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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930059/the-role-of-alcohol-on-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-urban-india
#1
Stephen L Schensul, Toan Ha, Jean J Schensul, Melita Vaz, Rajendra Singh, Joseph A Burleson, Kendall Bryant
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use among men living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and examine the association of alcohol use and psychosocial variables on ART adherence. The study was a cross-sectional survey supplemented by medical records and qualitative narratives as a part of the initial formative stage of a multilevel, multicentric intervention and evaluation project. METHOD: A screening instrument was administered to men living with HIV (n = 3,088) at four ART Centers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-consumption questions (AUDIT-C) to determine alcohol use for study eligibility...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922004/behavioral-activation-in-the-treatment-of-metacognitive-dysfunctions-in-inhibited-type-personality-disorders
#2
Keely Gordon-King, Robert D Schweitzer, Giancarlo Dimaggio
Behavioral interventions are proposed as a critical treatment component in psychotherapy for personality disorders. The current study explores behavioral interventions as a mechanism of change in Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy, an integrative psychotherapy for personality disorders. The goals and implementation of behavioral principles are illustrated through the single case study of Roger, a 57-year-old man diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder and depressive personality disorder. Transcripts of interviews and therapy sessions illustrate the role of behavioral interventions, including behavioral activation, in Roger's treatment...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895375/knowledge-attitudes-and-sun-safety-practices-among-agricultural-workers-in-the-autonomous-province-of-trento-north-eastern-italy-2016
#3
Matteo Riccò, Benedetta Razio, Leonardo Poletti, Claudio Panato
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine evaluate sun safety knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among agricultural workers (AWs) in the Autonomous Province of Trento (North-Eastern Italy). METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed among AWs who attended pesticide training courses (2016). Participants received a structured questionnaire focusing on KAP towards sun protective behaviours. Synthetic scores for knowledge (GKS), risk perception (RPS), behavioural adaptation and use of personal protective equipment (SPPS) were calculated...
September 8, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883918/predicting-intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-individuals-with-eating-disorder-symptoms
#4
Lot C Sternheim, Martin Fisher, Amy Harrison, Rosamond Watling
BACKGROUND: Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is recognized for its contribution to various psychopathologies, in particular anxiety and depression. Studies highlight the relevance of IU for Eating Disorders (EDs) however, potential factors contributing to IU in EDs remain unstudied. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-nine women with ED symptoms and 214 individuals without ED symptoms were recruited and compared on levels of IU, insecure (anxious and avoidant) attachment styles, extraversion and openness...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875773/use-of-mechanical-and-pharmacological-restraint-over-an-eight-year-period-and-its-relation-to-clinical-factors
#5
Solveig Klæbo Reitan, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Valentina Iversen
BACKGROUND: Use of restraint and finding the balance between security and ethics is a continuous dilemma in clinical psychiatry. In daily clinic and in planning health-care service, knowledge on the characteristics of restraint situations is necessary to optimize its use and avoid abuse. METHODS: We describe characteristics in the use of pharmacological and mechanical restraint in psychiatric acute wards in a hospital in Middle Norway over an eight-year period. Data on all cases of mechanical and pharmacological restraint from 2004 to 2011 were retrospectively collected from hand-written protocols...
September 6, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874925/controlled-rhythmic-yogic-breathing-as-complementary-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-military-veterans-a-case-series
#6
Joseph Walker, Deborah Pacik
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a cluster of symptoms in which a person persistently relives a traumatic event, through recurring thoughts, nightmares, and flashbacks for at least 1 month or more. There are various behavioral and medical treatment options for PTSD. Mind-body techniques, such as biofeedback and breathing-based stress reduction, have shown some promise in the treatment of PTSD symptoms. The purpose of this case series was to examine controlled yogic breathing as a complementary treatment of PTSD in military veterans...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866722/changes-in-intensity-of-neurotic-symptoms-associated-with-reduction-of-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-who-underwent-psychotherapy-in-the-day-hospital-for-the-treatment-of-neurotic-and-behavioral-disorders
#7
Paweł Rodziński, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Agnieszka Murzyn, Jerzy A Sobański, Katarzyna Cyranka, Edyta Dembińska, Karolina Grządziel, Katarzyna Klasa, Michał Mielimąka, Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski, Bogna Smiatek-Mazgaj
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of associations between changes in the intensity of neurotic symptoms and reduction of suicidal ideation (SI) or lack of SI reduction, in patients who underwent a course of intensive psychotherapy conducted in integrative approach with predominance of psychodynamic approach in a day hospital. METHODS: Symptom Checklist KO"O" and Life Inventory completed by 461 women and 219 men treated in the psychotherapeutic day hospital due to neurotic, behavioral or personality disorders between 2005-2013...
