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Phonological impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933620/sequential-processing-deficit-as-a-shared-persisting-biomarker-in-dyslexia-and-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#1
Beate Peter, Hope Lancaster, Caitlin Vose, Kyle Middleton, Carol Stoel-Gammon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that individuals with dyslexia and individuals with childhood apraxia of speech share an underlying persisting deficit in processing sequential information. Levels of impairment (sensory encoding, memory, retrieval, and motor planning/programming) were also investigated. Participants were 22 adults with dyslexia, 10 adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech (phCAS), and 22 typical controls. All participants completed nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition, and nonword decoding tasks...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929065/the-use-of-lexical-neighborhood-test-lnt-in-the-assessment-of-speech-recognition-performance-of-cochlear-implantees-with-normal-and-malformed-cochlea
#2
Anjali R Kant, Arun A Banik
The present study aims to use the model-based test Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT), to assess speech recognition performance in early and late implanted hearing impaired children with normal and malformed cochlea. The LNT was administered to 46 children with congenital (prelingual) bilateral severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss, using Nucleus 24 cochlear implant. The children were grouped into Group 1-(early implantees with normal cochlea-EI); n = 15, 31/2-61/2 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#3
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904971/cognitive-or-cognitive-motor-executive-function-tasks-evaluating-verbal-fluency-measures-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Mariana Callil Voos, Janini Chen, Debora Cristina Valente Francato, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Hsin Fen Chien, Letícia Lessa Mansur
INTRODUCTION: Executive function deficits are observed in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) from early stages and have great impact on daily living activities. Verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia involve phonarticulatory coordination, response inhibition, and phonological processing and may also be affected in people with PD. This study aimed to describe the performance of PD patients and an age- and education-matched control group on executive function, verbal fluency, and oral diadochokinesia tests and to investigate possible relationships between them...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880490/not-all-phonological-awareness-deficits-are-created-equal-evidence-from-a-comparison-between-children-with-otitis-media-and-poor-readers
#5
Julia M Carroll, Helen L Breadmore
Children with reading difficulties and children with a history of repeated ear infections (Otitis Media, OM) are both thought to have phonological impairments, but for quite different reasons. This paper examines the profile of phonological and morphological awareness in poor readers and children with OM. Thirty-three poor readers were compared to individually matched chronological age and reading age controls. Their phonological awareness and morphological awareness skills were consistently at the level of reading age matched controls...
September 7, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867555/lexical-access-in-semantic-variant-ppa-evidence-for-a-post-semantic-contribution-to-naming-deficits
#6
Stephen M Wilson, Charlotte Dehollain, Sophie Ferrieux, Laura Hook, Marc Teichmann
The most salient clinical symptom of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a profound and pervasive anomia. These patients' naming impairments have been shown to reflect in large part a domain-general deterioration of conceptual knowledge that impacts both linguistic and non-linguistic processing. However, it is possible that post-semantic stages of lexical access may also contribute to naming deficits. To clarify the stages at which lexical access breaks down in semantic variant PPA, eleven French-speaking patients were asked to name objects, and were then queried for semantic, lexical-syntactic, and word form information pertaining to the items they could not name...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853966/what-we-can-learn-from-naming-errors-of-children-with-language-impairment-at-preschool-age
#7
Michal Biran, Rama Novogrodsky, Efrat Harel-Nov, Mali Gil, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch
Naming is a complex, multi-level process. It is composed of distinct semantic and phonological levels. Children with naming deficits produce different error types when failing to retrieve the target word. This study explored the error characteristics of children with language impairment compared to those with typical language development. 46 preschool children were tested on a naming test: 16 with language impairment and a naming deficit and 30 with typical language development. The analysis compared types of error in both groups...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846461/deficits-in-comprehending-wh-questions-in-children-with-hearing-loss-the-contribution-of-phonological-short-term-memory-and-syntactic-complexity
#8
Martina Penke, Eva Wimmer
The aim of the study is to investigate if German children with hearing loss (HL) display persisting problems in comprehending complex sentences and to find out whether these problems can be linked to limitations in phonological short-term memory (PSTM). A who-question comprehension test (picture pointing) and a nonword repetition (NWR) task were conducted with 21 German children with bilateral sensorineural HL (ages 3-4) and with age-matched 19 normal hearing (NH) children. Follow-up data (ages 6-8) are reported for 10 of the children with HL...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843341/artificial-grammar-learning-in-vascular-and-progressive-non-fluent-aphasias
#9
Thomas E Cope, Benjamin Wilson, Holly Robson, Rebecca Drinkall, Lauren Dean, Manon Grube, P Simon Jones, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy D Griffiths, James B Rowe, Christopher I Petkov
Patients with non-fluent aphasias display impairments of expressive and receptive grammar. This has been attributed to deficits in processing configurational and hierarchical sequencing relationships. This hypothesis had not been formally tested. It was also controversial whether impairments are specific to language, or reflect domain general deficits in processing structured auditory sequences. Here we used an artificial grammar learning paradigm to compare the abilities of controls to participants with agrammatic aphasia of two different aetiologies: stroke and frontotemporal dementia...
