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Phonological impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#1
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159040/does-the-late-positive-component-reflect-successful-reading-acquisition-a-longitudinal-erp-study
#2
Christian Wachinger, Susanne Volkmer, Katharina Bublath, Jennifer Bruder, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne
Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder that is associated with deficits in phonological processing, where the exact neural basis for those processing deficits remains unclear. In particular, disagreement exists whether degraded phonological representations or an impaired access to the phonological representations causes these deficits. To investigate this question and to trace changes in neurophysiology during the process of reading acquisition, we designed a longitudinal study with event related potentials (ERPs) in children between kindergarten and second grade...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#3
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121196/the-role-of-phonological-working-memory-and-environmental-factors-in-lexical-development-in-italian-speaking-late-talkers-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#4
Andrea Marini, Milena Ruffino, Maria Enrica Sali, Massimo Molteni
Purpose: This follow-up study assessed (a) the influence of phonological working memory (pWM), home literacy environment, and a family history of linguistic impairments in late talkers (LTs); (b) the diagnostic accuracy of a task of nonword repetition (NWR) in identifying LTs; and (c) the persistence of lexical weaknesses after 10 months. Method: Two hundred ninety-three children were assessed at approximately 32 (t1) and 41 (t2) months. At t1, they were administered the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey, an NWR task (used to assess pWM), and questionnaires assessing home literacy environment and family history of language impairments...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107746/how-many-deficits-in-the-same-dyslexic-brains-a-behavioural-and-fmri-assessment-of-comorbidity-in-adult-dyslexics
#5
Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Gabriella Bottini, Nunzio A Borghese, Mirko Lucchese, Maurizio Sberna, Cathy J Price, Eraldo Paulesu
Dyslexia can have different manifestations: this has motivated different theories on its nature, on its underlying brain bases and enduring controversies on how to best treat it. The relative weight of the different manifestations has never been evaluated using both behavioural and fMRI measures, a challenge taken here to assess the major systems called into play in dyslexia by different theories. We found that adult well-compensated dyslexics were systematically impaired only in reading and in visuo-phonological tasks, while deficits for other systems (e...
September 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102838/correlations-between-working-memory-impairment-and-neurometabolites-of-prefrontal-cortex-and-lenticular-nucleus-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Yanyan Shan, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Xueguo Li, Hui Zhao, Junhao Chen, Qianyi Lu, Lu Zhang, Zhinan Li, Shunkai Lai, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of working memory (WM) impairment in MDD remains unclear. We aimed to find out the mechanism by using neuropsychological tests and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: 31 MDD patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our study. The WM performance and neurometabolite ratios of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lenticular nucleus (LN) between two groups were evaluated and compared. And the correlations between abnormal neurometabolite ratios and WM dysfunction were computed...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098514/parents-reading-history-as-an-indicator-of-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#7
A Giménez, A Ortiz, M López-Zamora, A Sánchez, J L Luque
Children from families whose members have reading impairments are found to be poorer performers, take less advantage of instruction, and require more time to reach the reading level of children whose relatives are good readers. As a family's reading history may not be available, a self-report of reading abilities is used to identify children's background. In this paper, we explored the contribution of phonological, literacy, and linguistic abilities and reported parental reading abilities to predict reading achievement at the end of the school year in a Spanish sample...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081756/the-locus-preservation-hypothesis-shared-linguistic-profiles-across-developmental-disorders-and-the-resilient-part-of-the-human-language-faculty
#8
Evelina Leivada, Maria Kambanaros, Kleanthes K Grohmann
Grammatical markers are not uniformly impaired across speakers of different languages, even when speakers share a diagnosis and the marker in question is grammaticalized in a similar way in these languages. The aim of this work is to demarcate, from a cross-linguistic perspective, the linguistic phenotype of three genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders: specific language impairment, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. After a systematic review of linguistic profiles targeting mainly English-, Greek-, Catalan-, and Spanish-speaking populations with developmental disorders (n = 880), shared loci of impairment are identified and certain domains of grammar are shown to be more vulnerable than others...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062600/l1-and-l2-reading-skills-in-dutch-adolescents-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#9
Ellie R H van Setten, Wim Tops, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated differences in reading and spelling outcomes in Dutch and English as a second language (ESL) in adolescents with a high familial risk of dyslexia, of whom some have developed dyslexia (HRDys) while others have not (HRnonDys), in comparison to a low familial risk control group without dyslexia (LRnonDys). This allowed us to investigate the persistence of dyslexia in the first language (L1) and the effect of dyslexia on the second language (L2), which has, in this case, a lower orthographic transparency...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056810/connected-speech-in-transient-aphasias-after-left-hemisphere-resective-surgery
#10
Angelica McCarron, Ashley Chavez, Miranda Babiak, Mitchel S Berger, Edward F Chang, Stephen M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Transient aphasias are common in the first few days after resective surgery to the language-dominant hemisphere. The specific speech and language deficits that occur are related to the location of the surgical site, and may include impairments in fluency, lexical access, repetition, and comprehension. The impact of these transient aphasias on connected speech production has not previously been investigated. AIMS: The goals of this study were to characterize the nature of connected speech deficits in the immediate post-surgical period, and to determine which deficits resolve completely within 1 month...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052729/consonant-age-of-acquisition-effects-in-nonword-repetition-are-not-articulatory-in-nature
