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Mai Takizawa, Kazuki Harada, Kazuaki Nakamura, Takashi Tsuboi
Astrocytes, a large population of glial cells, detect neurotransmitters and respond by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) and releasing chemical molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently discovered Ca2+ influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels is reported to cause spontaneous [Ca2+ ]i increase in astrocytes. While several physiological functions of TRPA1-mediated spontaneous Ca2+ signal have been revealed, relation with gliotransmitter release, especially peptide hormone exocytosis is largely unknown...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
David E Smith, Maria T Zuber, Erwan Mazarico, Antonio Genova, Gregory A Neumann, Xiaoli Sun, Mark H Torrence, Dan-Dan Mao
The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G . The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates for the expansion of the scale of the solar system are of order 1.5 cm year-1 AU-1 , which over several years is an observable quantity with present-day laser ranging systems...
April 2018: Planetary and Space Science
Dongmyung Oh, Yang Yu, Hochan Lee, Jae-Hyung Jeon, Barry L Wanner, Ken Ritchie
The spatial location of proteins in living cells can be critical for their function. For example, the E. coli chemotaxis machinery is localized to the cell poles. Here we describe the polar localization of the serine chemoreceptor Tsr using a strain synthesizing a fluorescent Tsr-Venus fusion at a low level from a single-copy chromosomal construct. Using photobleaching and imaging during recovery by new synthesis, we observed distinct asymmetry between a bright (old) pole and a dim (new) pole. The old pole was shown to be a more stable cluster and to recover after photobleaching faster, which is consistent with the hypothesis that newly synthesized Tsr proteins are inserted directly at or near the old pole...
2018: PloS One
Venus Joumaa, Fanny Bertrand, Shuyue Liu, Sophia Poscente, Walter Herzog
The aim of this study was to determine the role of titin in preventing the development of sarcomere length non-uniformities following activation and after active and passive stretch, by determining the effect of partial titin degradation on sarcomere length non-uniformities and force in passive and active myofibrils. Selective partial titin degradation was performed using a low dose of trypsin. Myofibrils were set at a sarcomere length of 2.4 µm and then passively stretched to sarcomere lengths of 3.4 µm and 4...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Jackson W F Chu, Curtis Curkan, Verena Tunnicliffe
Global expansion of oxygen-deficient (hypoxic) waters will have detrimental effects on marine life in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) where some of the largest proportional losses in aerobic habitat are predicted to occur. However, few in situ studies have accounted for the high environmental variability in this region while including natural community-assembly dynamics. Here, we present results from a 14-month deployment of a benthic camera platform tethered to the VENUS cabled observatory in the seasonally hypoxic Saanich Inlet...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Samuel A Manning, Lucas G Dent, Shu Kondo, Ziqing W Zhao, Nicolas Plachta, Kieran F Harvey
The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling network that integrates diverse cues to control organ size and cell fate. The central downstream pathway protein in Drosophila is the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (YAP and TAZ in humans), which regulates gene expression with the Scalloped/TEA domain family member (TEAD) transcription factors [1-8]. A central regulatory step in the Hippo pathway is phosphorylation of Yorkie by the NDR family kinase Warts, which promotes Yorkie cytoplasmic localization by stimulating association with 14-3-3 proteins [9-12]...
April 24, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Clark W Bird, Devin H Taylor, Natalie J Pinkowski, G Jill Chavez, C Fernando Valenzuela
Developmental exposure to ethanol leads to a constellation of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Many cell types throughout the central nervous system are negatively impacted by gestational alcohol exposure, including inhibitory, GABAergic interneurons. Little evidence exists, however, describing the long-term impact of fetal alcohol exposure on survival of interneurons within the hippocampal formation, which is critical for learning and memory processes that are impaired in individuals with FASDs...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Anna S Westermeier, Renate Sachse, Simon Poppinga, Philipp Vögele, Lubomir Adamec, Thomas Speck, Manfred Bischoff
The fast motion of the snap-traps of the terrestrial Venus flytrap ( Dionaea muscipula ) have been intensively studied, in contrast to the tenfold faster underwater snap-traps of its phylogenetic sister, the waterwheel plant ( Aldrovanda vesiculosa ). Based on biomechanical and functional-morphological analyses and on a reverse biomimetic approach via mechanical modelling and computer simulations, we identify a combination of hydraulic turgor change and the release of prestress stored in the trap as essential for actuation...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Dennis V Kent, Paul E Olsen, Cornelia Rasmussen, Christopher Lepre, Roland Mundil, Randall B Irmis, George E Gehrels, Dominique Giesler, John W Geissman, William G Parker
The Newark-Hartford astrochronostratigraphic polarity timescale (APTS) was developed using a theoretically constant 405-kiloyear eccentricity cycle linked to gravitational interactions with Jupiter-Venus as a tuning target and provides a major timing calibration for about 30 million years of Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic time. While the 405-ky cycle is both unimodal and the most metronomic of the major orbital cycles thought to pace Earth's climate in numerical solutions, there has been little empirical confirmation of that behavior, especially back before the limits of orbital solutions at about 50 million years before present...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Regiane Alves de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vaz Rossell, Joachim Venus, Sarita Cândida Rabelo, Rubens Maciel Filho
Furfural and HMF are known for a negative impact in different bioprocesses, including lactic acid fermentation. There are already some methods described to remove these inhibitory compounds from the hydrolysates. However, these methods also reduce the yield of sugars from the hydrolysis and increase the process costs. In this work, the detoxification of sugarcane-derived hemicellulosic hydrolysate was performed by Lactobacillus plantarum during the fermentation time. At the end of the fermentation, a decrease of 98 % of furfural and 86 % of HMF and was observed, with a final lactic acid titer of 34...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Hiromi Kazama, Masaki Hiramoto, Kana Miyahara, Naoharu Takano, Keisuke Miyazawa
Excess stress caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen can cause cells to undergo apoptosis. Misfolded proteins exported from ER to cytoplasm are ubiquitinated and mostly degraded by the proteasome, but can also be destroyed by autophagy mediated by the docking proteins p62 and NBR1. When misfolded proteins accumulate beyond the capacity of these clearance systems, they are transported to the microtubule organization center to form aggresomes, which are also degraded by autophagy...
