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double depression

Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Bruno Romeo, Lisa Blecha, Katia Locatelli, Amine Benyamina, Catherine Martelli
The objective of this meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of partial and complete dopamine agonists in the treatment of acute mood disorder episodes. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials of dopamine agonists in the treatment of acute mood disorder episodes were identified in the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and included in the meta-analysis. In monotherapy of mania, improved remission rates were found for cariprazine (odds ratio (OR): 2.08, P < 0.01) and for high-dose aripiprazole (OR: 3...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Verònica Gálvez, Adrienne Li, Christina Huggins, Paul Glue, Donel Martin, Andrew A Somogyi, Angelo Alonzo, Anthony Rodgers, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine research in depression has mostly used intravenous, weight-based approaches, which are difficult to translate clinically. Intranasal (IN) ketamine is a promising alternative but no controlled data has been published on the feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of repeated IN ketamine treatments. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study compared a 4-week course of eight treatments of 100 mg ketamine or 4.5 mg midazolam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Sheila Adamu, Vida Obese, Jennifer Voeks, Raelle Tagge, Vipin Sethi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: There is an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Secondary prevention guidelines recommend that antihypertensive, statin and antiplatelet therapy be initiated promptly after ischemic stroke and adhered to in a persistent fashion to achieve optimal vascular-risk reduction. However, these goals are seldom realized in routine clinical care settings in SSA due to logistical challenges. We seek to assess whether a polypill containing fixed doses of three antihypertensive agents, a statin and antiplatelet therapy taken once daily per os for 12 months among recent stroke survivors would result in carotid intimal thickness regression compared with usual care (UC)...
March 14, 2018: Trials
María-Jesús Cava, Sofía Buelga, Inés Tomás
Peer victimization and dating violence victimization have serious negative effects on adolescents' health, and they seem to be related. However, the mediating processes in this relationship have not been sufficiently analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, considering the possible mediator role of loneliness, depressed mood, and life satisfaction. These relationships are analyzed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sherri Rose
OBJECTIVE: To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. DATA SOURCES: 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. STUDY DESIGN: I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning...
March 11, 2018: Health Services Research
Kazunori Yoh, Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Noriko Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Akio Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Yuho Miyamoto, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Ryo Takata, Takashi Nishimura, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
Introduction and purpose: Patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) have long been known to have high rates of depression. Depression in patients with PC can be linked to sleep disturbance. The American College of Sports Medicine notes that physical exercise is safe for most patients with cancer and physical inactivity should be avoided. However, clinical impacts of exercise interventions (EIs) on patients with PC have been poorly investigated. We aim to prospectively examine the effect of EIs on sleep disturbance in patients with PC using actigraphy, which is an objective measurement of motor activity and sleep...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Zahra Khayyer, Leonard Ngaosuvan, Sverker Sikström, Amir Hossein Ghaderi
Frontal cortex activity in the left hemisphere during depression is reduced. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that can increase frontal cortex activity. Therapy based on tDCS and positive psychology (PP) therapy was applied improving patients' quality of life. The present study compared three conditions participants with clinical depression; (a) tDCS therapy, (b) positive psychotherapy, and (c) combined treatment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Adult State Hope Scale and Optimism/Pessimism Scale (OPS) was used at baseline, 2 weeks, 4-weeks and 3-months follow-up...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Thaddeus S Block, Harvey Kushner, Ned Kalin, Craig Nelson, Joseph Belanoff, Alan Schatzberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with psychotic depression exhibit elevated cortisol levels. Competitively antagonizing cortisol at the glucocorticoid receptor with mifepristone demonstrated therapeutic benefit in early studies of patients with psychotic depression. We present a combined analysis of all controlled phase 2 and 3 studies to report antipsychotic differences between treatment with mifepristone or placebo and to evaluate the relative contributions to response of attaining an a priori-defined, high mifepristone plasma level and markers of glucocorticoid receptor antagonism (increases in adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol) with treatment...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Bryan D Loy, Michelle H Cameron, Patrick J O'Connor
Persistent fatigue is a common problem (∼20-45% of U.S. population), with higher prevalence and severity in people with medical conditions such as cancer, depression, fibromyalgia, heart failure, sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis. There are few FDA-approved treatments for fatigue and great disagreement on how to measure fatigue, with over 250 instruments used in research. Many instruments define fatigue as "a lack of energy", thus viewing energy and fatigue states as opposites on a single bipolar continuum...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Peter J Snyder, Shalender Bhasin, Glenn R Cunningham, Alvin M Matsumoto, Alisa J Stephens-Shields, Jane A Cauley, Thomas M Gill, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Ronald S Swerdloff, Christina Wang, Kristine E Ensrud, Cora E Lewis, John T Farrar, David Cella, Raymond C Rosen, Marco Pahor, Jill P Crandall, Mark E Molitch, Susan M Resnick, Matthew Budoff, Emile R Mohler, Nanette K Wenger, Harvey Jay Cohen, Stanley Schrier, Tony M Keaveny, David Kopperdahl, David Lee, Denise Cifelli, Susan S Ellenberg
The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were a coordinated set of seven, placebo-controlled, double blind trials in 788 men of mean age 72 years to determine the efficacy of increasing the testosterone levels of older men with low testosterone. Testosterone treatment increased the median testosterone level from unequivocally low at baseline to midnormal for young men after three months and maintained that level until month 12. In the Sexual Function Trial, testosterone increased sexual activity, sexual desire and erectile function...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Peter Athanasos, Walter Ling, Felix Bochner, Jason M White, Andrew A Somogyi
Objective: Acute pain management in opioid-dependent persons is complicated because of tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Very high doses of morphine are ineffective in overcoming opioid-induced hyperalgesia and providing antinociception to methadone-maintained patients in an experimental setting. Whether the same occurs in buprenorphine-maintained subjects is unknown. Design: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled. Subjects were tested on two occasions, at least five days apart, once with intravenous morphine and once with intravenous saline...
