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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352479/contrasting-effects-of-specialist-and-generalist-herbivores-on-resistance-evolution-in-invasive-plants
#1
Zhijie Zhang, Xiaoyun Pan, Dana Blumenthal, Mark van Kleunen, Mu Liu, Bo Li
Invasive alien plants are likely to be released from specialist herbivores and at the same time encounter biotic resistance from resident generalist herbivores in their new ranges. The Shifting Defense Hypothesis predicts that this will result in evolution of decreased defense against specialist herbivores and increased defense against generalist herbivores. To test this, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 61 common garden studies that provide data on resistance and/or tolerance for both introduced and native populations of 32 invasive plant species...
January 20, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346399/the-motivation-based-calving-facility-social-and-cognitive-factors-influence-isolation-seeking-behaviour-of-holstein-dairy-cows-at-calving
#2
Maria Vilain Rørvang, Mette S Herskin, Margit Bak Jensen
In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344395/nurse-anaesthetist-students-experiences-of-patient-dignity-in-perioperative-practice-a-hermeneutic-study
#3
Berit T Valeberg, Ingrid Liodden, Bergsvein Grimsmo, Lillemor Lindwall
Aim: The aim of the study was to describe how nurse anaesthetist students experienced patient dignity in perioperative practice. Design: A hermeneutical design and the critical incident technique were used to obtain experiences from practice. Method: In the Autumn of 2015, after participating in a mandatory lecture on ethics, 23 nurse anaesthetist students reported their experiences and interpretation concerning violation and preservation of patients' dignity in the operating theatre...
January 2018: Nursing Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339267/effects-of-exotic-plantation-forests-on-soil-edaphon-and-organic-matter-fractions
#4
Gang Xu, Yao Liu, Zhijian Long, Shanglian Hu, Yuanbin Zhang, Hao Jiang
There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330671/internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors-share-a-common-predictor-the-effects-of-early-maladaptive-schemas-are-mediated-by-coping-responses-and-schema-modes
#5
Marjolein F van Wijk-Herbrink, David P Bernstein, Nick J Broers, Jeffrey Roelofs, Marleen M Rijkeboer, Arnoud A Arntz
We investigated the relationships of adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors with their early maladaptive schemas (EMS), coping responses, and schema modes. We focused on EMS related to experiences of disconnection and rejection that comprise vulnerable emotions, such as shame, mistrust, deprivation, abandonment, and isolation/alienation. This cross-sectional study included a total of 699 adolescents (combined clinical and non-referred sample) who were 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.6; SD = 1...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304159/invasion-strategies-in-round-goby-neogobius-melanostomus-is-bigger-really-better
#6
Joerg Brandner, Alexander F Cerwenka, Ulrich K Schliewen, Juergen Geist
Few studies have systematically investigated mid- or long-term temporal changes of biological characteristics in invasive alien species considering the different phases of an invasion. We studied the invasion performance of one of the most invasive species worldwide, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, from total absence over first occurrence until establishment from 2010 to 2015 in the upper Danube River. After an upstream movement of the invasion front of about 30 river km within four years, the pattern that round goby pioneering populations significantly differ from longer established ones has been confirmed: Pioneering populations at the invasion front comprised more females than males, and adult specimens with a larger body size compared to those at longer inhabited areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304104/developmental-and-reproductive-performance-of-a-specialist-herbivore-depend-on-seasonality-of-and-light-conditions-experienced-by-the-host-plant
#7
Osariyekemwen O Uyi, Costas Zachariades, Lelethu U Heshula, Martin P Hill
Host plant phenology (as influenced by seasonality) and light-mediated changes in the phenotypic and phytochemical properties of leaves have been hypothesised to equivocally influence insect herbivore performance. Here, we examined the effects of seasonality, through host plant phenology (late growth-season = autumn vs flowering-season = winter) and light environment (shade vs full-sun habitat) on the leaf characteristics of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata. In addition, the performance of a specialist folivore, Pareuchaetes insulata, feeding on leaves obtained from both shaded and full-sun habitats during autumn and winter, was evaluated over two generations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301494/inducement-and-identification-of-chromosome-introgression-and-translocation-of-gossypium-australe-on-gossypium-hirsutum
#8
Yingying Wang, Shouli Feng, Sai Li, Dong Tang, Yu Chen, Yu Chen, Baoliang Zhou
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the development of a set of Gossypium hirsutum-G. australe alien chromosome addition lines. Naturally, however, G. hirsutum-G. australe chromosome exchanges were very limited, impeding the stable transference of useful genes from G. australe (G2G2 genome) into the most cultivated cotton, G. hirsutum (AADD). RESULTS: In the present report, the pollen from a pentaploid (2n = AADDG2) of G. hirsutum-G. australe was irradiated with seven different doses ranging from 10 to 40 Grays and used to pollinate emasculated flowers of G...
