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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792447/the-source-model-of-group-threat-responding-to-internal-and-external-threats
#1
Katharine H Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys
We introduce a model of group threat that articulates the opposing effects of intergroup (between-groups) and intragroup (within-group) threat on identity processes and group relations. The source model of group threat argues that the perceived source of a threat is critical in predicting its consequences, such that perceptions of intergroup threat will strengthen (in)group identity processes and relations, whereas perceptions of intragroup threat has the potential to undermine the same. In addition to reviewing the large literature on intergroup threat and a smaller body of unsynthesized work on intragroup threat, we discuss how these processes are captured in representations of monsters (aliens, vampires, and zombies) in popular media and how these ideas can inform interpretation of current political debates, such as those around homegrown terrorism...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790583/stress-in-biological-invasions-introduced-invasive-grey-squirrels-increase-physiological-stress-in-native-eurasian-red-squirrels
#2
Francesca Santicchia, Ben Dantzer, Freya van Kesteren, Rupert Palme, Adriano Martinoli, Nicola Ferrari, Lucas Wauters Armand
1.Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources, or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. 2.Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785629/reproductive-dominance-strategies-in-insect-social-parasites
#3
REVIEW
Patrick Lhomme, Heather M Hines
In eusocial insects, the high cost of altruistic cooperation between colony members has favoured the evolution of cheaters that exploit social services of other species. In the most extreme forms of insect social parasitism, which has evolved multiple times across most social lineages, obligately parasitic species invade the nests of social species and manipulate the workforce of their hosts to rear their own reproductive offspring. As alien species that have lost their own sociality, these social parasites still face social challenges to infiltrate and control their hosts, thus providing independent replicates for understanding the mechanisms essential to social dominance...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778682/temperature-and-hydrologic-alteration-predict-the-spread-of-invasive-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#4
Mi-Jung Bae, Christina A Murphy, Emili García-Berthou
The successful establishment of an aquatic invasive alien species can be mediated by a suite of environmental factors, including climate and anthropogenic disturbance. Dams and reservoirs are thought to promote freshwater fish invasion success through hydrological alterations but the evidence for their role in the global invasion of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) on a landscape scale is limited. Here, we examine the distribution of Largemouth Bass, one of the most widely introduced fish in the world, from the Iberian Peninsula using species distribution models (SDMs), including an ensemble forecast...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774797/-brain-disorders-by-henry-calderwood-1879
#5
G E Berrios
Henry Calderwood, a nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher interested in madness, published in 1879 an important work on the interaction between philosophy of mind, the nascent neurosciences and mental disease. Holding a spiritual view of the mind, he considered the phrase 'mental disease' (as Feuchtersleben had in 1845) to be but a misleading metaphor. His analysis of the research work of Ferrier, Clouston, Crichton-Browne, Maudsley, Tuke, Sankey, etc., is detailed, and his views are correct on the very limited explanatory power that their findings had for the understanding of madness...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774786/comparison-of-three-molecular-methods-for-species-identification-of-the-family-cichlidae-in-kwan-phayao-thailand
#6
Dutrudi Panprommin, Kanyanat Soontornprasit, Tanapat Pangeson
The species diversity of cichlids was investigated in Kwan Phayao from August 2016 to May 2017. Four cichlid species were found, including Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Coptodon rendalli and Coptodon zillii. Due to similar characterizations, it is very difficult to identify each species. Three molecular methods were used to distinguish these four species. DNA barcodes or partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced. In Oreochromis sp. and Coptodon sp...
May 18, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771173/communication-and-collaboration-among-return-to-work-stakeholders
#7
Elizabeth Russell, Agnieszka Kosny
PURPOSE: Workers who are injured or become ill on the job are best able to return-to-work when stakeholders involved in their case collaborate and communicate. This study examined health care providers' and case managers' engagement in rehabilitation and return-to-work following workplace injury or illness. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted with 97 health care providers and 34 case managers in four Canadian provinces about their experiences facilitating rehabilitation and return-to-work, and interacting with system stakeholders...