March 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Adrian L Lopresti, Peter D Drummond, Antonio M Inarejos-García, Marin Prodanov
BACKGROUND: Saffron has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in adults with mild-to-moderate depression. However, this is the first study examining its mood-related effects in teenagers. METHODS: In this 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, youth aged 12-16 years, with mild-to-moderate anxiety or depressive symptoms were given tablets containing placebo or a saffron extract (affron® , 14 mg b.i.d). The youth and parent versions of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) were used as outcome measures...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Robert West, A Eden Evins, Neal L Benowitz, Cristina Russ, Thomas McRae, David Lawrence, Lisa St Aubin, Alok Krishen, Melissa C Maravic, Robert M Anthenelli
AIMS: To assess 1) how far efficacy of front line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies vary as a function of smoker characteristics, and 2) associations between these characteristics and success of smoking cessation attempts. DESIGN: Prospective correlational study in the context of a double blind randomised trial. The outcome was regressed individually onto each covariate after adjusting for treatment, and then a forward stepwise model constructed. Treatment moderator effects of covariates were tested by treatment-by-covariate interactions...
March 6, 2018: Addiction
Dorian Fernandez, Imoleayo Salami, Janelle Davis, Florence Mbah, Aisha Kazeem, Abreah Ash, Justin Babino, Laquiesha Carter, Jason L Salemi, Kiara K Spooner, Omonike A Olaleye, Hamisu M Salihu
Objective: HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. Method: We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014...
2018: Journal of Pregnancy
John Marshall, Xiao-Zhong Zhou, Gang Chen, Su-Qing Yang, Ya Li, Yin Wang, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Qin Jiang, Lutz Birnbaumer, Cong Cao
Stress-related alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, a neurotrophin that plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Here, we show that in a chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression the Gαi1 and Gαi3 subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins are down-regulated in the hippocampus, a key limbic structure associated with major depressive disorder. We provide evidence that Gαi1 and Gαi3 (Gαi1/3) are required for the activation of TrkB downstream signaling pathways...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rune Rasmussen, Mette Midttun, Tine Kolenda, Anne-Mette Ragle, Thea Winther Sørensen, Anders Vinther, Bo Zerahn, Maria Pedersen, Karsten Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Fall accidents are a major cause of mortality among the elderly and the leading cause of traumatic brain injury. After a fall, many elderly people never completely recover and need help in coping with everyday life. Due to the increasing older population in the world, injuries, disabilities, and deaths caused by falls are a growing worldwide problem. Muscle weakness leads to greatly increased risk of falling, decreased quality of life, and decline in functional capacity. Muscle mass and muscle power decrease about 40% from age 20 to 80 years, and the level of testosterone decreases with age and leads to impaired muscle mass...
March 2, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Cristian Del Bo', Patrizia Riso, Claudio Gardana, Antonella Brusamolino, Alberto Battezzati, Salvatore Ciappellano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vegetarians and vegans are more vulnerable to vitamin B12 deficiency with severe risks of megaloblastic anemia, cognitive decline, neuropathy, and depression. An easy and simple method of supplementation consists of taking one weekly dosage of 2000 μg. However, single large oral doses of vitamin B12 are poorly absorbed. The present research evaluates the ability of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B12 (350 μg/week vs 2000 μg/week) in improving cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12 ) nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Muhammad Afzal Randhawa, Shahid Hussain, Maliha Bilal, Naila Shabbir, Adnan Qadir, Nawab Ali
INTRODUCTION: A rudimentary, accessory or double nail of the middle finger of hand is extremely rare. Although rudimentary, accessory or double nail of the toes only described four times before, in the literature. Most cases are incidentally detected and only few patients seek help because they have discomfort and pain or cosmetic reasons. Some have a positive family history, but most patients cannot give any information concerning heredity or any previous trauma. PRESENTATION: A 28 year old male presented with an abnormal growth of the nail of middle finger of left hand,which was hard and pointed...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
K Tominaga, Y Sakata, H Kusunoki, T Odaka, K Sakurai, O Kawamura, A Nagahara, T Takeuchi, Y Fujikawa, T Oshima, M Kato, T Furuta, K Murakami, T Chiba, H Miwa, Y Kinoshita, K Higuchi, M Kusano, R Iwakiri, K Fujimoto, J F Tack, T Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD), a heterogeneous disorder, involves multiple pathogenetic mechanisms. Developing treatments for FD has been challenging. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to determine the efficacy of rikkunshito, a Japanese herbal medicine, in FD patients. METHODS: FD patients (n = 192) who met the Rome III criteria without Helicobacter pylori infection, predominant heartburn, and depression were enrolled at 56 hospitals in Japan...
March 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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