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Rebecca L Babcock Fenerci, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated associations between appraisals of shame and alienation related to mothers' own experiences of child maltreatment and symptoms across generations-in mothers themselves as well as their toddler/preschool-aged children. METHOD: Mothers who survived maltreatment (N = 113) with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 were recruited to participate in an online study on Maternal Coping, Attachment and Health. Mother participants completed a series of questionnaires, including those that asked about posttrauma appraisals of their own maltreatment experiences as well as their child's and their own mental health symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jenny I Shen, Daniel Hercz, Lilly M Barba, Holly Wilhalme, Erik L Lum, Edmund Huang, Uttam Reddy, Leslie Salas, Sitaram Vangala, Keith C Norris
BACKGROUND: Although individuals classified as nonresident aliens, including undocumented immigrants, are entitled to receive emergency dialysis in the United States regardless of their ability to pay, most states do not provide them with subsidized care for maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation. We explored whether nonresident aliens have similar outcomes to US citizens after receiving kidney transplants covered by Medicaid, a joint federal and state health insurance program...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
B M Weimand, P Israel, M Ewertzon
International research shows that relatives of people with mental illness are rarely involved by mental health services. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) has been recently implemented in Norway. The experience of relatives of ACT users is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore relatives' experience with ACT-teams in Norway. Data were collected using the family involvement and alienation questionnaire, consisting of experiences of approach, and alienation from the provision of professional care...
November 10, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
Jean-Michel Drezen, Thibaut Josse, Annie Bézier, Jérémy Gauthier, Elisabeth Huguet, Elisabeth Anne Herniou
Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of "alien" DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera...
November 9, 2017: Genes
Ulrica Lundström, Margareta Lilja, Gunilla Isaksson
People aging with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop medical problems commonly associated with the aging process at a younger age than the general population. However, research about how the life story changes and how meaning will be experienced in occupations is lacking. The aim was to describe and offer an explanation of how a man experienced meaning in everyday occupations while aging with an SCI. Four narrative interviews were performed over a four-year period, with a man in his fifties, who lived with SCI for 39 years...
November 9, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
H Lempp, S Abayneh, D Gurung, L Kola, J Abdulmalik, S Evans-Lacko, M Semrau, A Alem, G Thornicroft, C Hanlon
AIMS: The aims of this paper are to: (i) explore the experiences of involvement of mental health service users, their caregivers, mental health centre heads and policy makers in mental health system strengthening in three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, Nepal and Nigeria); (ii) analyse the potential benefits and barriers of such involvement; and (iii) identify strategies required to achieve greater service user and caregiver participation. METHODS: A cross-country qualitative study was conducted, interviewing 83 stakeholders of mental health services...
November 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Céline Bellard, Jean-François Rysman, Boris Leroy, Chantal Claud, Georgina M Mace
Biological invasions are among the main drivers of biodiversity losses. As threats from biological invasions increase, one of the most urgent tasks is to identify areas of high vulnerability. However, the lack of comprehensive information on the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) is a problem especially on islands, where most of the recorded extinctions associated with IAS have occurred. Here we provide a global, network-oriented analysis of IAS on islands. Using network analysis, we structured 27,081 islands and 437 threatened vertebrates into 21 clusters, based on their profiles in term of invasiveness and shared vulnerabilities...
November 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Endre Koritar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Nelson Ferretti, Gabriel Pompozzi, Pedro Cardoso
Background: Calathotarsus simoni Schiapelli & Gerschman 1975 is the only species of Migidae in Argentina. It is a rare and endemic spider only found in relict grassland of mountain systems in the province of Buenos Aires. This species is a habitat specialist spider occupying specific areas with certain microclimatic conditions on hilly and rocky grassland areas at about 500-1500 meters above sea level. New information: The observed extent of occurrence (EOO) is 7207 km(2) and the area of occupancy (AOO) is 16 km(2)...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
Paulo Alexandre Vieira Borges, Lucas Lamelas-López, Isabel R Amorim, Anja Danielczak, Rui Nunes, Artur R M Serrano, Mário Boieiro, Carla Rego, Axel Hochkirch, Virgílio Vieira
Background: Island biodiversity is under considerable pressure due to the ongoing threats of invasive alien species, land use change or climate change. The few remnants of Azorean native forests harbour a unique set of endemic beetles, some of them possibly already extinct or under severe long term threat due to the small areas of the remaining habitats or climatic changes. In this contribution we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 54 forest adapted beetle species endemic to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to four speciose families: Zopheridae (12 species), Carabidae (11 species), Curculionidae (11 species) and Staphylinidae (10 species)...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
Charles T Orjiakor, Dorothy I Ugwu, John E Eze, Leonard I Ugwu, Peace N Ibeagha, Desmond U Onu
PURPOSE: Awaiting trial prisoners (ATPs) are represented in prisons globally, and may stay for long periods in detention. This group is however underrepresented in literature on incarcerated persons. We aim to explore the lived experiences of ATPs detained for prolonged years in a sub-Saharan country; examining what they make of their status and how their conditions have affected their wellbeing. METHOD: Eight inmates awaiting trial for armed robbery and murder offences, held for between 8 years and 15 years participated in a focus group discussion...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Betsy Sneller, Gareth Roberts
The question of how behavioral variants compete and propagate is of primary importance to the study of cultural evolution; with respect to language, it is also an important focus of the field of sociolinguistics. Variant propagation can occur by neutral means-akin to drift in biological evolution-or through selection, whereby individuals are biased in what variants they adopt. An important bias concerns social meaning, and sociolinguistic theory distinguishes between variants that are primarily associated with a particular social group (such as working-class people or Texans) and variants primarily associated with a perceived trait of the group (such as toughness)...
