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"avoidant personality disorder"

Hans M Nordahl, Patrick A Vogel, Gunnar Morken, Tore C Stiles, Pål Sandvik, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: The most efficacious treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are the SSRIs and cognitive therapy (CT). Combined treatment is advocated for SAD but has not been evaluated in randomized trials using CT and SSRI. Our aim was to evaluate whether one treatment is more effective than the other and whether combined treatment is more effective than the single treatments. METHODS: A total of 102 patients were randomly assigned to paroxetine, CT, the combination of CT and paroxetine, or pill placebo...
October 15, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Astrid Baljé, Anja Greeven, Anne van Giezen, Kees Korrelboom, Arnoud Arntz, Philip Spinhoven
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders...
October 8, 2016: Trials
Jeffrey Guina
The concept of earned security is important and has significant implications for psychotherapy. Understanding how individuals with insecure attachment styles can develop secure attachment styles through reparative relationships, such as the therapeutic relationship, can assist psychotherapists in helping patients to overcome the effects of early negative life experiences. Personality disorders are commonly associated with negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, and other empathic failures. These disorders are particularly difficult to treat because of their pervasive nature and the resultant defense mechanisms that often thwart psychotherapy...
2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
Kathy R Berenson, Wesley Ellen Gregory, Erin Glaser, Aliza Romirowsky, Eshkol Rafaeli, Xiao Yang, Geraldine Downey
This research investigated baseline impulsivity, rejection sensitivity, and reactions to stressors in individuals with borderline personality disorder compared to healthy individuals and those with avoidant personality disorder. The borderline group showed greater impulsivity than the avoidant and healthy groups both in a delay-discounting task with real monetary rewards and in self-reported reactions to stressors; moreover, these findings could not be explained by co-occurring substance use disorders. Distress reactions to stressors were equally elevated in both personality disorder groups (relative to the healthy group)...
August 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Martijn J Kikkert, Ellen Driessen, Jaap Peen, Jacques P Barber, Claudi Bockting, Frans Schalkwijk, Jeff Dekker, Jack J M Dekker
BACKGROUND: Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These findings may have important clinical implications, but have not yet been replicated. METHODS: We conducted a study using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of CBT and short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yoshihiro Tanaka, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Ayako Inoue, Harumi Oshita, Kana Okamoto, Chiwa Kawashima, Mari Nakanishi, Saeko Aizawa, Koji Masuda, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Jotaro Akiyoshi
INTRODUCTIONS: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
Avigal Snir, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Kathy R Berenson, Geraldine Downey, Eshkol Rafaeli
The current study's main goal was to examine whether affective instability is elevated among individuals suffering from avoidant personality disorder (APD) by comparing it to the affective instability found among individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well that found among healthy controls. Adults (N = 152, aged 18-65 years) with BPD, APD, or no psychopathology participated in a 3-week computerized diary study. We examined temporal instability in negative affect using experience-sampling methods...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
Jacqueline Liggett, Kieran L C Carmichael, Alexander Smith, Martin Sellbom
This study examined the validity of newly developed disorder-specific impairment scales (IS), modeled on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, for obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) and avoidant (AvPD) personality disorders. The IS focused on content validity (items directly reflected the disorder-specific impairments listed in DSM-5 Section III) and severity of impairment. A community sample of 313 adults completed personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD and AvPD, as well as measures of impairment in the domains of self- and interpersonal functioning...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Fabio Moroni, Michele Procacci, Giovanni Pellecchia, Antonio Semerari, Giuseppe Nicolò, Antonino Carcione, Roberto Pedone, Livia Colle
The ability to reflect on one's own states of mind and those of others (metacognition or mindreading) is strongly implicated in personality disorders (PDs). Metacognition involves different abilities, and there is evidence that specific abilities can be selectively impaired in different PDs. The purposes of this study were to compare metacognitive competence in avoidant PD (AvPD) with that in other PDs and to investigate whether there is a specific profile for AvPD. Sixty-three patients with AvPD and 224 patients with other PDs were assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Interview...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ewa A Ogłodek, Anna M Szota, Marek J Just, Adam R Szromek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Stress may induce inflammatory changes in the immune system and activate pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. METHODS: 460 hospitalized patients with panic disorders (PD) and/or personality disorders (P) were studied. The study group comprised subjects with PD, avoidant personality disorder (APD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and concomitant (PD+APD; PD+BPD; PD+OCPD)...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Bryan T Denny, Jin Fan, Xun Liu, Stephanie Guerreri, Sarah Jo Mayson, Liza Rimsky, Antonia McMaster, Heather Alexander, Antonia S New, Marianne Goodman, Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Larry J Siever, Harold W Koenigsberg
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) are characterized by hyper-reactivity to negatively-perceived interpersonal cues, yet they differ in degree of affective instability. Recent work has begun to elucidate the neural (structural and functional) and cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of BPD, although some initial studies of brain structure have reached divergent conclusions. AvPD, however, has been almost unexamined in the cognitive neuroscience literature...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Óscar M Lozano, Antonio J Rojas, Fermín Fernández Calderón
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of psychiatric comorbidity and severity of dependence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: One hundred and ninety-eight substance use disorder (SUD) patients were recruited from an outpatient center that provides treatment for SUD. The International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS) and Health-Related Quality of Life for Drug Abusers test (HRQoLDA test) were administered...
