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avoidant personality disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636575/the-temperament-and-character-traits-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-affective-disorder-with-and-without-suicide-attempt
#1
Anamarija Petek Erić, Ivan Erić, Mario Ćurković, Katarina Dodig-Ćurković, Kristina Kralik, Vlatka Kovač, Pavo Filaković
BACKGROUND: Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634136/tongxie-formula-reduces-symptoms-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Heng Fan, Liang Zheng, Yaoliang Lai, Weimin Lu, Zhixiang Yan, Qi Xiao, Baiwen Li, Min Tang, Dawei Huang, Yuanyuan Wang, Zhen Li, Yuwei Mei, Zhengyan Jiang, Xingxing Liu, Qing Tang, Dongmei Zuo, Jingyi Ye, Yongqiang Yang, Huisuo Huang, Zongxiang Tang, Jun Xiao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic gastrointestinal disorder, yet few drugs are effective in reducing symptoms. Approximately 50% of patients with IBS attempt herbal therapy at least once. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of the herb formulation tongxie vs placebo or pinaverium (an antispasmodic agent) in reducing symptoms of IBS. METHODS: We performed a trial of 1044 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria) at 5 hospitals in China, from August 2012 through January 2015...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631974/personality-disorders-are-not-as-we-thought-hierarchical-factor-structure-at-the-criterion-level
#3
Ana Muñoz-Champel, Fernando Gutiérrez, Josep M Peri, Rafael Torrubia
The use of personality disorder (PD) categories persists, despite the evidence against them. An often overlooked reason for this is the fact that the true structure underlying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) taxonomy is still unknown: We cannot be certain which disorders are valid, and which ones are arbitrary mixtures of heterogeneous traits. To address this gap, we factor analyzed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994 ) at the criterion level in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample of 2,519 individuals...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613018/a-pilot-study-on-the-chinese-minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-2-in-detecting-feigned-mental-disorders-simulators-classified-by-using-the-structured-interview-of-reported-symptoms
#4
Yi-Ting Chang, Wai-Cheong C Tam, Yung-Jong Shiah, Shih-Kuang Chiang
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups...
June 14, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605628/topiramate-associated-sexual-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Louis Wei-Hsi Chen, Melody Yun-Si Chen, Kuo-Yen Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Chia-Chang Chien, Hsin-Ling Yin
INTRODUCTION: Sexual pharmacotoxicity renders patients with epilepsy at a risk for sexual dysfunction (SD). This study is aimed to analyze the relationship between sexual function and topiramate to avoid topiramate-associated SD. METHODS: A systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines was performed to elucidate any SD occurrence in patients receiving topiramate. RESULTS: A total of 17 publications were reviewed. Based on limited polytherapy observational studies, the frequency of self-reported topiramate-associated SD, libido disorder, and orgasmic disorder in patients with polytherapy was 9...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594633/the-influence-of-emotional-state-on-learning-from-reward-and-punishment-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#6
Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Matthew T Tull, Leor M Hackel, Kim L Gratz
Despite preliminary evidence that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) demonstrate deficits in learning from corrective feedback, no studies have examined the influence of emotional state on these learning deficits in BPD. This laboratory study examined the influence of negative emotions on learning among participants with BPD (n = 17), compared with clinical (past-year mood/anxiety disorder; n = 20) and healthy (n = 23) controls. Participants completed a reinforcement learning task before and after a negative emotion induction...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594092/understanding-the-relationship-between-cesarean-birth-and-stress-anxiety-and-depression-after-childbirth-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#7
Hung-Hui Chen, Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai, Shyh-Jou Hwang, Nicole Huang, Yiing-Jenq Chou, Li-Yin Chien
BACKGROUND: Women who undergo cesarean birth might have an increased risk for poor mental health after childbirth, possibly because of maternal and neonatal physical problems, low parental confidence, and decreased levels of oxytocin. However, this relationship remains controversial and requires further examination. The study aimed to examine the effect of cesarean birth on postpartum stress, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database...
June 8, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593892/neonatal-hypoglycemia-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#8
Orhideja Stomnaroska, Elizabeta Petkovska, Snezana Jancevska, Dragan Danilovski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of children with hypoglycemia in a random population of newborns. PATIENTS, METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 84 patients (M:F=35:48) born at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje (hospitalized in the NICU) who were found to have hypoglycemia...
