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"dissociative identity disorder"

Rafaële J C Huntjens, Ineke Wessel, Brian D Ostafin, Paul A Boelen, Friederike Behrens, Agnes van Minnen
This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Brianna E Pollock, Jenny Macfie, L Christian Elledge
We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native-American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative-identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD) for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Christopher J Howard
Trauma can oftentimes be a catalyst for changes in an individual's religious and spiritual beliefs. Beliefs about the cause of the trauma, for instance, may include attributions of possessing spirits, and are to be found in an increasingly pluralistic and multicultural society. Such preternatural explanations may be referred to as dissociative identity disorder, possession form. Unwittingly, an overreliance on neurobiological explanations and relegation of cultural idioms of distress may diminish effective collaboration with ecclesiastical authorities...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Bethany L Brand, Vedat Sar, Pam Stavropoulos, Christa Krüger, Marilyn Korzekwa, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Warwick Middleton
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an authoritative research base, but a number of misconceptualizations and myths about the disorder remain, compromising both patient care and research. This article examines the empirical literature pertaining to recurrently expressed beliefs regarding DID: (1) belief that DID is a fad, (2) belief that DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, (3) belief that DID is rare, (4) belief that DID is an iatrogenic, rather than trauma-based, disorder, (5) belief that DID is the same entity as borderline personality disorder, and (6) belief that DID treatment is harmful to patients...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Kevin F W Dyer, Martin J Dorahy, Mary Corry, Rebecca Black, Laura Matheson, Holly Coles, David Curran, Lenaire Seager, Warwick Middleton
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a preliminary study comparing different trauma and clinical populations on types of shame coping style and levels of state shame and guilt. METHODS: A mixed independent groups/correlational design was employed. Participants were recruited by convenience sampling of 3 clinical populations-complex trauma (n = 65), dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 20), and general mental health (n = 41)-and a control group of healthy volunteers (n = 125)...
June 23, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Andreas Laddis, Paul F Dell, Marilyn Korzekwa
A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45)...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
E M Vissia, M E Giesen, S Chalavi, E R S Nijenhuis, N Draijer, B L Brand, A A T S Reinders
OBJECTIVE: The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. METHOD: This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16)...
August 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Paul F Dell
During the nineteenth century, high hypnotizability was considered to be a form of psychopathology that was inseparable from hysteria. Today, hypnotizability is considered to be a normal trait that has no meaningful relationship with psychopathology. Psychiatric patients generally manifest medium-to-low hypnotizability. Nevertheless, several psychiatric diagnoses are marked by an unexpectedly large proportion of patients with high hypnotizability. This is especially true of the diagnostic categories that were subsumed by the nineteenth-century concept of hysteria: Dissociative identity disorder, somatization disorder, and complex conversion disorders...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Antje A T S Reinders, Antoon T M Willemsen, Eline M Vissia, Herry P J Vos, Johan A den Boer, Ellert R S Nijenhuis
The etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) remains a topic of debate. Proponents of the fantasy model and the trauma model of DID have both called for more empirical research. To this end, the current study presents new and extended data analyses of a previously published H2O positron emission tomography imaging study. This study included 29 subjects: 11 patients with DID and 10 high- and 8 low-fantasy-prone DID-simulating mentally healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral and trauma related) imagery paradigm in 2 (simulated) dissociative personality states (neutral and trauma related)...
June 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Colin Ross
Jean-Martin Charcot who studied hysteria at the Salpetriere hospital in Paris late in the nineteenth century is often portrayed as a great neurologist. According to standard accounts, his female hysterical patients imitated the seizures of epileptic patients at the Salpetriere in order to get attention because of their dramatic, self-centered natures. They were also prone to making false allegations of childhood sexual abuse. In fact, the so-called hysterical seizures were often abreactions of rapes. The patients commonly had extensive childhood sexual abuse histories, and sexual misconduct by doctors was endemic at the Salpetriere...
2016: Journal of Psychohistory
Ilbin Kim, Daeho Kim, Hyun-Jin Jung
Although dissociative identity disorder (DID), the most severe of the dissociative disorders, has retained its own diagnostic entity since its introduction in the DSM-III, cases of DID are rarely seen in South and East Asia, likely due to the higher prevalence of possession disorder. We report two patients with DID who were recently admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit and demonstrated distinct transitions to several identities. Their diagnoses were confirmed through a structured interview for dissociative disorders and possible differential diagnoses were ruled out by psychological, neuroimaging, and laboratory tests...
March 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Bethany L Brand, Gregory S Chasson, Cori A Palermo, Frank M Donato, Kyle P Rhodes, Emily F Voorhees
Elevated scores on some MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2) validity scales are common among patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), which raises questions about the validity of their responses. Such patients show elevated scores on atypical answers (F), F-psychopathology (Fp), atypical answers in the second half of the test (FB), schizophrenia (Sc), and depression (D) scales, with Fp showing the greatest utility in distinguishing them from coached and uncoached DID simulators. In the current study, we investigated the items on the MMPI-2 F, Fp, FB, Sc, and D scales that were most and least commonly endorsed by participants with DID in our 2014 study and compared these responses with those of coached and uncoached DID simulators...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Stefan Tschöke, Frank Eisele, Tilman Steinert
The case of a young woman with still ongoing incest and forced prostitution is presented. The criteria for a dissociative identity disorder (DID) were met. Due to persistent contact to the perpetrator she was repeatedly revictimized. Based on the model of trauma-related dissociation we discuss to what extent she was capable of self-determined decision making as well as therapeutic consequences resulting therefrom.
May 2016: Psychiatrische Praxis
Kenichiro Okano
This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Mike Lloyd
It is important to understand and record the impact of therapy on severe mental health conditions through the use of clinical assessment measures. In this article, I propose to extend outcome evaluation by measuring service use and cost prior to and during the commencement of psychological therapy over a period of 4 years for 2 people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. The treatment was provided within an outpatient setting in a U.K. National Health Service hospital trust following therapeutic guidelines set out by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Hans Strasburger, Bruno Waldvogel
We present the case of a patient having dissociative identity disorder (DID) who-after 15 years of misdiagnosed cortical blindness--step-by-step regained sight during psychotherapeutic treatment. At first only a few personality states regained vision whereas others remained blind. This could be confirmed by electrophysiological measurement, in which visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were absent in the blind personality states but were normal and stable in the seeing states. A switch between these states could happen within seconds...
December 2015: PsyCh Journal
Romara Delmonte, Giancarlo Lucchetti, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Miguel Farias
The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Bethany L Brand, Ruth A Lanius
Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap...
2014: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
David Leonard, John Tiller
OBJECTIVES: To identify problems that interfere with the recognition, diagnosis and management of people with dissociative identity disorder (DID) presenting to psychiatric outpatient and inpatient services and suggest solutions. METHOD: Problems and suggested solutions associated with clinical presentations and management of people with DID are outlined with references to relevant literature. RESULTS: Problems in the recognition and management of DID are described...
February 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Hong Wang Fung
This article provides a case report of a Chinese-Cantonese female with both cerebral palsy and dissociative identity disorder. To my knowledge, this is the first report of a case with dissociative identity disorder from Hong Kong, as well as the first report of a case with both dissociative identity disorder and cerebral palsy in the literature. Large-sample studies should be undertaken in the future to investigate the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a variety of populations in Hong Kong, including individuals with diagnosed brain diseases...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
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