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Maria Paola Brugnoli
Hypnotic treatment in severe chronic diseases, for pain and symptoms relief, has proven efficacy as adjuvant therapy, and should be offered to any individual, who expresses an interest in this method. While some theorize hypnotizability as a changing attribute of the individual, there is a growing body of literature that indicates hypnotizability may be characterized as a constellation of potentially modifiable attitudes and skills, which are strongly influenced by related factors, as suffering, in severe chronic diseases...
October 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Stephen Krystek, V K Kumar
Groups of participants (N = 164) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Group 1 received a trance induction, Group 2 received task-motivational instructions, and Group 3-"cold start" control-was simply told, "We will begin the hypnosis procedure now." All participants received the Creative Imagination Scale suggestions and then completed the Creative Imagination Scale and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The three conditions did not differ significantly either on the Creative Imagination Scale or in reported hypnotic depth...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Alisa J Johnson, Joel Marcus, Kimberly Hickman, Debra Barton, Gary Elkins
Anxiety is common among breast-cancer survivors. This analysis examined the effect of a hypnotic relaxation therapy, developed to reduce hot flashes, on anxiety levels of female breast-cancer survivors. Anxiety was assessed using a numeric analog scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale. Significant reductions in anxiety were found from pre- to postintervention for each weekly session and were predictive of overall reductions in anxiety from baseline to after the last intervention...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Paolo Scacchia
We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women...
2016: PloS One
Heidi Jiang, Matthew P White, Michael D Greicius, Lynn C Waelde, David Spiegel
Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis...
July 28, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Petr Bob, Ivana Siroka
According to recent findings, interhemispheric interactions and information connectivity represent crucial mechanisms used in processing information across various sensory modalities. To study these interactions, the authors measured bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA) in 33 psychiatric outpatients. The results show that, during congruent Stroop stimuli in hypnosis, the patients with higher hypnotizability manifest a decreased level of interhemispheric information transfer measured by pointwise transinformation (PTI) that was calculated from left and right EDA records...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Enrica L Santarcangelo, Eliana Scattina
The aim of this article is to complement the recently revised American Psychological Association (APA) definition of hypnotizability. It (a) lists a few differences in sensorimotor integration between subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability scores in the ordinary state of consciousness and in the absence of suggestions, (b) proposes that hypnotizability-related cerebellar peculiarities may account for them,
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Gabriele Solari, Paolo Orsini, Enrica L Santarcangelo
Earlier studies have shown hypnotizability-related postural effects of visual suppression and of leg and neck proprioceptive alteration. This study completes this investigation by demonstrating the postural effects of asymmetric tactile foot stimulation in standing participants with different hypnotizability scores. During this stimulation, body sway changed in medium-to-high more than in low-to-medium hypnotizable participants. Findings support the view that high hypnotizability is associated with higher vulnerability of posture to sensory alteration; together with earlier results, they suggest a role of the cerebellum in the observed hypnotizability-related differences and prompt investigation of cerebral structures and factors potentially responsible for both the cognitive and physiological aspects of hypnotizability...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Zoltán Kekecs, Juliette Bowers, Alisa Johnson, Cassie Kendrick, Gary Elkins
Measuring hypnotizability is an integral part of hypnosis research and is also relevant for predicting effectiveness of hypnosis-based therapies. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) was designed to meet the needs of modern hypnosis research and clinical practice. Reliability, validity, and normative data were explored by subjecting 230 participants to the EHS and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C). The EHS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (α = .78), its items showed good discriminating ability, and scores of the two scales were highly correlated (ρ = ...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Sakari Kallio, Mika Koivisto
Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Paul F Dell
During the nineteenth century, high hypnotizability was considered to be a form of psychopathology that was inseparable from hysteria. Today, hypnotizability is considered to be a normal trait that has no meaningful relationship with psychopathology. Psychiatric patients generally manifest medium-to-low hypnotizability. Nevertheless, several psychiatric diagnoses are marked by an unexpectedly large proportion of patients with high hypnotizability. This is especially true of the diagnostic categories that were subsumed by the nineteenth-century concept of hysteria: Dissociative identity disorder, somatization disorder, and complex conversion disorders...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Maor Zeev-Wolf, Abraham Goldstein, Omer Bonne, Eitan G Abramowitz
Whereas numerous studies have investigated hypnotic analgesia, few have investigated hypnotic anaesthesia. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) we investigated and localized brain responses (event-related fields and oscillatory activity) during sensory processing under hypnotic anaesthesia. Nineteen right handed neurotypical individuals with moderate-to-high hypnotizability received 100 vibrotactile stimuli to right and left index fingers in a random sequence. Thereafter a hypnotic state was induced, in which anaesthetic suggestion was applied to the left hand only...