November 5, 2017: Cognition
Steven M Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg, Steven G Young
In six studies, we investigated how ascribing humanlike versus animallike minds to targets influences how easily targets are individuated. Across the studies, participants learned to discriminate among a variety of "aliens" (actually Greebles). Our initial study showed that participants' ability to learn to individuate targets was related to beliefs that targets had sophisticated minds. Investigating the directionality of this relationship, we found that learning to better recognize the targets did not affect perceptions of mind (Study 2)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jacqui Hutchison, Sheila J Cunningham, Gillian Slessor, James Urquhart, Kenny Smith, Douglas Martin
We use a transmission chain method to establish how context and category salience influence the formation of novel stereotypes through cumulative cultural evolution. We created novel alien targets by combining features from three category dimensions-color, movement, and shape-thereby creating social targets that were individually unique but that also shared category membership with other aliens (e.g., two aliens might be the same color and shape but move differently). At the start of the transmission chains each alien was randomly assigned attributes that described it (e...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
Fang He, Yuhai Wang, Yinguang Bao, Yingxue Ma, Xin Wang, Xingfeng Li, Honggang Wang
A combination of meiotic pairing analysis and in situ hybridization (genomic in situ hybridization [GISH], multicolor GISH [mcGISH] and fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) of five Triticum aestivum (Linnaeus, 1753) - Elytrigia elongata (Podpěra, 1902) (2n = 10x = 70) amphiploids was employed to investigate the genomic constitution and relationships between wheat and alien chromosomes. GISH, multicolor GISH and FISH patterns of mitotic chromosomes indicate that the genomic constitution of the five partial amphiploids (XY693, XY7430, SN19, SN20 and SN122) are 14A + 12B + 14D + 8Js + 8J, 12A + 16B + 14D + 2St + 8Js + 2J + 2 W-E, 14A + 14B + 14D + 4St + 8Js, 14A + 14B + 14D + 2St + 10Js + 2J, and 14A + 14B + 14D + 2St + 8Js + 4J, respectively...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Mattia Ferro, Jacopo Lamanna, Maddalena Ripamonti, Gabriella Racchetti, Alessandro Arena, Sara Spadini, Giovanni Montesano, Riccardo Cortese, Vincenzo Zimarino, Antonio Malgaroli
Ideally, elucidating the role of specific brain circuits in animal behavior would require the ability to measure activity at all involved synapses, possibly with unrestricted field of view, thus even at those boutons deeply located into the brain. Here, we introduce and validate an efficient scheme reporting synaptic vesicle cycling in vivo. This is based on SynaptoZip, a genetically encoded molecule deploying in the vesicular lumen a bait moiety designed to capture upon exocytosis a labeled alien peptide, Synbond...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
F J Martínez-Rondán, M R Ruiz de Ybáñez, P Tizzani, A M López-Beceiro, L E Fidalgo, C Martínez-Carrasco
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Simona Noè, Fabio Badalamenti, Chiara Bonaviri, Luigi Musco, Tomás Vega Fernández, Salvatrice Vizzini, Paola Gianguzza
Understanding which factors influence the invasion of alien seaweed has become a central concern in ecology. Increasing evidence suggests that the feeding preferences of native herbivores influence the success of alien seaweeds in the new community. We investigated food selection of a generalist native grazer Paracentrotus lividus, in the presence of two alien seaweeds (Caulerpa cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla) and two native seaweeds (Dictyopteris membranacea and Cystoseira compressa)...
October 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Michał Bogdziewicz, Raul Bonal, Josep M Espelta, Ewa M Kalemba, Michael A Steele, Rafał Zwolak
Species introduced to habitats outside their native range often escape control by their natural enemies. Besides competing with native species, an alien species might also affect the native herbivores by introducing a new source of different quality food. Here, we describe the case of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) invasion in Europe. We collected data on insect (moth Cydia spp. and weevil Curculio spp.) seed predation of northern red oak in its native (USA, North America) and invasive (Poland, Europe) range, as well as for sessile oaks (Q...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
John Cheetham, Sue Holttum, Neil Springham, Kate Butt
OBJECTIVES: Research has shown interpersonal relationships influence experiences of inpatient psychiatric services. This study explored inpatient staff and service users' talk about relating, and consequences on available/limited social actions. DESIGN: A Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to analyse transcribed semi-structured interviews and focus groups with current inpatient staff members and members of a service-user involvement group. METHOD: Two focus groups (service users n = 10; staff n = 6) and five interviews (service users n = 2; staff n = 3) were held, with participants responding to questions regarding the discursive object of 'experiences of relating on inpatient wards'...
October 27, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
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