January 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301343/the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-environmental-stressors-and-supports
#9
Kristen G Williams, Kayla T Patel, Julie M Stausmire, Christy Bridges, Mary W Mathis, Jennifer L Barkin
The relationship between maternal mental health and infant development has been established in the literature. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a particularly challenging environment for new mothers as several natural processes are disrupted. The objective of this study is to elucidate protective factors and environmental deficits associated with the NICU. The experiences of forty-six (n = 46) mothers of infants admitted to a Level III NICU in the Midwestern United States, who responded to a related open-ended question, were analyzed thematically...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294847/exploring-school-victimization-and-weapon-carrying-among-military-connected-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-youth-in-california-schools
#10
Kris Tunac De Pedro, Monica Christina Esqueda
Military-connected youth often experience daily stressors that affect their academic success and social and emotional development. Stressors such as multiple deployments and frequent school transitions may weaken the social ties that military-connected youth have with school communities, placing them at risk of social alienation and victimization. Within this youth population, military-connected lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may be especially at risk of school victimization. However, to the authors' knowledge, no empirical studies have been conducted on the school experiences of military-connected LGBT youth...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289005/sampling-alien-species-inside-and-outside-protected-areas-does-it-matter
#11
Aristides Moustakas, Anneta Voutsela, Stelios Katsanevakis
Data of alien species presences are generally more readily available in protected than non-protected areas due to higher sampling efforts inside protected areas. Are the results and conclusions based on analyses of data collected in protected areas representative of wider non-protected regions? We address this question by analysing some recently published data of alien plants in Greece. Mixed effects models were used with alien species presences in 8.25×8.25km cells as dependent variable and the percentage of protected area, as well as the agricultural and artificial land cover types richness (as indicators of human presence) as independent variables...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283984/stigmatization-of-mentally-ill-patients-through-media
#12
Dragan Babić, Romana Babić, Ivan Vasilj, Esmina Avdibegović
The stigmatization of mentally ill patients has negative labelling, marginalization and exclusion of people simply because they have a mental illness. Stigma has negative consequences for the individual and his family, as well as for psychiatry as a profession and the entire community. Stigma weakens the mentally ill, reinforcing a sense of alienation, which has negative consequences on the course of the illness. The media can inform the public about the treatment of mentally ill patients by conveying correct information, who can then act positively towards improving the quality of treatment...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282711/more-invaders-do-not-result-in-heavier-impacts-the-effects-of-nonnative-bullfrogs-on-native-anurans-are-mitigated-by-high-densities-of-nonnative-crayfish
#13
Xuan Liu, Supen Wang, Zunwei Ke, Chaoyuan Cheng, Yihua Wang, Fang Zhang, Feng Xu, Xianping Li, Xu Gao, Changnan Jin, Wei Zhu, Shaofei Yan, Yiming Li
1.With accelerating species introductions in an era of globalization, co-occurring alien species have become increasingly common. Understanding the combined ecological impacts of multiple invaders is not only crucial for wildlife managers attempting to ameliorate biodiversity loss but also provides key insights into invasion success and species coexistence mechanisms in natural ecosystems. Compared with much attentions given to single invader impacts, little is known about the impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281668/plant-invasion-another-threat-to-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-marsh-antwren-formicivora-paludicola-a-species-on-the-verge-of-extinction
#14
Glaucia Del-Rio, Marco Antonio Rêgo, Luís Fábio Silveira, Akira Itoh
