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E S Orton, C M Brasier, L J Bilham, A Bansal, J F Webber, J K M Brown
The ash dieback fungus, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus , a destructive, alien pathogen of common ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), has spread across Europe over the past 25 years and was first observed in the UK in 2012. To investigate the relationship of the pathogen's population structure to its mode of arrival, isolates were obtained from locations in England and Wales, either where established natural populations of ash had been infected by wind-dispersed ascospores or where the fungus had been introduced on imported planting stock...
February 2018: Plant Pathology
Gilbert Shama
Hans Emmanuel Enoch (1896-1991) was born in Hamburg, the son of a manufacturer of sera and vaccines. Upon his father's death, he took charge of the Hamburg Serum Werke. Following the rise of Hitler, he came to be pilloried in the Nazi press for allegedly having poisoned the population of Hamburg and was imprisoned for a time. He immigrated to England in 1935 where he had secured a position with the International Serum Company in Norwich. Following the outbreak of war, he was interned as an enemy alien, eventually ending up in Canada...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature
Caroline Jones, Mridula Sharma, Samantha Harkus, Catherine McMahon, Mele Taumoepeau, Katherine Demuth, Karen Mattock, Lee Rosas, Raelene Wing, Sulabha Pawar, Anne Hampshire
BACKGROUND: Indigenous infants and children in Australia, especially in remote communities, experience early and chronic otitis media (OM) which is difficult to treat and has lifelong impacts in health and education. The LiTTLe Program (Learning to Talk, Talking to Learn) aimed to increase infants' access to spoken language input, teach parents to manage health and hearing problems, and support children's school readiness. This paper aimed to explore caregivers' views about this inclusive, parent-implemented early childhood program for 0-3 years in an Aboriginal community health context...
March 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Elodie Rey, Michael Abrouk, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Miroslava Karafiátová, Jan Vrána, Sandrine Balzergue, Ludivine Soubigou-Taconnat, Véronique Brunaud, Marie-Laure Martin-Magniette, Takashi R Endo, Jan Bartoš, Rudi Appels, Jaroslav Doležel
Despite a long history, the production of useful alien introgression lines in wheat remains difficult mainly due to linkage drag and incomplete genetic compensation. In addition, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of foreign chromatin on plant phenotype. Here, a comparison of the transcriptomes of barley, wheat and a wheat barley 7HL addition line allowed the transcriptional impact both on 7HL genes of a non-native genetic background, and on the wheat gene complement as a result of the presence of 7HL to be assessed...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yuksel Erdal, Ufuk Emre, Arife Cimen Atalar, Taskın Gunes
Background Alien Hand Syndrome (AHS) is an uncontrollable, involuntary, but in appearance, purposeful motor control disorder of the upper extremity. Case report A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic complaining of involuntary motor activity in his right hand. He had a previous history of migraine with visual aura. The uncontrollable motor control disorder was compatible with Alien Hand Syndrome, which was appearing immediately after the visual aura and before the beginning of headache. Conclusion Alien Hand Syndrome is usually observed with anterior cerebral artery infarction, midline tumors, trauma and several neurodegenerative diseases, but is rarely seen in paroxysmal conditions such as migraine with aura...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Mark van Kleunen, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Giuseppe Brundu, Marta Carboni, Stefan Dullinger, Regan Early, Pablo González-Moreno, Quentin J Groom, Philip E Hulme, Christoph Kueffer, Ingolf Kühn, Cristina Máguas, Noëlie Maurel, Ana Novoa, Madalin Parepa, Petr Pyšek, Hanno Seebens, Rob Tanner, Julia Touza, Laura Verbrugge, Ewald Weber, Wayne Dawson, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter, Günther Klonner, Matthew V Talluto, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz
The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged...
March 5, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Frank Reichert, Jiaxin Chen, Judith Torney-Purta
Students' learning experiences and outcomes are shaped by school and classroom contexts. Many studies have shown how an open, democratic classroom climate relates to learning in the citizenship domain and helps nurture active and engaged citizens. However, little research has been undertaken to look at how such a favorable classroom climate may work together with broader school factors. The current study examines data from 14,292 Nordic eighth graders (51% female) who had participated in the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study in 2009, as well as contextual data from 5,657 teachers and 618 principals...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
R Corona, M Meurisse, F Cornilleau, C Moussu, M Keller, F Lévy
Profound behavioral changes occur in the mother at parturition, a time when the maternal brain undergoes extensive remodeling of neural circuits, especially in olfactory structures. Adult neurogenesis, a form of brain plasticity, could constitute an adaptive response to motherhood. The present study hypothesized that chemical disruption of olfactory neurogenesis would impair the establishment of maternal behavior in sheep. In addition, because ewes are able to learn the olfactory signature of their offspring, we also examined whether disruption of olfactory neurogenesis altered recognition of the familiar lamb...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shanying Zhu, Yaoyong Ji, Jian Ji, Tongde Bie, Anli Gao, Huagang He
Pm21 , derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum , is one of the most effective powdery mildew resistance genes and has been widely applied in wheat breeding in China. Mapping and cloning Pm21 are of importance for understanding its resistance mechanism. In the present study, physical mapping was performed using different genetic stocks involving in structural variations of chromosome 6VS carrying Pm21 . The data showed that 6VS could be divided into eight distinguishable chromosomal bins, and Pm21 was mapped to the bin FLb4-b5/b6 closely flanked by the markers 6VS-08...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Supen Wang, Liqing Fan, Conghui Liu, Jiaqi Li, Xu Gao, Wei Zhu, Yiming Li
Identifying the origins of alien species has important implications for effectively controlling the spread of alien species. The black-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus , originally from East Asia, has become an alien species on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, we collected 300 individuals of P. nigromaculatus from 13 native regions and 2 invasive regions (including Nyingchi and Lhasa) on the TP. To identify the source region of the TP introductions, we sequenced portions of the mitochondrial cyt b gene...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Casper H A van Leeuwen
Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory). However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory), interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
Interspecific or introgressive hybridization is one of the driving forces in plant speciation, producing allopolyploids or diploids with rearranged genomes. The process of karyotype reshaping following homoploid interspecific hybridization has not been studied experimentally. Interspecific hybridization is widely used in plant breeding to increase genetic diversity and introgress new traits. Numerous introgression stocks were developed for hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD). Double monosomic lines, containing one alien chromosome from the tertiary gene pool of wheat and one homoeologous wheat chromosome, represent a simplified model for studying chromosome rearrangements caused by interspecific hybridization...
