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Phonological impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920731/do-you-read-how-i-read-systematic-individual-differences-in-semantic-reliance-amongst-normal-readers
#1
Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Gaston Madrid, Karalyn E Patterson
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913156/the-oral-spelling-profile-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-the-nature-of-the-graphemic-representation
#2
Silvia Primativo, Keir X X Yong, Timothy J Shakespeare, Sebastian J Crutch
Spelling is a complex cognitive task where central and peripheral components are involved in engaging resources from many different cognitive processes. The present paper aims to both characterize the oral spelling deficit in a population of patients affected by a neurodegenerative condition and to clarify the nature of the graphemic representation within the currently available spelling models. Indeed, the nature of graphemic representation as a linear or multi-componential structure is still debated. Different hypotheses have been raised about its nature in the orthographic lexicon, with one positing that graphemes are complex objects whereby quantity and identity are separately represented in orthographic representations and can thus be selectively impaired...
November 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875715/common-and-divergent-neural-correlates-of-anomia-in-amnestic-and-logopenic-presentations-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Cristian E Leyton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Kirrie J Ballard
The majority of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) cases harbour Alzheimer pathology, suggesting that lv-PPA constitutes an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, even if caused by Alzheimer pathology, the clinical manifestations of lv-PPA differ from those observed in the typical or amnestic AD presentation: in lv-PPA, aphasia is the main feature while amnestic AD is characterised by impaired episodic memory. Anomia or impaired naming, however, is present in both AD presentations...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852336/underlying-manifestations-of-developmental-phonological-disorders-in-french-speaking-pre-schoolers
#4
Françoise Brosseau-Lapré, Susan Rvachew
This study examined the psycholinguistic profiles of Quebec French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD). The purpose was to determine whether the endophenotypes that have been identified in English-speaking children with DPD are similarly associated with speech impairment in French-speaking children. Seventy-two children with DPD and ten children with normally developing speech, aged four to six years, received a comprehensive assessment battery that included measures at the phenotype level (i...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849243/moyamoya-disease-impact-on-the-performance-of-oral-and-written-language
#5
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto Ferraz, Maria de Lourdes Merighi Tabaquim
Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848086/the-roles-of-cognitive-and-language-abilities-in-predicting-decoding-and-reading-comprehension-comparisons-of-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment
#6
Alexandra A Lauterbach, Yujeong Park, Linda J Lombardino
This study aimed to (a) explore the roles of cognitive and language variables in predicting reading abilities of two groups of individuals with reading disabilities (i.e., dyslexia and specific language impairment) and (b) examine which variable(s) is the most predictive in differentiating two groups. Inclusion/exclusion criteria applied to categorize the two groups yielded a total of 63 participants (n = 44 for the dyslexia; n = 19 for the specific language impairment). A stepwise multiple regression approach was conducted to examine which cognitive and/or language variables made the largest contribution to reading abilities (i...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833037/atypical-neural-synchronization-to-speech-envelope-modulations-in-dyslexia
#7
Astrid De Vos, Sophie Vanvooren, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
A fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech could underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. In this study, the hypothesis of a neural synchronization impairment is investigated more specifically as a function of different neural oscillatory bands and temporal information rates in speech. Auditory steady-state responses to 4, 10, 20 and 40Hz modulations were recorded in normal reading and dyslexic adolescents to measure neural synchronization of theta, alpha, beta and low-gamma oscillations to syllabic and phonemic rate information...
November 7, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826071/possible-roles-for-fronto-striatal-circuits-in-reading-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Fabio Richlan, Fumiko Hoeft
Several studies have reported hyperactivation in frontal and striatal regions in individuals with reading disorder (RD) during reading-related tasks. Hyperactivation in these regions is typically interpreted as a form of neural compensation and related to articulatory processing. Fronto-striatal hyperactivation in RD can however, also arise from fundamental impairment in reading related processes, such as phonological processing and implicit sequence learning relevant to early language acquisition. We review current evidence for the compensation hypothesis in RD and apply large-scale reverse inference to investigate anatomical overlap between hyperactivation regions and neural systems for articulation, phonological processing, implicit sequence learning...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785760/dyslexic-children-show-atypical-cerebellar-activation-and-cerebro-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-orthographic-and-phonological-processing
#9
Xiaoxia Feng, Le Li, Manli Zhang, Xiujie Yang, Mengyu Tian, Weiyi Xie, Yao Lu, Li Liu, Nathalie N Bélanger, Xiangzhi Meng, Guosheng Ding
Previous neuroimaging studies have found atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia in either motor-related tasks or language tasks. However, studies investigating atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia have mostly used tasks tapping phonological processing. A question that is yet unanswered is whether the cerebellum in individuals with dyslexia functions properly during orthographic processing of words, as growing evidence shows that the cerebellum is also involved in visual and spatial processing...
