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avoidant personality disorder

Amber Hoffman, Ingrid A Larson
It can be difficult to assist children with medical complexities (CMC) in maintaining wellness outside of hospital and emergency department settings. This growing population, with high use of medical technology and specialty care, has created a challenge for community providers who may infrequently care for children with these rare disorders and needs. CMCs have increased hospitalization rates and emergency care use. It is not realistic to believe that emergency health providers will know how to manage every type of CMC when they present for emergency care...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Iris E Sommer, Hidde Kleijer, Kenneth Hugdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hallucinations are common and often stressful experiences, occurring in all sensory modalities. They frequently complicate many disorders or situations, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hearing or vision loss, intoxications and delirium. Although psychoeducation, coping techniques and psychotherapy may be broadly applicable, they do not address a specific underlying brain mechanism. Pharmacotherapy may effectively alleviate hallucinations if the corresponding mechanism is present, whereas in its absence, may only cause harmful side effects...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Maria L Pacella, Jeffrey M Girard, Aidan G C Wright, Brian Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway
OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial factors and responses to injury modify the transition from acute to chronic pain. Specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS; reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms) exacerbate and co-occur with chronic pain. Yet no study has prospectively considered the associations among these psychological processes and pain reports using experience sampling methods (ESM) during the acute aftermath of injury. This study applied ESM via daily text messaging to monitor and detect relationships among psychosocial factors and post-injury pain across the first 14-days after emergency department (ED) discharge...
March 7, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Ileana M Howard, Marla S Kaufman
Telehealth describes the provision of medical services remotely through technology, and may enhance patient access to specialty care services. Although teleneurology has expanded widely since the introduction of telestroke in 1999, telehealth services for outpatients with neuromuscular or musculoskeletal disorders are less widespread. In this narrative review, we will describe the current technology, applications, outcomes, and limitations of this dynamically growing field. Evidence for telehealth applications related to neuromuscular diseases, palliative care, specialized multidisciplinary services, and musculoskeletal care are reviewed...
March 6, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Meinald T Thielsch, Carolin Thielsch
Background: Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience...
2018: PeerJ
Audun Welander-Vatn, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Czajkowski, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
N A Gillespie, S H Aggen, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, R F Krueger, S C South, N Czajkowski, R Nesvåg, E Ystrom, K S Kendler, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individual differences in DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased prevalence of substance use disorders. Our aims were to determine which combination of PDs trait scores best predict cannabis use (CU) and cannabis use disorder (CUD), and to estimate the size and significance of genetic and environmental risks in PD traits shared with CU and CUD. DESIGN: Linear mixed effects models were used to identify PD traits for inclusion in twin analyses to explore the genetic and environmental associations between the traits and cannabis use...
March 3, 2018: Addiction
Judith A Paice
Cancer pain remains a feared consequence of the disease and its treatment. Although prevalent, cancer pain can usually be managed through the skillful application of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Unfortunately, access to these therapies has been hampered by interventions designed to contain another serious public health problem: the opioid misuse epidemic. This epidemic and the unintended consequences of efforts to control this outbreak are leading to significant barriers to the provision of cancer pain relief...
March 2, 2018: Cancer
Matthias Miesch, Arno Deister
AIMS AND METHODS: To examine the 12-month prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of ADHD in a collective of adult psychiatric patients admitted to an open general ward in a psychiatric hospital in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) over a period of one year (n = 166). RESULTS: The 12 months prevalence of ADHD was 59.0 % (severe symptomatology: 33.1 %), high rates of comorbid disorders (92.9 % depression, 5.1 % bipolar disorder, 28.6 % anxiety disorder, 30...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Talya Greene, Marc Gelkopf, Sacha Epskamp, Eiko Fried
BACKGROUND: Conceptualizing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a dynamic system of causal elements could provide valuable insights into the way that PTSD develops and is maintained in traumatized individuals. We present the first study to apply a multilevel network model to produce an exploratory empirical conceptualization of dynamic networks of PTSD symptoms, using data collected during a period of conflict. METHODS: Intensive longitudinal assessment data were collected during the Israel-Gaza War in July-August 2014...