#11
Michelle W Moore, Julie A Fiez, Connie A Tompkins
Purpose: Most research examining long-term-memory effects on nonword repetition (NWR) has focused on lexical-level variables. Phoneme-level variables have received little attention, although there are reasons to expect significant sublexical effects in NWR. To further understand the underlying processes of NWR, this study examined effects of sublexical long-term phonological knowledge by testing whether performance differs when the stimuli comprise consonants acquired later versus earlier in speech development...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051682/rapid-recovery-from-aphasia-after-infarction-of-wernicke-s-area
#12
Stephanie A Yagata, Melodie Yen, Angelica McCarron, Alexa Bautista, Genevieve Lamair-Orosco, Stephen M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. AIMS: The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? METHODS & PROCEDURES: We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040923/six-factors-of-adult-dyslexia-assessed-by-cognitive-tests-and-self-report-questions-very-high-predictive-validity
#13
Peter Tamboer, Harrie C M Vorst, Peter F de Jong
The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of 154 students. There are three main results. First, various analyses of principal components showed that six or more factors of dyslexia can be distinguished (rapid naming, spelling, reading, short-term memory, confusion, phonology, attention, complexity)...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035070/verbal-fluency-in-male-and-female-schizophrenia-patients-different-patterns-of-association-with-processing-speed-working-memory-span-and-clinical-symptoms
#14
Gildas Brébion, Christian Stephan-Otto, Susana Ochoa, Lourdes Nieto, Montserrat Contel, Judith Usall
OBJECTIVE: Decreased processing speed in schizophrenia patients has been identified as a major impairment factor in various neuropsychological domains. Working memory span has been found to be involved in several deep or effortful cognitive processes. We investigated the impact that these 2 cognitive functions may have on phonological and semantic fluency in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy participants were administered a neuropsychological battery including phonological and semantic fluency, working memory, and cognitive and motor speed...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952051/are-episodic-buffer-processes-intact-in-adhd-experimental-evidence-and-linkage-with-hyperactive-behavior
#15
Michael J Kofler, Jamie A Spiegel, Kristin E Austin, Lauren N Irwin, Elia F Soto, Dustin E Sarver
Working memory deficits are present in a substantial proportion of children with ADHD, and converging evidence links these deficits with ADHD-related behavioral and functional impairments. At the same time, working memory is not a unitary construct, and evidence is lacking regarding the role of several components of this system in ADHD. Preclinical behavioral studies are needed to fractionate the multicomponent working memory system, determine which specific subcomponent(s) are impaired in ADHD, and more importantly link these subcomponent(s) with specific ADHD-related behavioral symptoms/functional impairments...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949778/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-impacts-language-and-reading-into-late-adolescence-behavioral-and-erp-evidence
#16
Nicole Landi, Trey Avery, Michael J Crowley, Jia Wu, Linda Mayes
Extant research documents impaired language among children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) relative to nondrug exposed (NDE) children, suggesting that cocaine alters development of neurobiological systems that support language. The current study examines behavioral and neural (electrophysiological) indices of language function in older adolescents. Specifically, we compare performance of PCE (N = 59) and NDE (N = 51) adolescents on a battery of cognitive and linguistic assessments that tap word reading, reading comprehension, semantic and grammatical processing, and IQ...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933620/sequential-processing-deficit-as-a-shared-persisting-biomarker-in-dyslexia-and-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#17
Beate Peter, Hope Lancaster, Caitlin Vose, Kyle Middleton, Carol Stoel-Gammon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that individuals with dyslexia and individuals with childhood apraxia of speech share an underlying persisting deficit in processing sequential information. Levels of impairment (sensory encoding, memory, retrieval, and motor planning/programming) were also investigated. Participants were 22 adults with dyslexia, 10 adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech (phCAS), and 22 typical controls. All participants completed nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition, and nonword decoding tasks...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929065/the-use-of-lexical-neighborhood-test-lnt-in-the-assessment-of-speech-recognition-performance-of-cochlear-implantees-with-normal-and-malformed-cochlea
#18
Anjali R Kant, Arun A Banik
The present study aims to use the model-based test Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT), to assess speech recognition performance in early and late implanted hearing impaired children with normal and malformed cochlea. The LNT was administered to 46 children with congenital (prelingual) bilateral severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss, using Nucleus 24 cochlear implant. The children were grouped into Group 1-(early implantees with normal cochlea-EI); n = 15, 31/2-61/2 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#19
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904971/cognitive-or-cognitive-motor-executive-function-tasks-evaluating-verbal-fluency-measures-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Mariana Callil Voos, Janini Chen, Debora Cristina Valente Francato, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Hsin Fen Chien, Letícia Lessa Mansur
INTRODUCTION: Executive function deficits are observed in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) from early stages and have great impact on daily living activities. Verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia involve phonarticulatory coordination, response inhibition, and phonological processing and may also be affected in people with PD. This study aimed to describe the performance of PD patients and an age- and education-matched control group on executive function, verbal fluency, and oral diadochokinesia tests and to investigate possible relationships between them...
2017: BioMed Research International
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