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Phonological impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522967/sources-of-phoneme-errors-in-repetition-perseverative-neologistic-and-lesion-patterns-in-jargon-aphasia
#1
Emma Pilkington, James Keidel, Luke T Kendrick, James D Saddy, Karen Sage, Holly Robson
This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI) of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515265/clinical-marker-for-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-logopenic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#2
Lucia A A Giannini, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon Ash, Katya Rascovsky, David A Wolk, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether logopenic features of phonologic loop dysfunction reflect Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 34 patients with PPA with available autopsy tissue. We compared baseline and longitudinal clinical features in patients with primary AD neuropathology to those with primary non-AD pathologies. We analyzed regional neuroanatomic disease burden in pathology-defined groups using postmortem neuropathologic data...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#3
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495601/structural-connectivity-subserving-verbal-fluency-revealed-by-lesion-behavior-mapping-in-stroke-patients
#4
Mingyang Li, Yumei Zhang, Luping Song, Ruiwang Huang, Junhua Ding, Yuxing Fang, Yangwen Xu, Zaizhu Han
Tests of verbal fluency have been widely used to assess the cognitive functioning of persons, and are typically classified into two categories (semantic and phonological fluency). While widely-distributed divergent and convergent brain regions have been found to be involved in semantic and phonological fluency, the anatomical connectivity underlying the fluency is not well understood. The present study aims to construct a comprehensive white-matter network associated with semantic and phonological fluency by investigating the relationship between the integrity of 22 major tracts in the whole brain and semantic fluency (measured by 3 cues) and phonological fluency (measured by 2 cues) in a group of 51 stroke patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493359/verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-phonological-processing-or-executive-control-problems
#5
James H Smith-Spark, Lucy A Henry, David J Messer, Adam P Zięcik
The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties...
May 11, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492716/prevalence-of-phonological-disorders-and-phonological-processes-in-typical-and-atypical-phonological-development
#6
Marizete Ilha Ceron, Marileda Barichello Gubiani, Camila Rosa de Oliveira, Marieli Barichello Gubiani, Márcia Keske-Soares
Purpose: To determine the occurrence of phonological disorders by age, gender and school type, and analyze the phonological processes observed in typical and atypical phonological development across different age groups. Methods: The sample consisted of 866 children aged between 3:0 and 8:11 years, recruited from public and private schools in the city of Santa Maria/RS. A phonological evaluation was performed to analyze the operative phonological processes. Results: 15...
May 8, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488078/can-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-learn-new-vocabulary-from-linguistic-context
#7
Rebecca Lucas, Louisa Thomas, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can learn vocabulary from linguistic context. Thirty-five children with ASD (18 with age-appropriate structural language; 17 with language impairment [ALI]) and 29 typically developing peers were taught 20 Science words. Half were presented in linguistic context from which meaning could be inferred, whilst half were accompanied by an explicit definition. Children with ASD were able to learn from context. Condition did not influence phonological learning, but receptive semantic knowledge was greatest in the context condition, and expressive semantic knowledge greatest in the definitional condition...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481668/the-development-of-writing-skills-in-4-year-old-children-with-and-without-specific-language-impairment
#8
Stacey L Pavelko, R Jane Lieberman, Jamie Schwartz, Debbie Hahs-Vaughn, Chad Nye
Research shows that many preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty acquiring literacy skills including phonological awareness, print concepts, and alphabet knowledge. Limited research suggests that preschool children with SLI also have difficulty with emergent writing tasks such as name writing and word writing. In typically developing children, research indicates that emergent writing skills are acquired in a developmental sequence: (1) linearity, (2) segmentation, (3) simple characters, (4) left-right orientation, (5) complex characters, (6) random letters, and (7) invented spelling...
May 8, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464253/statistical-word-learning-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-specific-language-impairment
#9
Eileen Haebig, Jenny R Saffran, Susan Ellis Weismer
BACKGROUND: Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#10
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#11
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent DeLuca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#12
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424400/-brodmann-areas-39-and-40-human-parietal-association-area-and-higher-cortical-function
#13
Yasuhisa Sakurai
The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423976/screening-for-dyslexia-in-french-speaking-university-students-an-evaluation-of-the-detection-accuracy-of-the-alouette-test
#14
Eddy Cavalli, Pascale Colé, Gilles Leloup, Florence Poracchia-George, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El Ahmadi
Developmental dyslexia is a lifelong impairment affecting 5% to 10% of the population. In French-speaking countries, although a number of standardized tests for dyslexia in children are available, tools suitable to screen for dyslexia in adults are lacking. In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421858/multi-step-treatment-for-acquired-alexia-and-agraphia-part-i-efficacy-generalisation-and-identification-of-beneficial-treatment-steps
#15
Jeffrey P Johnson, Katrina Ross, Swathi Kiran
Reading and writing impairments are common in individuals with post-stroke aphasia. Treatment typically aims to improve the function of one of these modalities by strengthening aspects of either lexical or sublexical processing. In the present study, eight adults with acquired alexia and agraphia were administered a comprehensive treatment targeting specific lexical and sublexical processes underlying reading and/or writing. Two participants were trained in reading and six were trained in writing. Throughout treatment, reading and writing accuracy were monitored for trained items, as well as untrained but orthographically and semantically related items...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#16
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393676/deficit-in-phonological-processes-a-characteristic-of-the-neuropsychological-profile-of-children-with-nf1
#17
Yves Chaix, Valérie Lauwers-Cancès, Nathalie Faure-Marie, Catherine Gentil, Sandrine Lelong, Elisabeth Schweitzer, Diana Rodriguez, Stéphanie Iannuzzi, Isabelle Kemlin, Nathalie Dorison, François Rivier, Maryline Carniero, Elodie Preclaire, Sébastien Barbarot, Laurence Lion-François, Pierre Castelnau
Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level...
April 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388708/word-learning-deficits-in-children-with-dyslexia
#18
Mary Alt, Tiffany Hogan, Samuel Green, Shelley Gray, Kathryn Cabbage, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384805/speech-recognition-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-effects-of-working-memory-phonological-sensitivity-and-aging
#19
Aaron C Moberly, Michael S Harris, Lauren Boyce, Susan Nittrouer
Purpose: Models of speech recognition suggest that "top-down" linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced years of hearing loss obtains a cochlear implant. Method: Thirty adults with cochlear implants and 30 age-matched controls with age-normal hearing underwent testing of verbal working memory using digit span and serial recall of words...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383971/an-evaluation-of-language-in-brain-tumor-patients-using-a-new-cognitively-motivated-testing-protocol
#20
Josh W Faulkner, Carolyn E Wilshire, Andrew J Parker, Kay Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the language impairments that occur in brain tumor patients using a cognitively oriented theoretical framework. METHOD: Forty-nine preoperative brain tumor patients completed a new testing protocol (the BLAST) which assesses 8 well documented, "core" cognitive skills required for language: auditory word recognition, accessing semantic knowledge, lexical selection, phonological encoding, verbal short-term memory, goal-driven language selection, verb retrieval, and articulatory-motor planning...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
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