHD-related social dysfunction. The evidence is mixed, however, with regard to which neurocognitive abilities account for these relations. METHOD: A well-characterized group of 117 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.45, SD = 1.53; 43 girls; 69.5% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 77) and without ADHD (n = 40) were administered multiple, counterbalanced tests of neurocognitive functioning and assessed for social skills via multi-informant reports...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609008/atypical-cortical-entrainment-to-speech-in-the-right-hemisphere-underpins-phonemic-deficits-in-dyslexia
#13
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Varghese Peter, Marina Kalashnikova, Usha Goswami, Denis Burnham, Edmund C Lalor
Developmental dyslexia is a multifaceted disorder of learning primarily manifested by difficulties in reading, spelling, and phonological processing. Neural studies suggest that phonological difficulties may reflect impairments in fundamental cortical oscillatory mechanisms. Here we examine cortical mechanisms in children (6-12 years of age) with or without dyslexia (utilising both age- and reading-level-matched controls) using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG data were recorded as participants listened to an audio-story...
March 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600481/similarities-between-the-irrelevant-sound-effect-and-the-suffix-effect
#14
J Richard Hanley, Jake Bourgaize
Although articulatory suppression abolishes the effect of irrelevant sound (ISE) on serial recall when sequences are presented visually, the effect persists with auditory presentation of list items. Two experiments were designed to test the claim that, when articulation is suppressed, the effect of irrelevant sound on the retention of auditory lists resembles a suffix effect. A suffix is a spoken word that immediately follows the final item in a list. Even though participants are told to ignore it, the suffix impairs serial recall of auditory lists...
March 29, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588226/the-current-status-of-the-magnocellular-theory-of-developmental-dyslexia
#15
John Stein
Some people doubt that the concept of developmental dyslexia (DD) is useful at all because the phonological weaknesses seen in DD cannot be distinguished from those found in every person with poor reading skills, whatever their cause. Here I argue that true DD is characterized by poor temporal processing, hence impaired visual and auditory sequencing, that is caused by impaired development of transient/magnocellular (M-) systems throughout the brain. These deficits can be measured to distinguish the causes of the phonological weaknesses in DD from those causing similar deficits in other types of poor reading; Importantly this knowledge can be exploited to develop effective improvements in treatment...
March 24, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577804/inflectional-morphology-in-fluent-aphasia-a-case-study-in-a-highly-inflected-language
#16
Noémie Auclair-Ouellet, Pauline Pythoud, Monica Koenig-Bruhin, Marion Fossard
Inflectional morphology difficulties are typically reported in non-fluent aphasia with agrammatism, but a growing number of studies show that they can also be present in fluent aphasia. In agrammatism, morphological difficulties are conceived as the consequence of impaired phonological encoding and would affect regular verbs more than irregular verbs. However, studies show that inflectional morphology difficulties concern both regular and irregular verbs, and that their origin could be more conceptual/semantic in nature...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575355/family-aggregation-of-language-impairment-in-an-isolated-chilean-population-from-robinson-crusoe-island
#17
Zulema De Barbieri, María Angélica Fernández, Dianne F Newbury, Pía Villanueva
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the inhabitants of the Chilean Robinson Crusoe Island have an increased frequency of specific language impairment (SLI) or developmental language disorder (DLD). AIMS: To explore the familial aggregation of DLD in this community. METHODS & PROCEDURES: We assessed the frequency of DLD amongst colonial children between the ages of 3 and 8;11 years (50 individuals from 45 nuclear families). Familial aggregation rates of language disorder were calculated by assessing all available first-degree relatives (n = 107, 77 parents, 25 siblings, five half-siblings) of the probands...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536651/neurobehavioral-features-in-individuals-with-kabuki-syndrome
#18
Cristina Caciolo, Paolo Alfieri, Giorgia Piccini, Maria Cristina Digilio, Francesca Romana Lepri, Marco Tartaglia, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari
BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies affecting development and function of multiple systems. Over the years, researchers have attempted to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of KS in cohorts of patients enrolled on the basis of clinical assessment. The availability of molecular testing now allows for recruitment of patients with confirmed KS due to KMT2D and KDM6A. METHODS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of individuals with molecularly confirmed diagnosis of KS, and determine the extent of heterogeneity occurring in these profiles between individuals with clinical diagnosis of KS with and without mutations in KMT2D...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521532/cortical-responses-to-chinese-phonemes-in-preschoolers-predict-their-literacy-skills-at-school-age
#19
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511958/are-ran-deficits-in-university-students-with-dyslexia-due-to-defective-lexical-access-impaired-anchoring-or-slow-articulation
#20
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
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