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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151036/combination-therapy-is-superior-to-sequential-monotherapy-for-the-initial-treatment-of-hypertension-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Thomas M MacDonald, Bryan Williams, David J Webb, Steve Morant, Mark Caulfield, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Ian Ford, Peter Sever, Isla S Mackenzie, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Gerald P McCann, Jackie Salsbury, Gordon McInnes, Morris J Brown
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for hypertension vary in their preference for initial combination therapy or initial monotherapy, stratified by patient profile; therefore, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of these approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a 1-year, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 605 untreated patients aged 18 to 79 years with systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥95 mm Hg. In phase 1 (weeks 0-16), patients were randomly assigned to initial monotherapy (losartan 50-100 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 12...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150595/notch1-signaling-activation-contributes-to-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Ming Tu, Penglei Zhu, Shaobo Hu, Wei Wang, Zhipeng Su, Jiaqing Guan, Chongran Sun, Weiming Zheng
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells are reported to exist in the hippocampus of adult mammals and are important sources of neurons for repair. The Notch1 signaling pathway is considered as one of the important regulators of neural stem cells, but its role in adult brains is unclear. We aimed to describe the role of Notch1 signaling in the adult rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS The model rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: sham, sham-TBI, sham-Ad-TBI, and NICD-Ad-TBI...
November 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150085/pinocembrin-alleviates-cognition-deficits-by-inhibiting-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#3
Bing Pei, Jian Sun
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of the most common diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus and is characterized by cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce hippocampal and cortical neuronal damage, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Pinocembrin (Pino) has been widely used in the therapy of cancer and other diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-viral activities...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149940/immune-activation-in-sepsis
#4
REVIEW
Andrew Conway-Morris, Julie Wilson, Manu Shankar-Hari
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Immune responses determine the characteristics of sepsis. The body's protection against infection involves danger signal surveillance and recognition from nonself, effector functions in response to sensing danger signals, homeostatic regulation, and generation of immunologic memory. During sepsis, the immune system is activated by pathogen-associated and host-derived molecular patterns. Detecting these molecular patterns generates multisystem responses...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149808/delayed-hypoxemia-following-traumatic-brain-injury-exacerbates-long-term-behavioral-deficits
#5
McKenzie Davies, Addison Jacobs, David L Brody, Stuart H Friess
Hypoxemia during initial stabilization of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, the effects of delayed hypoxemia occurring during intensive care following TBI on outcome is unclear. Preclinical models of TBI have rarely shown cognitive or behavioral deficits beyond six weeks post injury and commonly have not included modeling of secondary insults. We have previously developed a murine model of TBI followed by delayed hypoxemia to model the secondary insult of hypoxemia and brain hypoxia occurring in the intensive care setting...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149768/mitochondrial-dna-changes-in-pedunculopontine-cholinergic-neurons-in-parkinson-s
#6
Alexander G Bury, Angela Pyle, Joanna L Elson, Laura Greaves, Christopher M Morris, Gavin Hudson, Ilse S Pienaar
In Parkinson's disease (PD), mitochondrial dysfunction associates with nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Cholinergic neuronal loss co-occurs, particularly within a brainstem structure, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We isolated single cholinergic neurons from post-mortem PPNs of aged controls and PD patients. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mtDNA deletions were increased significantly in PD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, compared to controls the PD patients had significantly more PPN cholinergic neurons containing mtDNA deletion levels exceeding 60%, a level associated with deleterious effects on oxidative phosphorylation...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149437/a-blinded-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-to-investigate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ferric-carboxymaltose-in-iron-deficient-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#7
Chad S Boomershine, Todd A Koch, David Morris
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to compare efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose vs. placebo in iron-deficient patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: This blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study randomized adults with fibromyalgia and Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) scores ≥ 60, ferritin levels < 0.05 µg/ml, and transferrin saturation < 20% (1:1) to receive ferric carboxymaltose [15 mg/kg (up to 750 mg)], or placebo (15 cc normal saline) intravenously on study days 0 and 5...