During the past 100 years in densely populated south-eastern Brazil, wetlands have been severely transformed due to urbanization, agriculture and mining. The recently discovered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is endemic to these wetlands, and is listed as "Critically Endangered" by the IUCN. The species is only found in an area of 1.42 km2, it has a sparse and fragmented distribution, low dispersal capacity, and has probably lost around 300 km2 of habitat in the past 100 years. Furthermore, very little is known about F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276524/molecular-mapping-of-pmr1-a-novel-locus-conferring-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-in-pepper-capsicum-annuum
#15
Jinkwan Jo, Jelli Venkatesh, Koeun Han, Hea-Young Lee, Gyung Ja Choi, Hee Jae Lee, Doil Choi, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum). Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1, using two mapping populations: 102 'VK515' F2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line 'VK515R' and susceptible parental line 'VK515S') and 80 'PM Singang' F2 plants (derived from the F1 'PM Singang' commercial hybrid)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250874/children-retain-implicitly-learned-phonological-sequences-better-than-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Eleonore H M Smalle, Mike P A Page, Wouter Duyck, Martin Edwards, Arnaud Szmalec
Whereas adults often rely on explicit memory, children appear to excel in implicit memory, which plays an important role in the acquisition of various cognitive skills, such as those involved in language. The current study aimed to test the assertion of an age-dependent shift in implicit versus explicit learning within a theoretical framework that explains the link between implicit sequence memory and word-form acquisition, using the Hebb repetition paradigm. We conducted a one-year, multiple-session longitudinal study in which we presented auditory sequences of syllables, co-presented with pictures of aliens, for immediate serial recall by a group of children (8-9 years) and by an adult group...
December 17, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250734/acquisition-of-uropygial-gland-microbiome-by-hoopoe-nestlings
#17
Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Juan José Soler, Ángela Martínez-García, Laura Arco, Natalia Juárez-García-Pelayo, Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez, Manuel Martínez-Bueno
Mutualistic symbioses between animals and bacteria depend on acquisition of appropriate symbionts while avoiding exploitation by non-beneficial microbes. The mode of acquisition of symbionts would determine, not only the probability of encountering but also evolutionary outcomes of mutualistic counterparts. The microbiome inhabiting the uropygial gland of the European hoopoe (Upupa epops) includes a variety of bacterial strains, some of them providing antimicrobial benefits. Here, the mode of acquisition and stability of this microbiome is analyzed by means of Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis and two different experiments...
December 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249029/efficient-fluoride-removal-using-al-cu-oxide-nanoparticles-supported-on-steel-slag-industrial-waste-solid
#18
Alien Blanco-Flores, Nubia Arteaga-Larios, Víctor Pérez-García, José Martínez-Gutiérrez, María Ojeda-Escamilla, Israel Rodríguez-Torres
A SSW/Al-Cu formed from an industrial solid waste and Al-Cu Nps are utilized for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions. The SSW/Al-Cu was obtained by a chemical reduction method. The SSW/Al-Cu was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, XRD, BET, and pHzpc techniques. The Nps were formed as bimetallic oxides and deposited in the form of spheroidal particles forming agglomerations. The sizes of these particles range from 1 to 3 nm. The surface area and average pore width of SSW/Al-Cu were 2.99 m2/g and 17...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242585/risks-to-pollinators-and-pollination-from-invasive-alien-species
#19
REVIEW
Adam J Vanbergen, Anahí Espíndola, Marcelo A Aizen
Invasive alien species modify pollinator biodiversity and the services they provide that underpin ecosystem function and human well-being. Building on the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) global assessment of pollinators and pollination, we synthesize current understanding of invasive alien impacts on pollinators and pollination. Invasive alien species create risks and opportunities for pollinator nutrition, re-organize species interactions to affect native pollination and community stability, and spread and select for virulent diseases...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241144/the-diverse-reasons-for-using-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-qualitative-study-of-the-users-own-perspectives
#20
Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively...
December 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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