May 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770376/field-studies-reveal-functions-of-chemical-mediators-in-plant-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Meredith C Schuman, Ian T Baldwin
Plants are at the trophic base of most ecosystems, embedded in a rich network of ecological interactions in which they evolved. While their limited range and speed of motion precludes animal-typical behavior, plants are accomplished chemists, producing thousands of specialized metabolites which may function to convey information, or even to manipulate the physiology of other organisms. Plants' complex interactions and their underlying mechanisms are typically dissected within the controlled environments of growth chambers and glasshouses, but doing so introduces conditions alien to plants evolved in natural environments, such as being pot-bound, and receiving artificial light with a spectrum very different from sunlight...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765696/behavioural-divergence-during-biological-invasions-a-study-of-cane-toads-rhinella-marina-from-contrasting-environments-in-hawai-i
#9
Jodie Gruber, Gregory Brown, Martin J Whiting, Richard Shine
Invasive species must deal with novel challenges, both from the alien environment and from pressures arising from range expansion per se (e.g. spatial sorting). Those conditions can create geographical variation in behaviour across the invaded range, as has been documented across regions of Australia invaded by cane toads; range-edge toads are more exploratory and willing to take risks than are conspecifics from the range-core. That behavioural divergence might be a response to range expansion and invasion per se , or to the different environments encountered...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765383/fish-based-markers-enable-identification-of-chromosomes-derived-from-tetraploid-thinopyrum-elongatum-in-hybrid-lines
#10
Daiyan Li, Tinghui Li, Yanli Wu, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Zhu, Yi Wang, Jian Zeng, Lili Xu, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, Houyang Kang
Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum , which has superior abiotic stress tolerance characteristics, and exhibits resistance to stripe rust, powdery mildew, and Fusarium head blight, is a wild relative of wheat and a promising source of novel genes for wheat improvement. Currently, a high-resolution Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotype of tetraploid Th. elongatum is not available. To develop chromosome-specific FISH-based markers, the hexaploid Trititrigia 8801 and two accessions of tetraploid Th. elongatum were characterized by different repetitive sequences probes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761058/exotic-lagomorph-may-influence-eagle-abundances-and-breeding-spatial-aggregations-a-field-study-and-meta-analysis-on-the-nearest-neighbor-distance
#11
Facundo Barbar, Gonzalo O Ignazi, Fernando Hiraldo, Sergio A Lambertucci
The introduction of alien species could be changing food source composition, ultimately restructuring demography and spatial distribution of native communities. In Argentine Patagonia, the exotic European hare has one of the highest numbers recorded worldwide and is now a widely consumed prey for many predators. We examine the potential relationship between abundance of this relatively new prey and the abundance and breeding spacing of one of its main consumers, the Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle ( Geranoaetus melanoleucus )...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760887/distribution-of-alien-animal-species-richness-in-the-czech-republic
#12
Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba, Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever-increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human-related factors on distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic (Central Europe)...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760885/areas-of-high-conservation-value-at-risk-by-plant-invaders-in-georgia-under-climate-change
#13
Daniel Slodowicz, Patrice Descombes, David Kikodze, Olivier Broennimann, Heinz Müller-Schärer
Invasive alien plants (IAP) are a threat to biodiversity worldwide. Understanding and anticipating invasions allow for more efficient management. In this regard, predicting potential invasion risks by IAPs is essential to support conservation planning into areas of high conservation value (AHCV) such as sites exhibiting exceptional botanical richness, assemblage of rare, and threatened and/or endemic plant species. Here, we identified AHCV in Georgia, a country showing high plant richness, and assessed the susceptibility of these areas to colonization by IAPs under present and future climatic conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747428/a-new-alien-invasive-longhorn-beetle-xylotrechus-chinensis-cerambycidae-is-infesting-mulberries-in-catalonia-spain
#14
Víctor Sarto I Monteys, Glòria Torras I Tutusaus
In this paper, the invasion of a new alien beetle species to Europe, the longhorn Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae), originating from East Asia, is revealed. It has settled in Catalonia (Spain), occupying at present an area of at least 44.1 km², where it has been shown to severely infest (ca. 10 to 45%) and eventually kill mulberry trees in private and public grounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate its impact and provide new significant insights into its life history, seasonality, reproductive capacity (females produce an average of 83...
