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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331204/a-cognitive-model-for-multidigit-number-reading-inferences-from-individuals-with-selective-impairments
#1
Dror Dotan, Naama Friedmann
We propose a detailed cognitive model of multi-digit number reading. The model postulates separate processes for visual analysis of the digit string and for oral production of the verbal number. Within visual analysis, separate sub-processes encode the digit identities and the digit order, and additional sub-processes encode the number's decimal structure: its length, the positions of 0, and the way it is parsed into triplets (e.g., 314987 → 314,987). Verbal production consists of a process that generates the verbal structure of the number, and another process that retrieves the phonological forms of each number word...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316015/tracking-the-effects-of-dyslexia-in-reading-and-spelling-development-a-longitudinal-study-of-greek-readers
#2
Vassiliki Diamanti, Nata Goulandris, Morag Stuart, Ruth Campbell, Athanassios Protopapas
In this study, we followed Greek children with and without dyslexia for 18 months, assessing them twice on a battery of phonological, reading, and spelling tasks, aiming to document the relative progress achieved and to uncover any specific effects of dyslexia in the development of reading and spelling beyond the longitudinal associations among variables that are observed in typical readers. A wide-ranging match was achieved between the dyslexic group and the younger reading-matched comparison group, enabling longitudinal comparisons on essentially identical initial performance profiles...
January 5, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#3
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278950/the-effect-of-different-speaker-accents-on-sentence-comprehension-in-children-with-speech-sound-disorder
#4
Jennifer Harte, Pauline Frizelle, Fiona Gibbon
There is substantial evidence that a speaker's accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener's comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214682/attentional-asymmetry-between-visual-hemifields-is-related-to-habitual-direction-of-reading-and-its-implications-for-debate-on-cause-and-effects-of-dyslexia
#5
Mojtaba Kermani, Ashika Verghese, Trichur R Vidyasagar
A major controversy regarding dyslexia is whether any of the many visual and phonological deficits found to be correlated with reading difficulty cause the impairment or result from the reduced amount of reading done by dyslexics. We studied this question by comparing a visual capacity in the left and right visual hemifields in people habitually reading scripts written right-to-left or left-to-right. Selective visual attention is necessary for efficient visual search and also for the sequential recognition of letters in words...
December 7, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213248/impact-of-diglossia-on-word-and-non-word-repetition-among-language-impaired-and-typically-developing-arabic-native-speaking-children
#6
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad, Ola Ghawi-Dakwar
The study tested the impact of the phonological and lexical distance between a dialect of Palestinian Arabic spoken in the north of Israel (SpA) and Modern Standard Arabic (StA or MSA) on word and non-word repetition in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in typically developing (TD) age-matched controls. Fifty kindergarten children (25 SLI, 25 TD; mean age 5;5) and fifty first grade children (25 SLI, 25 TD; mean age 6:11) were tested with a repetition task for 1-4 syllable long real words and pseudo words; Items varied systematically in whether each encoded a novel StA phoneme or not, namely a phoneme that is only used in StA but not in the spoken dialect targeted...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211656/the-neural-basis-of-successful-word-reading-in-aphasia
#7
Sara B Pillay, William L Gross, William W Graves, Colin Humphries, Diane S Book, Jeffrey R Binder
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural basis of recovery from stroke is a major research goal. Many functional neuroimaging studies have identified changes in brain activity in people with aphasia, but it is unclear whether these changes truly support successful performance or merely reflect increased task difficulty. We addressed this problem by examining differences in brain activity associated with correct and incorrect responses on an overt reading task. On the basis of previous proposals that semantic retrieval can assist pronunciation of written words, we hypothesized that recruitment of semantic areas would be greater on successful trials...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201552/atp2c2-and-dyx1c1-are-putative-modulators-of-dyslexia-related-mmr
#8
Bent Müller, Gesa Schaadt, Johannes Boltze, Frank Emmrich, Michael A Skeide, Nicole E Neef, Indra Kraft, Jens Brauer, Angela D Friederici, Holger Kirsten, Arndt Wilcke
Background: Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder affecting reading and spelling abilities. Its prevalence is ~5% in German-speaking individuals. Although the etiology of dyslexia largely remains to be determined, comprehensive evidence supports deficient phonological processing as a major contributing factor. An important prerequisite for phonological processing is auditory discrimination and, thus, essential for acquiring reading and spelling skills. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for auditory discrimination capabilities with dyslexics showing an altered late component of MMR in response to auditory input...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182947/low-level-neural-auditory-discrimination-dysfunctions-in-specific-language-impairment-a-review-on-mismatch-negativity-findings
#9
REVIEW
Teija Kujala, Miika Leminen
In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child's oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI...
October 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174050/phonological-working-memory-and-foxp2
#10
Katrin Schulze, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Mortimer Mishkin
The discovery and description of the affected members of the KE family (aKE) initiated research on how genes enable the unique human trait of speech and language. Many aspects of this genetic influence on speech-related cognitive mechanisms are still elusive, e.g. if and how cognitive processes not directly involved in speech production are affected. In the current study we investigated the effect of the FOXP2 mutation on Working Memory (WM). Half the members of the multigenerational KE family have an inherited speech-language disorder, characterised as a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia caused by a mutation of the FOXP2 gene...