April 29, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
Anna Weinbrecht, Lars Schulze, Johanna Boettcher, Babette Renneberg
This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising...
March 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Isabel L Kampmann, Paul M G Emmelkamp, Dwi Hartanto, Willem-Paul Brinkman, Bonne J H Zijlstra, Nexhmedin Morina
This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list...
February 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
E Tzintziropoulou, K Efthimiou
The article presents the demographics of the total number of people (n=515) who were administered Cognitive Behavior Psychotherapy from October 2005 until July 2009 as well as the demographics of those who completed therapy (n=180), along with the diagnoses and the course of their treatment based on the scores of psychometric assessments. Demographic variables include: sex, age, course of treatment, professional and marital status, educational level, number of sessions, previous visits to mental health professionals and possible medication uptake...
October 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Lisa Lampe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article identifies research trends and synthesizes information from recent studies of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). RECENT FINDINGS: AVPD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share genetic vulnerability, but may have distinct environmental risk factors that shape qualitative differences. Negative self-concept, shame proneness, and interpersonal hypersensitivity are characteristic of AVPD and may be predisposed to by heritable traits of high negative affectivity and low positive affectivity, and experiences of neglectful or emotionless parents...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Petri Arvilommi, Kirsi Suominen, Outi Mantere, Hanna Valtonen, Sami Leppämäki, Erkki Isometsä
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. However, vocational ability and predictors of long-term work disability have rarely been studied among patients with BD. We investigated clinical predictors of work disability among patients with BD in psychiatric care. METHODS: The Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS) is a naturalistic prospective cohort study (N = 191) representing adult (18-59 years) psychiatric inpatients and outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) in three Finnish cities...
December 2015: Bipolar Disorders
Asle Hoffart, Liv M Hedley, Karol Svanøe, Tomas Formo Langkaas, Harold Sexton
The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2...
February 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Fartein Ask Torvik, Audun Welander-Vatn, Eivind Ystrom, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Nikolai Czajkowski, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) are frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders with symptomatology related to fear of social situations. It is uncertain to what degree the 2 disorders reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors. The current study addresses the stability and co-occurrence of SAD and AvPD, the factor structure of the diagnostic criteria, and genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorders at 2 time points. SAD and AvPD were assessed in 1,761 young adult female twins at baseline and 1,471 of these approximately 10 years later...
January 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Ewa A Ogłodek, Anna M Szota, Danuta M Moś, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Adam R Szromek
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be perceived as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder in which cytokines affecting the neurochemical and neuroendocrine functions of the body play an important role. Among cytokines, chemokines participating in activation of the inflammatory response are considered to be crucial. METHOD: 220 men and women were enrolled in the study. 180 of them constituted the study group. The studied groups consisted of: 60 patients with a diagnosed avoidant personality disorders (APD), 60 patients with a diagnosed APD and with PTSD and of 60 patients with PTSD but without a APD...
December 2015: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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