August 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829808/deficits-of-congenital-amusia-beyond-pitch-evidence-from-impaired-categorical-perception-of-vowels-in-cantonese-speaking-congenital-amusics
#10
Caicai Zhang, Jing Shao, Xunan Huang
Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of fine-grained pitch processing in music and speech. However, it remains unclear whether amusia is a pitch-specific deficit, or whether it affects frequency/spectral processing more broadly, such as the perception of formant frequency in vowels, apart from pitch. In this study, in order to illuminate the scope of the deficits, we compared the performance of 15 Cantonese-speaking amusics and 15 matched controls on the categorical perception of sound continua in four stimulus contexts: lexical tone, pure tone, vowel, and voice onset time (VOT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820919/a-preliminary-comparison-of-reading-subtypes-in-a-clinical-sample-of-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#11
Krystal L Werfel, Hannah Krimm
Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary study was to (a) compare the pattern of reading subtypes among a clinical sample of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language and (b) evaluate phonological and nonphonological language deficits within each reading impairment subtype. Method: Participants were 32 children with SLI and 39 children with typical language in Grades 2 through 4. Each child was classified as demonstrating 1 of 4 reading subtypes on the basis of word-level and text-level skills: typical reading, dyslexia, specific reading comprehension impairment, or garden variety reading impairment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798710/convergent-evaluation-of-working-memory-and-arithmetic-ability-in-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-intellectual-impairment
#12
Sandra Pellizzoni, Maria C Passolunghi
Studies focusing on a joint evaluation of both Working Memory (WM) and Math Ability (MA) in autism are far from abundant in literature, possibly due to inadequate methodological approaches and reported inconsistencies between results obtained in each separate field of research, resulting in contradictory conclusions. The specific aim of this case report is therefore evaluating and integrating results on these two cognitive abilities in a child with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual impairment. Our data on an autistic 10-year-old child (M...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750415/influences-of-phonological-context-on-tense-marking-in-spanish-english-dual-language-learners
#13
Philip N Combiths, Jessica A Barlow, Irina Potapova, Sonja Pruitt-Lord
Purpose: The emergence of tense-morpheme marking during language acquisition is highly variable, which confounds the use of tense marking as a diagnostic indicator of language impairment in linguistically diverse populations. In this study, we seek to better understand tense-marking patterns in young bilingual children by comparing phonological influences on marking of 2 word-final tense morphemes. Method: In spontaneous connected speech samples from 10 Spanish-English dual language learners aged 56-66 months (M = 61...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745121/ineffective-initiation-contributes-to-deficient-verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Paweł Krukow, Michał Harciarek, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Kamil Jonak
AIMS: Patients with schizophrenia (SCH) show impaired verbal and non-verbal fluency. However, these individuals' fluctuations in words or designs generation efficiency over time, a phenomenon that may significantly affect fluency, have never been studied. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate if individuals with SCH may present with alternations in the dynamics of the information production and its control as well as to test if the potential abnormalities in this regard might affect these patients' overall performance on both verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727489/third-person-singular-s-in-typical-development-and-specific-language-impairment-input-and-neighbourhood-density
#15
Justin B Kueser, Laurence B Leonard, Patricia Deevy
The purpose of this study was to examine factors promoting the use of third person singular -s by 23 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 21 children with typical development (TD). Relative proportions of third person singular -s forms in the input (input proportion) were calculated for 25 verbs based on data from an American English corpus of child-directed speech. Neighbourhood density values were also collected for these verbs. With previously collected probes of third person singular -s use for each of these verbs, we found with logistic regression that input proportion was positively associated with the likelihood of third person singular -s use for both groups...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723964/development-of-the-korean-adult-reading-test-kart-to-estimate-premorbid-intelligence-in-dementia-patients
#16
Dahyun Yi, Eun Hyun Seo, Ji Young Han, Bo Kyung Sohn, Min Soo Byun, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Suzy Ahn, Jong Inn Woo, Jongho Jun, Dong Young Lee
We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710937/developmental-surface-and-phonological-dyslexia-in-both-greek-and-english
#17
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
November 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704379/fractionating-nonword-repetition-the-contributions-of-short-term-memory-and-oromotor-praxis-are-different
#18
Saloni Krishnan, Katherine J Alcock, Daniel Carey, Lina Bergström, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Frederic Dick
The ability to reproduce novel words is a sensitive marker of language impairment across a variety of developmental disorders. Nonword repetition tasks are thought to reflect phonological short-term memory skills. Yet, when children hear and then utter a word for the first time, they must transform a novel speech signal into a series of coordinated, precisely timed oral movements. Little is known about how children's oromotor speed, planning and co-ordination abilities might influence their ability to repeat novel nonwords, beyond the influence of higher-level cognitive and linguistic skills...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691167/exploring-the-link-between-visual-perception-visual-motor-integration-and-reading-in-normal-developing-and-impaired-children-using-dtvp-2
#19
Stéphanie Bellocchi, Mathilde Muneaux, Andréa Huau, Yohana Lévêque, Marianne Jover, Stéphanie Ducrot
Reading is known to be primarily a linguistic task. However, to successfully decode written words, children also need to develop good visual-perception skills. Furthermore, motor skills are implicated in letter recognition and reading acquisition. Three studies have been designed to determine the link between reading, visual perception, and visual-motor integration using the Developmental Test of Visual Perception version 2 (DTVP-2). Study 1 tests how visual perception and visual-motor integration in kindergarten predict reading outcomes in Grade 1, in typical developing children...
July 10, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679003/stability-of-the-cortical-sensory-waveforms-the-p1-n1-p2-complex-and-t-complex-of-auditory-evoked-potentials
#20
Monica Wagner, Valerie L Shafer, Evis Haxhari, Kevin Kiprovski, Katherine Behrmann, Tara Griffiths
Purpose: Atypical cortical sensory waveforms reflecting impaired encoding of auditory stimuli may result from inconsistency in cortical response to the acoustic feature changes within spoken words. Thus, the present study assessed intrasubject stability of the P1-N1-P2 complex and T-complex to multiple productions of spoken nonwords in 48 adults to provide benchmarks for future studies probing auditory processing deficits. Method: Response trials were split (split epoch averages) for each of 4 word types for each subject and compared for similarity in waveform morphology...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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