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"depersonalization/derealization disorder"

Anika Sierk, Judith K Daniels, Antje Manthey, Jelmer G Kok, Alexander Leemans, Michael Gaebler, Jan-Peter Lamke, Johann Kruschwitz, Henrik Walter
BACKGROUND: Depersonalization/derealization disorder (DPD) is a chronic and distressing condition characterized by detachment from oneself and/or the external world. Neuroimaging studies have associated DPD with structural and functional alterations in a variety of distinct brain regions. Such local neuronal changes might be mediated by altered interregional white matter connections. However, to our knowledge, no research on network characteristics in this patient population exists to date...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Rüdiger Zwerenz, Jan Becker, Robert Johansson, Ronald J Frederick, Gerhard Andersson, Manfred E Beutel
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have become a major health issue, and a substantial number of afflicted individuals do not get appropriate treatment. Web-based interventions are promising supplementary tools for improving health care for patients with mental disorders, as they can be delivered at low costs and used independently of time and location. Although psychodynamic treatments are used frequently in the face-to-face setting, there has been a paucity of studies on psychodynamic Web-based self-help interventions...
October 16, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
James S Spiegel
This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors...
September 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
Annegret Krause-Utz, Rachel Frost, Dorina Winter, Bernet M Elzinga
Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Giulia L Poerio, Stephen Kellett, Peter Totterdell
This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ghita Dadi, Alain Dervaux, Marie-Odile Krebs, Raphaël Gaillard, Xavier Laqueille, Marion Plaze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
André Schulz, Jan Hendrik Matthey, Claus Vögele, Violetta Schaan, Hartmut Schächinger, Julia Adler, Manfred E Beutel, Matthias Michal
Patients with depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) show altered heartbeat-evoked brain potentials, which are considered psychophysiological indicators of cortical representation of visceral-afferent neural signals. The aim of the current investigation was to clarify whether the impaired CNS representation of visceral-afferent neural signals in DPD is restricted to the cortical level or is also present in sub-cortical structures. We used cardiac modulation of startle (CMS) to assess baro-afferent signal transmission at brainstem level in 22 DPD and 23 healthy control individuals...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Erwin Lemche, Mauricio Sierra-Siegert, Anthony S David, Mary L Phillips, David Gasston, Steven C R Williams, Vincent P Giampietro
Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups...
April 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
André Schulz, Susann Köster, Manfred E Beutel, Hartmut Schächinger, Claus Vögele, Silke Rost, Manfred Rauh, Matthias Michal
OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. Although there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective emotional numbing, the psychobiology of disembodiment remains unclear. METHODS: Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), which are considered psychophysiological indicators for the cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system, were assessed in 23 patients with DPD and 24 healthy control individuals during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task...
June 2015: Psychosomatic Medicine
Katherine McEvoy, Blair Anton, Margaret S Chisolm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Psychosomatics
J Montant, M Adida, R Belzeaux, M Cermolacce, D Pringuey, D Da Fonseca, J-M Azorin
The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke...
December 2014: L'Encéphale
Julie P Gentile, Malynda Snyder, Paulette Marie Gillig
Depersonalization/derealization disorder is characterized by depersonalization often co-occurring with derealization in the absence of significant psychosis, memory, or identity disturbance. Depersonalization/derealization is categorized as one of the dissociative disorders, which also includes dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Although these disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, many persons with psychiatric illness who have experienced trauma report symptoms consistent with dissociative disorders...
July 2014: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Lucas Sedeño, Blas Couto, Margherita Melloni, Andrés Canales-Johnson, Adrián Yoris, Sandra Baez, Sol Esteves, Marcela Velásquez, Pablo Barttfeld, Mariano Sigman, Rafael Kichic, Dante Chialvo, Facundo Manes, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Agustin Ibanez
Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception -defined as the cognitive processing of body signals- has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. In consequence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms suffered in this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states...
2014: PloS One
Matthias Michal, Bettina Reuchlein, Julia Adler, Iris Reiner, Manfred E Beutel, Claus Vögele, Hartmut Schächinger, André Schulz
BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. METHODS: We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n=24) as compared to healthy controls (n=26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks ("Schandry heartbeat counting task" and "Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task")...
2014: PloS One
Erwin Lemche, Simon A Surguladze, Michael J Brammer, Mary L Phillips, Mauricio Sierra, Anthony S David, Steven C R Williams, Vincent P Giampietro
OBJECTIVE: The cerebral mechanisms of traits associated with depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD) remain poorly understood. METHOD: Happy and sad emotion expressions were presented to DPRD and non-referred control (NC) subjects in an implicit event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design, and correlated with self report scales reflecting typical co-morbidities of DPRD: depression, dissociation, anxiety, somatization. RESULTS: Significant differences between the slopes of the two groups were observed for somatization in the right temporal operculum (happy) and ventral striatum, bilaterally (sad)...
February 2016: CNS Spectrums
Anil K Seth, Keisuke Suzuki, Hugo D Critchley
We describe a theoretical model of the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying conscious presence and its disturbances. The model is based on interoceptive prediction error and is informed by predictive models of agency, general models of hierarchical predictive coding and dopaminergic signaling in cortex, the role of the anterior insular cortex (AIC) in interoception and emotion, and cognitive neuroscience evidence from studies of virtual reality and of psychiatric disorders of presence, specifically depersonalization/derealization disorder...
2011: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthias Michal, Manfred E Beutel, Thomas G Grobe
OBJECTIVES: The study determines how often Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (ICD-10: F48.1) is diagnosed in the general population and analyzes the associations of other diseases with F48.1. METHODS: The sample consists of 1.567 million insured persons of a statutory health insurance fund in Germany. We analyzed the prevalence of F48.1 and the associations of F48.1 with other diseases according to ICD-10. RESULTS: We found a 1-year prevalence of 0...
2010: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
Matthias Michal, Manfred E Beutel
The present state of knowledge about depersonalization (DP) and derealization (DR) is reviewed with respect to classification, epidemiology, etiology, and therapy. Mild and transient DP-DR are considered to be common phenomena. The prevalence of depersonalization-derealization disorder (DP-DR-D) is estimated to be approx. 1-2% of the general population in the Western hemisphere. DP-DR-D is probably severely underdiagnosed. DP-DR-D is strongly associated with depression and anxiety disorders. It is suggested that symptoms of DP-DR indicate disease severity and negatively predict therapy outcome...
2009: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
J M González Calvo, C Rejón Altable
The history of estrangement as a clinical object is very recent and concrete. It is negatively defined through the following syndromes: depersonalization, derealization and disturbances of the self. The limits that are established for its definition are very lax and unsuitable. The models that have been applied to these phenomena are explained in this paper: the model of the psychology of faculties, the model of the self-awareness as a reflective structure and the model of the consciousness as a passive synthesis...
November 2002: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
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