November 17, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149278/interdisciplinary-stem-education-reform-dishing-out-art-in-a-microbiology-laboratory
#8
Sarah J Adkins, Rachel K Rock, J Jeffrey Morris
In the modern educational framework, life science and visual art are usually presented as mutually exclusive subjects. Despite this perceived disciplinary contrast, visual art has the ability to engage and provoke students in ways that can have important downstream effects on scientific discovery, especially when applied in a practical setting such as a laboratory course. This review broadly examines the benefit of interdisciplinary fusions of science and art as well as recent ways in which art strategies have been used in undergraduate biology classrooms...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149127/percutaneous-nephrostomy-infusion-nursing-considerations-for-treatment-of-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#9
Eryn Draganski, Ellen Sterman, Kathy Morris
An intrarenal approach using a percutaneous nephrostomy tube is a novel method to deliver chemotherapy and biotherapy to patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. A paucity of evidence exists regarding basic nursing implications for this unique treatment option. This column will provide suggested guidelines to administer intrarenal treatment via a percutanous nephrostomy tube.
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December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148544/reproductive-endocrinology-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-linked-to-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes
#10
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148345/exploring-the-role-of-executive-functioning-capacity-in-patient-activation-and-health-outcomes-among-medicaid-members-with-multiple-comorbidities
#11
Kimberly Case, Yi Guo, Sara Jo Nixon, Keith Muller, Tianyao Huo, Robert Prather, Heather Morris, Dena Stoner, Elizabeth Shenkman
Patient activation, the perceived capacity to manage one's health, is positively associated with better health outcomes and lower costs. Underlying characteristics influencing patient activation are not completely understood leading to gaps in intervention strategies designed to improve patient activation. We suggest that variability in executive functioning influences patient activation and ultimately has an impact on health outcomes. To examine this hypothesis, 440 chronically ill Medicaid enrollees completed measures of executive functioning, patient activation, and health-related quality of life...
May 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148323/impact-of-postdischarge-follow-up-care-on-medicare-expenditures-does-rural-make-a-difference
#12
Matthew Toth, Mark Holmes, Mark Toles, Courtney Van Houtven, Morris Weinberger, Pam Silberman
Reducing postdischarge Medicare expenditures is a key focus for hospitals. Early follow-up care is an important piece of this focus, but it is unclear whether there are rural-urban differences in the impact of follow-up care on Medicare expenditures. To assess this difference, we use the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, Cost and Use Files, 2000-2010. We conduct a retrospective analysis of 30-day postdischarge Medicare expenditures using two-stage residual inclusion with a quantile regression, where the receipt of 7-day follow-up care was the main independent variable...
January 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148198/ear-nose-and-throat-surgery-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-surgical-approach-to-the-management-of-middle-ear-effusions-in-australian-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-children
#13
REVIEW
Kelvin Kong, Francis J Lannigan, Peter S Morris, Amanda J Leach, Stephen J O'Leary
Otitis media (OM) is a common condition in Australia. It represents a spectrum of diseases from otitis media with effusion (OME) to chronic suppurative otitis media. For all the OM diagnoses, Australian Indigenous children have higher rates of early onset, severe and persistent disease. OME is the most common form of OM and often occurs after an upper respiratory tract infection. It can be difficult to diagnose (and often goes unrecognised). Hearing loss is the most important complication. The middle-ear effusion impedes the movement of the tympanic membrane and causes a conductive hearing loss of around 25 dB...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147557/the-diversity-and-utility-of-amyloid-fibrils-formed-by-short-amyloidogenic-peptides
#14
REVIEW
Zahraa S Al-Garawi, Kyle L Morris, Karen E Marshall, Jutta Eichler, Louise C Serpell
Amyloidogenic peptides are well known for their involvement in diseases such as type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. However, more recently, amyloid fibrils have been shown to provide scaffolding and protection as functional materials in a range of organisms from bacteria to humans. These roles highlight the incredible tensile strength of the cross-β amyloid architecture. Many amino acid sequences are able to self-assemble to form amyloid with a cross-β core. Here we describe our recent advances in understanding how sequence contributes to amyloidogenicity and structure...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147492/alterations-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-aberrant-protein-s-nitrosylation-and-associated-spatial-memory-loss-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-mice