May 9, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746553/clarifying-the-taxonomic-status-of-the-alien-species-branchiomma-bairdi-and-branchiomma-boholense-annelida-sabellidae-using-molecular-and-morphological-evidence
#15
Michela Del Pasqua, Anja Schulze, María Ana Tovar-Hernández, Erica Keppel, Marco Lezzi, Maria Cristina Gambi, Adriana Giangrande
This study was performed to analyse the genetic and morphological diversity of the sabellid annelid genus Branchiomma, with special emphasis on a taxon so far identified as Branchiomma bairdi. This species, originally described from Bermuda, has frequently been reported as an invader in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific, but recent observations have raised some taxonomic questions. Samples of this taxon were collected from five sites in the Mediterranean Sea, two sites in the original distribution area of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745357/ken-grimes-alien-communications
#16
C Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745190/-changes-of-soil-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-and-stoichiometry-characteristics-in-marsh-invaded-by-spartina-alterniflora
#17
Bao Shi Jin, Hong Yuan Yan, Wei Qi Wang, Cong Sheng Zeng
To clarify the effect of invasive alien plants on ecosystem functions, soil total carbon (TC), total carbon (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents were studied in the exotic invasive plant Spartina alterniflora marsh with different durations and the native species Cyperus malaccensis marsh in the Minjiang River estuary. The results showed that there were different variations of TC, TN and TP at 0-50 cm soil layer in the C. malaccensis marsh invaded by S. alterniflora, but the changes of TC and TN were similar and the change of the TP lagged behind them...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741609/effects-of-diapause-on-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae-cold-tolerance
#18
Theresa M Cira, Robert L Koch, Eric C Burkness, W D Hutchison, Robert C Venette
Diapause and cold tolerance can profoundly affect the distribution and activity of temperate insects. Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an alien invasive species from Asia, enters a winter dormancy in response to environmental cues. We investigated the nature of this dormancy and its effects on H. halys cold tolerance, as measured by supercooling points, lower lethal temperatures, and overwintering field mortality. Dormancy was induced by rearing individuals in the laboratory or under field conditions...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738283/identification-of-chromosomes-in-thinopyrum-intermedium-and-wheat-th-intermedium-amphiploids-based-on-multiplex-oligonucleotide-probes
#19
Yu Cui, Yanping Zhang, Juan Qi, H Wang, Richard R-C Wang, Yinguang Bao, Xing-Feng Li
Synthesized oligonucleotides (oligos) can be used as effective probes similar to plasmid clones for chromosome identification in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, making oligo FISH a simpler and more efficient molecular cytogenetic technique for studying plants. In this study, multiplex oligonucleotide probes, including pSc119.2-1, pAs1-4, (GAA)10, (AAC)6 and pTa71, were combined and used in FISH to identify chromosomes in common wheat, Thinopyrum intermedium and a wheat-Th. intermedium amphiploid TE256-1...
May 8, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735696/recurrent-bridgehead-effects-accelerate-global-alien-ant-spread
#20
Cleo Bertelsmeier, Sébastien Ollier, Andrew M Liebhold, Eckehard G Brockerhoff, Darren Ward, Laurent Keller
Biological invasions are a major threat to biological diversity, agriculture, and human health. To predict and prevent new invasions, it is crucial to develop a better understanding of the drivers of the invasion process. The analysis of 4,533 border interception events revealed that at least 51 different alien ant species were intercepted at US ports over a period of 70 years (1914-1984), and 45 alien species were intercepted entering New Zealand over a period of 68 years (1955-2013). Most of the interceptions did not originate from species' native ranges but instead came from invaded areas...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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