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Bianca Ciui, Aida Martin, Rupesh K Mishra, Barbara Brunetti, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Thomas J Dawkins, Mengjia Lyu, Cecilia Cristea, Robert Sandulescu, Joseph Wang
Wearable bendable bandage-based sensor and a minimally invasive microneedle biosensor are described toward rapid screening of skin melanoma. These wearable electrochemical sensors are capable of detecting the presence of the tyrosinase (TYR) enzyme cancer biomarker in the presence of its catechol substrate, immobilized on the transducer surface. In the presence of the surface TYR biomarker, the immobilized catechol is rapidly converted to benzoquinone that is detected amperometrically, with a current signal proportional to the TYR level...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Elliott Jay Mufson, Bin He, Stephen D Ginsberg, Benjamin A Carper, Gayle S Bieler, Fiona C Crawford, Victor E Alverez, Bernard R Huber, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Sylvia E Perez
Military personnel and athletes exposed to traumatic brain injury may develop chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Brain pathology in CTE includes intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins (p-tau), the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, we found that cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provide the major cholinergic innervation to the cortex, display an increasing number of NFTs across the pathological stages of CTE...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hui Zhao, Yang Wei, Cheng Wang, Rui-Min Qiao, Wanli Yang, Phillip B Messersmith, Gao Liu
The excessive volume changes during cell cycling of Si-based anode in lithium ion batteries impeded its application. One major reason for the cell failure is particle isolation during volume shrinkage in delithiation process, which makes strong adhesion between polymer binder and anode active material particles a highly desirable property. Here, a biomimetic side-chain conductive polymer incorporating catechol, a key adhesive component of the mussel holdfast protein, was synthesized. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force measurements of mussel-inspired conductive polymer binder contacting a silica surface revealed similar adhesion toward substrate when compared with an effective Si anode binder, homo-polyacrylic acid (PAA), with the added benefit of being electronically conductive...
January 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hyewon Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, In Gyu Choi, Joon Weon Choi
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignocellulosic biomass has been widely investigated for the production of renewable and alternative bio-crude oil. In this study, catalytic hydrothermal processing of two biomasses (larch and Mongolian oak) was performed using different K2CO3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0wt% of solvent) to improve fuel yield and properties. HTL oil, hydrochar, water soluble fraction (WSF) and gas were characterized and carbon balance was investigated. As a result, the maximum yield of HTL oil, 27...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Tao Chen, Yuanhong Xu, Wenrong Yang, Aihua Li, Yao Wang, Jing Sun, Jingquan Liu
Concavo-convex micelles with controllable sizes and nanostructures are prepared via self-assembling polymer-enzyme (e.g., shellac enzyme) conjugates with heterogeneous polymer chains, which exhibit higher enzyme stability (300%) and bioactivity (760%) comparing with the well-defined ones. The applied amphiphilic and negatively charged copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-block-poly (sodium p-styrene sulfonate), is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization to modify shellac enzyme and immobilize the enzyme bioactivity inducer by covalent conjugation and electrostatic attraction, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hong Qian, Yuling Zhang, Jiali Wang, Chaoqun Si, Zaixing Chen
The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe3+), sulfate (SO42-), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O)...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shinsuke Koike, Darya Gaysina, Peter B Jones, Andrew Wong, Marcus Richards
BACKGROUND: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms play an essential role in dopamine availability in the brain. However, there has been no study investigating whether a functional four-SNP (rs6269-rs4633-rs4818-rs4680) haplotype is associated with affective symptoms over the life course. METHODS: We tested this using 2093 members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (MRC NSHD), who had been followed up since birth in 1946, and had data for COMT genotypes, adolescent emotional problems (age 13-15) and at least one measure of adult affective symptoms at ages 36, 43, 53, or 60-64 years...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erik Gilberg, Michael Gütschow, Jürgen Bajorath
Pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) have become a paradigm for compound classes that might cause artifacts in biological assays. PAINS-defining substructures are typically contained in larger compounds. We have systematically examined X-ray structures of protein-ligand complexes for compounds containing PAINS motifs. In 2874 X-ray structures, 1107 unique ligands with PAINS substructures belonging to 70 different classes were identified. PAINS most frequently detected in crystallographic ligands included a number of prominent candidates such as quinones, catechols, or Mannich bases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Claudia Schilling, Lena Gappa, Michael Schredl, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Josef Frank, Michael Deuschle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt
Study Objectives: Sleep spindles are a hallmark of NREM stage 2 sleep. Fast sleep spindles correlate with cognitive functioning, and are reduced in schizophrenia. Although spindles are highly genetically determined, distinct genetic mechanisms influencing sleep spindle activity have not been identified so far. Spindles are generated within a thalamo-cortical network. Dopaminergic neurotransmission modulates activity within this network and importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
Lisa Lynn Dragic, Erica L Wegrzyn, Michael E Schatman, Jeffrey Fudin
The use of pharmacogenomics has become more prevalent over the past several years in treating many disease states. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of many pain medications including opioids and antidepressants. Noncytochrome P450 enzymes such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) also play a role in the explanation of opioid dosage requirements as well as in response to certain antidepressants. We present the case of a patient with reduced COMT and MTHFR expression treated with leucovorin 10 mg daily for the management of chronic pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Izabela Wysocka, Ewa Kowalska, Konrad Trzciński, Marcin Łapiński, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Anna Zielińska-Jurek
The combination of TiO₂ photocatalyst and magnetic oxide nanoparticles enhances the separation and recoverable properties of nanosized TiO₂ photocatalyst. Metal-modified (Me = Pd, Au, Pt, Cu) TiO₂/SiO₂@Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites were prepared by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method. All prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Mott-Schottky analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL)...