July 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Enrica L Santarcangelo, Lucia Briscese, Simone Capitani, Paolo Orsini, Maurizio Varanini, Bruno Rossi, Maria C Carboncini
Hypnotizability is associated with attentional characteristics whose neurophysiological bases are still under debate. Aim of the study was the assessment of possible hypnotizability-related differences in blink reflex (BR) which has a nociceptive component, is sensitive to attentional-emotional traits and states and is modulated by the brain dopamine content. In 10 high (highs) and 10 low hypnotizable participants (lows) BR was induced by electrical nociceptive stimulation of the right supraorbital nerve in the absence (noW) and in the presence of a visual cue preceding the electrical stimulation by 0...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
John C Mohl, Donna M Finigan, Lisa M Scharff
Highly hypnotizable participants in the experimental condition were given a waking state suggestion that a reading not intended to be interesting would be fascinating and remarkable. Controls were given task motivational instructions, in which they were told to try to make it interesting. The suggestion had a major influence on participants' enjoyment of the reading, though no effect was found for reading comprehension. Qualitative interviews indicated that the suggestion had a profound impact on some, especially those most responsive to hypnosis...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Rachel Bachner-Melman, Lilac Lev-Ari, Raz Levin, Pesach Lichtenberg
There has been no research examining why people with disordered eating tend to be highly hypnotizable. The authors examine the hypothesis that concern for appropriateness mediates the association between hypnotizability and disordered eating. Fifty participants aged 15 to 30 completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Concern for Appropriateness Scale (CAS) and were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C). EAT-26 scores predicted CAS scores (β = 0.24, p < ...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Takahiro Shimizu
The hypothesis that beliefs about hypnosis determine the amount of psychological reactance aroused was tested. Participants were administered a measure of trait reactance to therapist directives (Therapeutic Reactance Scale; TRS), the Beliefs about Hypnotic State Questionnaire (BHSQ-R), and behavioral and subjective scales concerning hypnotic response. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed significant interactions between BHSQ-R subscales and TRS. The findings suggest that the arousal of psychological reactance to hypnosis is determined by individuals' trait reactance levels acting together with their interpretations of the hypnotic situation...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Tommaso Bocci, Davide Barloscio, Laura Parenti, Ferdinando Sartucci, Giancarlo Carli, Enrica L Santarcangelo
In the general population, transcranial anodal direct current stimulation of the cerebellum (ctDCS) reduces pain intensity and the amplitude of nociceptive laser evoked potentials (LEPs), whereas cathodal ctDCS elicits opposite effects. Since behavioral findings suggest that the cerebellar activity of highly hypnotizable individuals (highs) differs from the general population, we investigated whether hypnotizability-related differences occur in the modulation of pain by ctDCS. Sixteen healthy highs (according to the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, form A) and 16 participants not selected according to hypnotizability (controls) volunteered to undergo laser nociceptive stimulation of the dorsum of the left hand before and after anodal or cathodal ctDCS...
February 5, 2016: Cerebellum
David B Reid
Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
H Luis Vargas
Empathic involvement theory suggests that a trance-like experience occurs when a cross-relational empathic connection is achieved. The empathically-laden relational phenomenon is thought to enhance hypnosis. Empathic involvement theory suggests hypnotizables are highly empathic. By the same token, the relational empathic connection necessitates a highly empathic practitioner of hypnosis. In the United States, where values of individualism are thought to be socially embedded and internalized, practitioners of hypnosis and clients alike may be impeded by an individually oriented worldview to empathically connect with others...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Janna A Henning
In response to Wickramasekera II's description of his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis in "Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy" (Wickramasekera II, 2015), Henning offers further reflections on what empathy might be and what it allows therapists to do, particularly in conditions of hypnotic trance. She defines her intersubjective view of hypnotic trance as an experience in which client and therapist mutually engage in a shared state of consciousness, and a mutual bidirectional or multidirectional exchange of verbal and nonverbal, as well as conscious and unconscious, material occurs, and which may include shared taking on of roles and expectations in each party, as suggested by the other, particularly when both client and therapist are highly hypnotizable...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
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