#15
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Objectives: Epidemiological and biochemical studies conducted over the past two decades have established a strong link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the exact mechanisms through which aberrations in insulin signaling associated with T2DM contribute to cognitive decline are not yet known. Materials and Methods: In an effort to explore possible molecular links between T2DM and AD, the present study investigated the status of neurodegeneration, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and nitrosative stress induced protein S-nitrosylation in streptozotocin (STZ) induced mice models of T2DM...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146879/2-cl-mgv-1-ameliorates-apoptosis-in-the-thalamus-and-hippocampus-and-cognitive-deficits-after-cortical-infarct-in-rats
#16
Yicong Chen, Leo Veenman, Sukhdev Singh, Fubing Ouyang, Jiahui Liang, Weixian Huang, Ilan Marek, Jinsheng Zeng, Moshe Gavish
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal cortical infarction causes neuronal apoptosis in the ipsilateral nonischemic thalamus and hippocampus, which is potentially associated with poststroke cognitive deficits. TSPO (translocator protein) is critical in regulating mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. We examined the effects of the novel TSPO ligand 2-(2-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4-yl dimethylcarbamate (2-Cl-MGV-1) on poststroke cognitive deficits, neuronal mitochondrial apoptosis, and secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus and hippocampus after cortical infarction...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146775/synthetic-tangled1-auxin-induced-in-roots9-mutant-phenotype-used-to-assess-tangled1-function
#17
Ricardo Mir, Victoria H Morris, Henrik Buschmann, Carolyn Rasmussen
TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED-IN-ROOTS 9 (AIR9) are microtubule binding proteins with cortical division site localization in plants. Their function in Arabidopsis thaliana remained unclear because neither tan1 nor air9 single mutants have a strong phenotype. We show that tan1 air9 double mutants have a synergistic phenotype consisting of short, twisted roots that are hypersenstive to a microtubule depolymerizing drug. The tan1 air9 double mutants have significant defects in division plane orientation due to failures in placing the new cell wall at the correct division site...
November 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146637/unequal-cluster-sizes-in-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trials-a-systematic-review
#18
Caroline Kristunas, Tom Morris, Laura Gray
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the extent to which cluster sizes vary in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRT) and whether any variability is accounted for during the sample size calculation and analysis of these trials. SETTING: Any, not limited to healthcare settings. PARTICIPANTS: Any taking part in an SW-CRT published up to March 2016. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is the variability in cluster sizes, measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) in cluster size...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146572/cognitive-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-following-birth-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Dieter Wolke, Helen O'Reilly, Joan K Morris, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Neil Marlow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the trajectory of cognitive test scores from infancy to adulthood in individuals born extremely preterm compared with term-born individuals. DESIGN: A prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: 276 maternity units in the UK and Ireland. PATIENTS: 315 surviving infants born less than 26 completed weeks of gestation recruited at birth in 1995 and 160 term-born classroom controls recruited at age 6...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146112/different-concentrations-of-docosahexanoic-acid-supplement-during-lactation-result-in-different-outcomes-in-preterm-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Qian Wang, Chunhong Jia, Xiaohua Tan, Fan Wu, Xinqi Zhong, Zhiwen Su, Weiwen Sun, Qiliang Cui
PROPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplement on preterm Sprague-Dawley rat pups, and in parallel, measured the phosphorylation activity of the mTOR pathway in the hippocampal CA1 area. METHODS: Preterm Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly assigned to experimental groups which included; a sufficient DHA group (100 mg/kg/day); an enriched DHA group (300 mg/kg/day); an excess DHA group (800 mg/kg/day); and a deficient DHA group (normal saline gavage 0...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
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