January 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yusuke Moriguchi, Ikuko Shinohara
Low executive function (EF) during early childhood is a major risk factor for developmental delay, academic failure, and social withdrawal. Susceptible genes may affect the molecular and biological mechanisms underpinning EF. More specifically, genes associated with the regulation of prefrontal dopamine may modulate the response of prefrontal neurons during executive control. Several studies with adults and older children have shown that variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are associated with behavioral performance and prefrontal activations in EF tasks...
January 4, 2018: Developmental Science
Fangfang Du, Xiaojuan Gong, Wenjing Lu, Yang Liu, Yifang Gao, Shaomin Shuang, Ming Xian, Chuan Dong
A fluorescent nanoprobe based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) with green fluorescent emission have been fabricated through a facile one-step hydrothermal treatment using catechol and triethylene tetramine as precursors. The obtained N-CDs with excellent luminescent properties and superior biocompatibility have been applied for the development of a bifunctional sensor for the detection of Fe3+ and ascorbic acid (AA). Fe3+ that are tightly chelating the surface of N-CDs can induce fluorescence (FL) quenching of N-CDs through photo-induced electron transfer (PET)...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Aqilah M McCane, Michael J DeLory, Maureen M Timm, Sarine S Janetsian-Fritz, Christopher C Lapish, Cristine L Czachowski
Polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene have been associated with alcoholism, suggesting that alterations in the metabolism of catecholamines may be a critical component of the neuropathology of alcoholism. In the current experiments, the COMT inhibitor tolcapone was utilized in an operant behavioral model of reinforcer-seeking and drinking to determine if this compound was capable of remediating the excessive seeking and drinking phenotype of the alcohol-preferring P rat. Tolcapone was administered to male and female alcohol-reinforced P and Wistar rats...
August 19, 2017: Alcohol
Luana M Sousa, Luana M Vilarinho, Gabriel H Ribeiro, André L Bogado, Luís R Dinelli
The aim of this study was to obtain an electrochemical device between the electrostatic interaction of the electropolymerized porphyrin {CoTPyP[RuCl3(dppb)]4}, where TPyP = 5,10,15, 20-tetrapyridilphorphyrin and dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPsn-), to be used as a voltammetric sensor to determine catechol (CC). The modified electrode, labelled as [(CoTPRu4)n8+-BE]/AuNPsn- {where BE = bare electrode = glassy carbon electrode (GCE) or indium tin oxide (ITO)}, was made layer-by-layer...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Nicholas J Lintel, Stephen A Luebker, Subodh M Lele, Scott A Koepsell
Morphologically, distinguishing between leiomyoma (LM) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is not always straightforward, especially with benign variants such as bizarre leiomyoma (BLM). To identify potential markers of malignancy in uterine smooth muscle tumors, proteomic studies were performed followed by assessment of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from tumors (n=23) diagnosed as LM, BLM and LMS (using published criteria) were selected for the study...
January 4, 2018: Human Pathology
Yan Jiang, Hui Qi, Xian M Zhang
NAP (Naphthalene) and ANT (anthracene) usually co-exist in environment and possessed interactional effects on their biodegradation in environment. Presently, a strain of Acinetobacter johnsonii was employed to degrade NAP and ANT in single- and dual-substrate systems. NAP was utilized as prefer substrate by cells to accelerate ANT biodegradation. As much as 200 mg L-1 ANT could be entirely degraded with 1,500 mg L-1 NAP, which was beyond bacterial potential in single substrate system. Especially, the shortest biodegradation period (103 h) for ANT was observed with the presence of 50 mg L-1 NAP...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Satoru Watanabe, Hiroaki Ozawa, Hiroaki Kato, Kaori Nimura-Matsune, Toshifumi Hirayama, Fumitaka Kudo, Tadashi Eguchi, Katsumi Kakinuma, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
Owing to their photosynthetic capabilities, there is increasing interest in utilizing cyanobacteria to convert solar energy into biomass. 2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) is a valuable starting material for the benzene-free synthesis of catechol and other benzenoids. DOI synthase (DOIS) is responsible for the formation of DOI from d-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics such as neomycin and butirosin. DOI fermentation using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain has been reported, although a carbon source is necessary for high-yield DOI production...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Chun Chen, Zhihao Wang, Zhentao Zhang, Xia Liu, Seong Su Kang, Ying Zhang, Keqiang Ye
The BDNF mimetic compound 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a potent small molecular TrkB agonist, displays prominent therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, 7,8-DHF has only modest oral bioavailability and a moderate pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. To alleviate these preclinical obstacles, we used a prodrug strategy for elevating 7,8-DHF oral bioavailability and brain exposure, and found that the optimal prodrug R13 has favorable properties and dose-dependently reverses the cognitive defects in an AD mouse model...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anand Mohan Verma, Nanda Kishore
The unprocessed bio-oil obtained by the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass comprises hundreds of oxy-components which vitiate its quality in terms of low heating value, low stability, low pH, etc. Therefore, it has to be upgraded prior to its use as transportation fuel. In this work, guaiacol, a promising compound of the phenolic fraction of unprocessed bio-oil, is considered as a model component for studying its hydrodeoxygenation over a Pt3 catalyst cluster. The production of catechol, 3-methylcatechol, m-cresol and o-cresol from guaiacol over a Pt3 cluster is numerically investigated using density functional theory...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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