February 28, 2018: Psychological Medicine
I van der Waal
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this contribution is to discuss how the subject of oral leukoplakia might be communicated among the various healthcare workers and also among patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The discussion is based on the available literature and on many decades of clinical and histopathological experience of the author. RESULTS: The literature does not contain guidelines on what level of expertise can be expected from the various dental and medical healthcare workers in the field of oral leukoplakia, nor on how to communicate this disorder with patients...
March 2018: Oral Diseases
Dóra Antal-Uram, László Harsányi, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Nghi H Bui, Dave S Pasalich
Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; Mage = 22...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Letitia Campbell, Ashley Smith, Leanne McGregor, Michele Sterling
OBJECTIVES: To assess which psychological factors are important in the development of chronic whiplash symptoms. METHODS: Searches were conducted across PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsychINFO up until March 2017. Studies were included if they investigated psychological prognostic factors in association with recovery from a whiplash injury. Studies also had to be prospective, cohort, follow-up or observational studies, have a 6 month follow up and published in English...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Mia L Pellizzer, Glenn Waller, Tracey D Wade
OBJECTIVE: Predictors of attrition and predictors and moderators of outcome were explored in a transdiagnostic sample of patients who received ten-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) for nonunderweight eating disorders. Body image flexibility, a protective positive body image construct, was hypothesized to be a significant moderator. METHOD: Data from two case series were combined to form a sample of 78 participants who received CBT-T. Baseline measures of body image, negative affect, personality, and motivation (readiness to change and self-efficacy) were included as potential predictors...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Christian Laier, Matthias Brand
Internet-pornography-viewing disorder (IPD) is considered one type of Internet-use disorder. For IPD's development, it was assumed theoretically that a dysfunctional use of Internet pornography to cope with depressive mood or stress might be considered to be a risk factor. To address the effect of Internet pornography use on mood, an online study with three measuring points with a sample of male participants was conducted. Participants were investigated regarding their tendencies towards IPD, personal use of Internet pornography, general mood, perceived stress, and their Internet pornography use motivation...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Kathy R Berenson, Jessica C Johnson, Fanghui Zhao, Olga Nynaes, Tamir Goren
Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one's flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features...
February 15, 2018: Personality Disorders
Kohei Hayakawa, Takahiro A Kato, Motoki Watabe, Alan R Teo, Hideki Horikawa, Nobuki Kuwano, Norihiro Shimokawa, Mina Sato-Kasai, Hiroaki Kubo, Masahiro Ohgidani, Noriaki Sagata, Hiroyuki Toda, Masaru Tateno, Naotaka Shinfuku, Junji Kishimoto, Shigenobu Kanba
Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal syndrome, is a growing social issue in Japan and internationally. The pathophysiology of hikikomori has not yet been elucidated and an effective treatment remains to be established. Recently, we revealed that avoidant personality disorder is the most common comorbidity of hikikomori. Thus, we have postulated that avoidant personality is the personality underpinning hikikomori. First, we herein show relationships between avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, hikikomori-related psychological features, and behavioural characteristics assessed by a trust game in non-hikikomori volunteers...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Dittfeld, Katarzyna Gwizdek, Paweł Jagielski, Joanna Brzęk, Katarzyna Ziora
OBJECTIVES: The following article presents the relationship between vegetarianism and orthorexia nervosa (ON). Vegetarianism is an ideology and a way of life that aims at minimizing animal exploitation. A vegetarian diet excludes the consumption of meat together with other animal derived products. According to scientists, orthorexia nervosa is considered to be a new, yet unclassified eating disorder. It involves introducing dietary restrictions by individuals who feel a desire to improve their health status by healthy eating...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
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