February 28, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Antonella Petruzzella, Johan Manschot, Casper H A van Leeuwen, Bart M C Grutters, Elisabeth S Bakker
Invasive plant species are among the major threats to freshwater biodiversity. Few experimental studies have investigated whether native plant diversity can provide biotic resistance to invaders in freshwater ecosystems. At small spatial scales, invasion resistance may increase with plant species richness due to a better use of available resources, leaving less available for a potential invader (Complementarity effect) and/or the greater probability to have a highly competitive (or productive) native species in the community (Selection effect)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ingrid Bolmsjö, Per-Anders Tengland, Margareta Rämgård
BACKGROUND: According to ethical guidelines, healthcare professionals should be able to provide care that allows for the patients' values, customs and beliefs, and the existential issues that are communicated through them. One widely discussed issue is existential loneliness. However, much of the debate dealing with existential loneliness concludes that both the phenomenon and the concept are quite vague. AIM: To clarify what constitutes existential loneliness, and to describe its lived experiences...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Thomas Evans, Philine Zu Ermgassen, Tatsuya Amano, Kelvin S-H Peh
Invasive alien species (IAS) constitute a major threat to global biological diversity. In order to control their spread, a detailed understanding of the factors influencing their distribution is essential. Although international trade is regarded as a major force structuring spatial patterns of IAS, the role of other social factors remains unclear. Despite studies highlighting the importance of strong governance in slowing drivers of biodiversity loss such as logging, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, no study has yet analyzed its contribution to the issue of IAS...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Arjuna Medagama, Manoj Galgomuwa
INTRODUCTION: South Asians have high prevalence of diabetes, increased cardiovascular risk and low levels of physical activity (PA). Reasons for low levels of PA have not previously been explored among Asians living within their endogenous environment. This qualitative study was performed to explore the contextual reasons that limited PA among type 2 diabetic patients living in a rural community. METHODS: Purposeful sampling recruited 40 participants with long standing type 2 diabetes for this qualitative study...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas Agar
Transformation is a memorable feature of some of the most iconic works of science fiction. These works feature characters who begin as humans and change into radically different kinds of being. This paper examines transformative change in the context of the Invasion of the Body Snatchers movies. I discuss how humans should approach the prospect of being body snatched. I argue that we shouldn't welcome the transformation even if we are convinced that we will have very positive experiences as pod aliens. When considering a transformative change, it is appropriate to give priority to your pre-transformation attitudes to potential future experiences and achievements over your predicted post-transformation attitudes...
February 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Chris S M Turney, Jonathan Palmer, Mark A Maslin, Alan Hogg, Christopher J Fogwill, John Southon, Pavla Fenwick, Gerhard Helle, Janet M Wilmshurst, Matt McGlone, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Zoë Thomas, Mathew Lipson, Brent Beaven, Richard T Jones, Oliver Andrews, Quan Hua
Anthropogenic activity is now recognised as having profoundly and permanently altered the Earth system, suggesting we have entered a human-dominated geological epoch, the 'Anthropocene'. To formally define the onset of the Anthropocene, a synchronous global signature within geological-forming materials is required. Here we report a series of precisely-dated tree-ring records from Campbell Island (Southern Ocean) that capture peak atmospheric radiocarbon (14 C) resulting from Northern Hemisphere-dominated thermonuclear bomb tests during the 1950s and 1960s...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erik Lichtenberg, Lars J Olson
The expansion of international trade in commodities increases the risk of alien species invasions. Invaders are difficult to detect on introduction, so prevention remains the preferred strategy for managing the threat of invasions. Propagule pressure has been shown to be a good predictor of invasion risk. Most studies to date, however, link potential invasive species arrivals with indirect measures of propagule pressure such as aggregate trade volumes. This paper estimates propagule pressure using data that measure actual arrivals...
2018: PloS One
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