November 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#11
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159040/does-the-late-positive-component-reflect-successful-reading-acquisition-a-longitudinal-erp-study
#12
Christian Wachinger, Susanne Volkmer, Katharina Bublath, Jennifer Bruder, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne
Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder that is associated with deficits in phonological processing, where the exact neural basis for those processing deficits remains unclear. In particular, disagreement exists whether degraded phonological representations or an impaired access to the phonological representations causes these deficits. To investigate this question and to trace changes in neurophysiology during the process of reading acquisition, we designed a longitudinal study with event related potentials (ERPs) in children between kindergarten and second grade...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#13
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121196/the-role-of-phonological-working-memory-and-environmental-factors-in-lexical-development-in-italian-speaking-late-talkers-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#14
Andrea Marini, Milena Ruffino, Maria Enrica Sali, Massimo Molteni
Purpose: This follow-up study assessed (a) the influence of phonological working memory (pWM), home literacy environment, and a family history of linguistic impairments in late talkers (LTs); (b) the diagnostic accuracy of a task of nonword repetition (NWR) in identifying LTs; and (c) the persistence of lexical weaknesses after 10 months. Method: Two hundred ninety-three children were assessed at approximately 32 (t1) and 41 (t2) months. At t1, they were administered the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey, an NWR task (used to assess pWM), and questionnaires assessing home literacy environment and family history of language impairments...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107746/how-many-deficits-in-the-same-dyslexic-brains-a-behavioural-and-fmri-assessment-of-comorbidity-in-adult-dyslexics
#15
Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Gabriella Bottini, Nunzio A Borghese, Mirko Lucchese, Maurizio Sberna, Cathy J Price, Eraldo Paulesu
Dyslexia can have different manifestations: this has motivated different theories on its nature, on its underlying brain bases and enduring controversies on how to best treat it. The relative weight of the different manifestations has never been evaluated using both behavioural and fMRI measures, a challenge taken here to assess the major systems called into play in dyslexia by different theories. We found that adult well-compensated dyslexics were systematically impaired only in reading and in visuo-phonological tasks, while deficits for other systems (e...
December 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102838/correlations-between-working-memory-impairment-and-neurometabolites-of-prefrontal-cortex-and-lenticular-nucleus-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Yanyan Shan, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Xueguo Li, Hui Zhao, Junhao Chen, Qianyi Lu, Lu Zhang, Zhinan Li, Shunkai Lai, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of working memory (WM) impairment in MDD remains unclear. We aimed to find out the mechanism by using neuropsychological tests and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: 31 MDD patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our study. The WM performance and neurometabolite ratios of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lenticular nucleus (LN) between two groups were evaluated and compared. And the correlations between abnormal neurometabolite ratios and WM dysfunction were computed...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098514/parents-reading-history-as-an-indicator-of-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#17
A Giménez, A Ortiz, M López-Zamora, A Sánchez, J L Luque
Children from families whose members have reading impairments are found to be poorer performers, take less advantage of instruction, and require more time to reach the reading level of children whose relatives are good readers. As a family's reading history may not be available, a self-report of reading abilities is used to identify children's background. In this paper, we explored the contribution of phonological, literacy, and linguistic abilities and reported parental reading abilities to predict reading achievement at the end of the school year in a Spanish sample...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081756/the-locus-preservation-hypothesis-shared-linguistic-profiles-across-developmental-disorders-and-the-resilient-part-of-the-human-language-faculty
#18
Evelina Leivada, Maria Kambanaros, Kleanthes K Grohmann
Grammatical markers are not uniformly impaired across speakers of different languages, even when speakers share a diagnosis and the marker in question is grammaticalized in a similar way in these languages. The aim of this work is to demarcate, from a cross-linguistic perspective, the linguistic phenotype of three genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders: specific language impairment, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. After a systematic review of linguistic profiles targeting mainly English-, Greek-, Catalan-, and Spanish-speaking populations with developmental disorders (n = 880), shared loci of impairment are identified and certain domains of grammar are shown to be more vulnerable than others...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062600/l1-and-l2-reading-skills-in-dutch-adolescents-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#19
Ellie R H van Setten, Wim Tops, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated differences in reading and spelling outcomes in Dutch and English as a second language (ESL) in adolescents with a high familial risk of dyslexia, of whom some have developed dyslexia (HRDys) while others have not (HRnonDys), in comparison to a low familial risk control group without dyslexia (LRnonDys). This allowed us to investigate the persistence of dyslexia in the first language (L1) and the effect of dyslexia on the second language (L2), which has, in this case, a lower orthographic transparency...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056810/connected-speech-in-transient-aphasias-after-left-hemisphere-resective-surgery
#20
Angelica McCarron, Ashley Chavez, Miranda Babiak, Mitchel S Berger, Edward F Chang, Stephen M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Transient aphasias are common in the first few days after resective surgery to the language-dominant hemisphere. The specific speech and language deficits that occur are related to the location of the surgical site, and may include impairments in fluency, lexical access, repetition, and comprehension. The impact of these transient aphasias on connected speech production has not previously been investigated. AIMS: The goals of this study were to characterize the nature of connected speech deficits in the immediate post-surgical period, and to determine which deficits resolve completely within 1 month...
2017: Aphasiology
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