October 27, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775648/language-problems-and-adhd-symptoms-how-specific-are-the-links
#10
Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752247/the-nature-of-verbal-short-term-impairment-in-dyslexia-the-importance-of-serial-order
#11
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750281/a-framework-for-crosslinguistic-nonword-repetition-tests-effects-of-bilingualism-and-socioeconomic-status-on-children-s-performance
#12
Shula Chiat, Kamila Polišenská
Purpose: As a recognized indicator of language impairment, nonword repetition has unique potential for distinguishing language impairment from difficulties due to limited experience and knowledge of a language. This study focused on a new Crosslinguistic Nonword Repetition framework, comprising 3 tests that vary the phonological characteristics of nonwords, in the quest for an assessment that minimizes effects of language experience and knowledge and thereby maximizes potential for assessing children with diverse linguistic experience...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744224/verbal-fluency-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Amélie M Achim, Arthur Kaladjian, Chrystel Besche-Richard
BACKGROUND: One of the main features of bipolar disorder (BD), besides mood dysregulation, is an alteration of the structure of language. Bipolar patients present changes in semantic contents, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody and abnormal speed of language highlighted with various experimental tasks. Verbal fluency tasks are widely used to assess the abilities of bipolar patients to retrieve and produce verbal material from the lexico-semantic memory. Studies using these tasks have however yielded discrepant results...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739608/neural-initialization-of-audiovisual-integration-in-prereaders-at-varying-risk-for-developmental-dyslexia
#14
Iliana I Karipidis, Georgette Pleisch, Martina Röthlisberger, Christoph Hofstetter, Dario Dornbierer, Philipp Stämpfli, Silvia Brem
Learning letter-speech sound correspondences is a major step in reading acquisition and is severely impaired in children with dyslexia. Up to now, it remains largely unknown how quickly neural networks adopt specific functions during audiovisual integration of linguistic information when prereading children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Here, we simulated the process of learning letter-speech sound correspondences in 20 prereading children (6.13-7.17 years) at varying risk for dyslexia by training artificial letter-speech sound correspondences within a single experimental session...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739013/phonemic-morphemic-dissociation-in-university-students-with-dyslexia-an-index-of-reading-compensation
#15
Eddy Cavalli, Lynne G Duncan, Carsten Elbro, Abdessadek El Ahmadi, Pascale Colé
A phonological deficit constitutes a primary cause of developmental dyslexia, which persists into adulthood and can explain some aspects of their reading impairment. Nevertheless, some dyslexic adults successfully manage to study at university level, although very little is currently known about how they achieve this. The present study investigated at both the individual and group levels, whether the development of another oral language skill, namely, morphological knowledge, can be preserved and dissociated from the development of phonological knowledge...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708568/improving-production-of-treated-and-untreated-verbs-in-aphasia-a-meta-analysis
#16
Vânia de Aguiar, Roelien Bastiaanse, Gabriele Miceli
Background: Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707700/cognitive-linguistic-and-motor-abilities-in-a-multigenerational-family-with-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#17
Bronwyn Carrigg, Louise Parry, Elise Baker, Lawrence D Shriberg, Kirrie J Ballard
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the phenotype in a large family with a strong, multigenerational history of severe speech sound disorder (SSD) persisting into adolescence and adulthood in approximately half the cases. Aims were to determine whether a core phenotype, broader than speech, separated persistent from resolved SSD cases; and to ascertain the uniqueness of the phenotype relative to published cases. METHOD: Eleven members of the PM family (9-55 years) were assessed across cognitive, language, literacy, speech, phonological processing, numeracy, and motor domains...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701006/incorporation-of-feedback-during-beat-synchronization-is-an-index-of-neural-maturation-and-reading-skills
#18
Kali Woodruff Carr, Ahren B Fitzroy, Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Speech communication involves integration and coordination of sensory perception and motor production, requiring precise temporal coupling. Beat synchronization, the coordination of movement with a pacing sound, can be used as an index of this sensorimotor timing. We assessed adolescents' synchronization and capacity to correct asynchronies when given online visual feedback. Variability of synchronization while receiving feedback predicted phonological memory and reading sub-skills, as well as maturation of cortical auditory processing; less variable synchronization during the presence of feedback tracked with maturation of cortical processing of sound onsets and resting gamma activity...
October 1, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659413/difficulties-in-auditory-organization-as-a-cause-of-reading-backwardness-an-auditory-neuroscience-perspective
#19
Victoria Leong, Usha Goswami
Over 30 years ago, it was suggested that difficulties in the 'auditory organization' of word forms in the mental lexicon might cause reading difficulties. It was proposed that children used parameters such as rhyme and alliteration to organize word forms in the mental lexicon by acoustic similarity, and that such organization was impaired in developmental dyslexia. This literature was based on an 'oddity' measure of children's sensitivity to rhyme (e.g. wood, book, good) and alliteration (e.g. sun, sock, rag)...
September 22, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617883/neurocognitive-functioning-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-multiple-deficits-and-diagnostic-accuracy
#20
Octávio Moura, Marcelino Pereira, Cláudia Alfaiate, Eva Fernandes, Boavida Fernandes, Susana Nogueira, Joana Moreno, Mário R Simões
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Four groups of children between the ages of 8 and 10 years participated in the study: typically developing children (TDC; N = 34), children with DD-only (N = 32), children with ADHD-only (N = 32), and children with DD+ADHD (N = 18). RESULTS: Children with DD and ADHD exhibited significant weaknesses on almost all neurocognitive measures compared with TDC...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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