May 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yoichi Shinkai, Masahiro Kuramochi, Motomichi Doi
Recently, advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled genome-wide analyses of epigenetic modifications; however, it remains difficult to analyze the states of histone modifications at a single-cell resolution in living multicellular organisms because of the heterogeneity within cellular populations. Here we describe a simple method to visualize histone modifications on the specific sequence of target locus at a single-cell resolution in living Caenorhabditis elegans , by combining the LacO/LacI system and a genetically-encoded H4K20me1-specific probe, "mintbody"...
May 3, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Kevin Rudi Boldt, Jaqueline Lourdes Rios, Venus Joumaa, Walter Herzog
The positive effects of chronic endurance exercise training on health and performance have been well documented. These positive effects have been evaluated primarily at the structural level, and work has begun to evaluate mechanical adaptations of the myocardium. However, it remains poorly understood how the volume of exercise training affects cardiac adaptation. In order to gain some understanding, we subjected three-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (N=23) to treadmill running for eleven weeks at one of three exercise volumes (moderate, high, and extra high)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sid Perkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Oleg I Korablev, Denis A Belyaev, Yuri S Dobrolenskiy, Alexander Y Trokhimovskiy, Yuri K Kalinnikov
Spectrometers employing acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) rapidly gain popularity in space, and in particular on interplanetary missions. They allow for reducing volume, mass, and complexity of the instrumentation. To date, space operations of 11 AOTF spectrometers are reported in the literature. They were used for analyzing ocean color, greenhouse gases, atmospheres of Mars and Venus, and for lunar mineralogy. More instruments for the Moon, Mars, and asteroid mineralogy are in flight, awaiting launch, or in the state of advanced development...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Min Pi, Karan Kapoor, Ruisong Ye, Dong-Jin Hwang, Duane D Miller, Jeremy C Smith, Jerome Baudry, L Darryl Quarles
New insights into G protein coupled receptor regulation of glucose metabolism by β-cells, skeletal muscle and liver hepatocytes identify GPRC6A as a potential therapeutic target for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Activating GPRC6A with a small molecule drug represents a potential paradigm-shifting opportunity to make significant strides in regulating glucose homeostasis by simultaneously correcting multiple metabolic derangements that underlie T2D, including abnormalities in β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance...
2018: PloS One
Crysten E Blaby-Haas, M Dudley Page, Sabeeha S Merchant
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a valuable experimental system in plant biology for studying metal homeostasis. Analyzing transcriptional regulation with promoter-fusion constructs in C. reinhardtii is a powerful method for connecting metal-responsive regulation with cis-regulatory elements, but overcoming expression-level variability between transformants and optimizing experimental conditions can be laborious. Here, we provide detailed protocols for the high-throughput cultivation of C...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anantha Peramuna, Hansol Bae, Erling Koch Rasmussen, Bjørn Dueholm, Thomas Waibel, Joanna H Critchley, Kerstin Brzezek, Michael Roberts, Henrik Toft Simonsen
Securing a molecular toolbox including diverse promoters is essential for genome engineering. However, native promoters have limitations such as the available number or the length of the promoter. In this work, three short synthetic promoters were characterized by using the yellow fluorescent protein Venus. All of the tested promoters were active and showed mRNA activity higher than housekeeping gene PpAct7, and similar protein expression level to AtUBQ10 promoter. This study shows that few cis-elements are enough to establish a strong promoter for continuous expression of genes in plants...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jasmine Siu Lee Lam, Y H Venus Lun, Michael G H Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Dharmendra Kumar, Papori Sharma, Kennady Vijayalakshmy, Naresh L Selokar, Pradeep Kumar, Rasika Rajendran, P S Yadav
The objective of this study was to optimise the electroporation conditions for efficient integration of Venus construct in buffalo fetal fibroblasts using Sleeping Beauty (SB) based transposition and to produce Venus expressing transgenic cloned embryos through handmade cloning (HMC) approach. Primary culture of buffalo fetal fibroblast cells was established and subsequently cultured cells were co-transfected with Venus and helper plasmid at different combinations of electroporation condition. In different combinations of voltage, time and plasmid dose, we observed that 300 V, single pulse for 10 ms in 2 mm cuvette and 1...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
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