March 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589496/screening-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-geriatric-psychiatry
#9
S M J Heijnen-Kohl, R M Kok, R M H J Wilting, G Rossi, S P J van Alphen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are difficult to detect in old age. This study examined if ASD symptoms in older adults (age > 60) can be detected with the Dutch informant personality questionnaire, (Hetero-Anamnestische Persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst, HAP) in a mental health setting. Patients with ASD (N = 40) were compared to patients with a different psychiatric diagnosis (N = 43; personality disorders excluded). The ASD group had significant higher scores on the scales 'Socially avoidant behavior', 'Rigid behavior' and 'Unpredictable and impulsive behavior'...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577416/the-impact-of-attentional-and-emotional-demands-on-memory-performance-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Jakob Fink, Friederike Hendrikx, Christian Stierle, Katarina Stengler, Ina Jahn, Cornelia Exner
Lower performance on memory tests in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been repeatedly observed. However, the origins of these performance deficits are not sufficiently explained. In this study we tested if OCD-related extensive focus of attention on thoughts (heightened self-consciousness) could be an explanatory mechanism for lower memory performance. Heightened situational self-consciousness was manipulated by instructing participants to either monitor neutral thoughts or to monitor OCD-related thoughts...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540106/association-of-physical-performance-and-fear-avoidance-beliefs-in-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#11
V P Panhale, R S Gurav, S K Nahar
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a commonest musculoskeletal disorder affecting majority of people. Activity limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities resulting from person's functioning and disability. According to the fear-avoidance model of low back pain, individuals who perceive pain as a sign of potential damage are more likely to avoid behaviors that increase their anxiety and show sub-maximal performance during physical activity. AIM: Purpose of this study was to find the association between activity limitation and fear avoidance belief in patients with chronic low back pain...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540034/ayahuasca-dimethyltryptamine-and-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-human-studies
#12
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, José Carlos Bouso, Jaime E C Hallak
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogen brew traditionally used for ritual and therapeutic purposes in Northwestern Amazon. It is rich in the tryptamine hallucinogens dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A agonist. This mechanism of action is similar to other compounds such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. The controlled use of LSD and psilocybin in experimental settings is associated with a low incidence of psychotic episodes, and population studies corroborate these findings. Both the controlled use of DMT in experimental settings and the use of ayahuasca in experimental and ritual settings are not usually associated with psychotic episodes, but little is known regarding ayahuasca or DMT use outside these controlled contexts...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537850/predictors-of-clinical-outcomes-in-sexually-abused-adolescents
#13
Lotem Tocker, Galit Ben-Amitay, Netta Horesh-Reinman, Michal Lask, Paz Toren
This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics...
May 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535241/management-of-depression-in-older-adults-a-review
#14
Rob M Kok, Charles F Reynolds
Importance: Depression in older adults is a common psychiatric disorder affecting their health-related quality of life. Major depression occurs in 2% of adults aged 55 years or older, and its prevalence rises with increasing age. In addition, 10% to 15% of older adults have clinically significant depressive symptoms, even in the absence of major depression. Observations: Depression presents with the same symptoms in older adults as it does in younger populations...
May 23, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529220/clinical-correlates-of-treatment-response-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-a-tertiary-nigerian-hospital
#15
Mark Sunday Ezeme, Richard Uwakwe, Appolos Chidi Ndukuba, Monday N Igwe, Paul Chigozie Odinka, Kennedy Amadi, Nichodemus O Obayi
A significant proportion of patients treated for schizophrenia respond poorly to medication. Few studies have systematically examined the impact of clinical characteristics of patients to antipsychotic response in our environment. The study aimed to identify clinical variables associated with response in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 172 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia, placed on antipsychotics, who presented for the first time to the hospital or have stopped medication in the preceding six months, whose responses were assessed after four to six weeks were studied...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527713/stability-or-instability-in-avoidant-personality-disorder-mode-fluctuations-within-schema-therapy-sessions
#16
Ofer Peled, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Eshkol Rafaeli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is among the most prevalent personality disorders, but has received relatively little empirical attention. This study aims to characterize the frequency, intensity, and fluctuation patterns seen in the modes (self-states) of APD clients over the course of schema therapy (ST), a psychotherapy approach developed especially for personality disorders. METHOD: The newly-developed client mode rating scale (CMRS) was used to code every 5-min segment (n = 645) of 60 ST sessions...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527059/personality-disorders-in-cluster-headache-a-study-using-the-millon-clinical-multiaxial-inventory-iii
#17
Sylvie Hélène Marie Jeanne Piacentini, Lara Draghi, Alberto Proietti Cecchini, Massimo Leone
A great deal of studies suggests that cluster headache (CH) patients are usually comorbid to anxiety-mood spectrum disorders and psychopathological symptoms; however, the personality profiles reported in the literature strictly depend on type of assessment used. Psychiatric comorbidities have been extensively studied in migraine and they are recognized to represent a major risk factor associated with poorer outcome, playing a role in the headache chronification process at once as cause and consequence of it...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513342/integration-in-the-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-of-severe-personality-disorders-the-conversational-model
#18
Joan Haliburn, Janine Stevenson, Shaun Halovic
The psychotherapy of commonly occurring severe personality disorders-borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive, and schizoid-presents the therapist with a unique therapeutic challenge, as each personality disorder rarely occurs alone. Integration of what is most useful and what works in each model is being proposed to enable a more successful approach to the diversity of presentations. We describe the conversational model, some outcome research, and descriptive studies to illustrate this...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503108/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cyclothymia-the-primacy-of-temperament
#19
REVIEW
Giulio Perugi, Elie Hantouche, Giulia Vannucchi
BACKGROUND: Contrary to DSM-5 definition based on recurrence of low grade hypomanic and depressive symptoms, cyclothymia is better defined in a neurodevelopmental perspective as an exaggeration of cyclothymic temperament. Emotional dysregulation with extreme mood instability and reactivity is the core features of the complex symptomatology. METHOD: In the present article, we critically reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of cyclothymia, focusing on the temperamental and neurodevelopmental perspectives...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496499/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-environmental-triggers-in-patients-with-chronic-daily-headache-a-lifestyle-study
#20
Fakhrudin Faizi, Abbas Tavallaee, Aboulfazl Rahimi, Masoud Saghafinia
Objective: Patients with chronic daily headache (CDH) suffer from several significant psychiatric comorbidities and have unhealthy lifestyle. We aimed at studying psychiatric comorbidities, environmental triggers, lifestyle factors, and intensity of CDH in patients referred by the department of neurology from 2011 to 2014. Method: Through medical and psychiatric interviews and using 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS), we assessed patients with CDH, using a checklist, to elicit psychiatric comorbidities, intensity of CDH, environmental factors, and lifestyle derangement...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
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