June 18, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864083/an-operant-based-detection-method-for-inferring-tinnitus-in-mice
#8
Hongyan Zuo, Debin Lei, Shobhana Sivaramakrishnan, Benjamin Howie, Jessica Mulvany, Jianxin Bao
BACKGROUND: Subjective tinnitus is a hearing disorder in which a person perceives sound when no external sound is present. It can be acute or chronic. Because our current understanding of its pathology is incomplete, no effective cures have yet been established. Mouse models are useful for studying the pathophysiology of tinnitus as well as for developing therapeutic treatments. NEW METHOD: We have developed a new method for determining acute and chronic tinnitus in mice, called sound-based avoidance detection (SBAD)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857330/increased-habenular-connectivity-in-opioid-users-is-associated-with-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-nicotinic-receptor-genetic-variant
#9
Kaylah Curtis, Humsini Viswanath, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Mark J Harding, Eduardo Aramayo, Philip R Baldwin, Elisa Ambrosi, Alok Madan, Michelle Patriquin, B Christopher Frueh, J Christopher Fowler, Thomas R Kosten, David A Nielsen, Ramiro Salas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disorder with relapse based on both desire for reinforcement (craving) and avoidance of withdrawal. The aversive aspect of dependence and relapse has been associated with a small brain structure called the habenula, which expresses large numbers of both opioid and nicotinic receptors. Additionally, opioid withdrawal symptoms can be induced in opioid-treated rodents by blocking not only opioid, but also nicotinic receptors...
August 31, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838248/the-relevance-of-personality-traits-in-impulsivity-related-disorders-from-substance-use-disorders-and-gambling-disorder-to-bulimia-nervosa
#10
Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Zaida Agüera, Roser Granero, Anders Hakansson, Ana B Fagundo, Ferran Bolao, Ana Valdepérez, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Eva Penelo, Laura Moragas, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Assumpta Rigol-Cuadras, Virginia Martín-Romera, José M Menchón
Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity-compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837950/meta-analytic-review-of-the-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-threat-processing-in-humans
#11
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Youl-Ri Kim, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Heightened threat sensitivity is a transdiagnostic feature in several psychiatric disorders. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to reduce fear related behaviours and facilitated fear extinction in animals. These findings have led to increasing interest to explore the effects of intranasal oxytocin on threat processing in humans. METHODS: The review included 26 studies (N = 1173), nine of which included clinical populations (N = 234). The clinical groups included were people with borderline personality disorder (BPD), anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence disorder...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834207/covering-traumatic-news-stories-factors-associated-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-among-journalists
#12
River J Smith, Susan Drevo, Elana Newman
The current study examined personal and environmental factors that placed 167 U.S. journalists from diverse media organizations at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after covering work-related traumatic stories. These factors included exposure to traumatic stressors in their personal lives, work-related traumatic stressors, and general organizational stressors. Further, personality attributes and coping styles associated with risk and resiliency were examined. Regression analyses identified avoidant emotional coping, higher levels of perceived organizational stressors, intensity of exposure to work-related traumatic stressors, and personal trauma history as statistically significant risk factors for PTSD...
August 22, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831256/comorbidity-of-schizophrenia-and-social-phobia-impact-on-quality-of-life-hope-and-personality-traits-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Kristyna Vrbova, Jan Prasko, Marie Ociskova, Michaela Holubova
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore whether the comorbidity of social phobia affects symptoms severity, positive and negative symptoms, self-stigma, hope, and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which all participants completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R), and the demographic questionnaire...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826371/-if-it-s-not-iron-it-s-iron-f-cking-biggest-ironman-personal-trainers-s-views-on-health-norms-orthorexia-and-deviant-behaviours
#14
Linn Håman, Eva-Carin Lindgren, Hillevi Prell
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes a pathological obsession with healthy eating to avoid ill health. In the Swedish context, ON is also understood in terms of unhealthy exercise. Fitness gyms are popular health-promoting places, but exercise-related problems, disordered eating and ON-like behaviour are increasing. Personal trainers (PTs) play an important role in detecting unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the present study was to illuminate PTs' understandings of healthy and unhealthy exercise and eating behaviours in relation to orthorexia nervosa in a fitness gym context...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816518/balancing-between-prejudice-and-fact-for-gaming-disorder-does-the-existence-of-alcohol-use-disorder-stigmatize-healthy-drinkers-or-impede-scientific-research
#15
Seung-Yup Lee, Hyekyung Choo, Hae Kook Lee
The inclusion of Gaming Disorder (GD) criteria in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) beta draft was recently criticized, and an argument was made for its removal to "avoid a waste of public resources." However, these misleading statements are believed to be based on under estimation of this ever-growing problem. Such claims may endanger public health and the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. Thus, the seriousness of the problem was briefly emphasized in our response paper...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812274/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders
#16
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810245/the-etiology-of-hoarding-disorder-a-review
#17
Mary E Dozier, Catherine R Ayers
This article will review the evidence of various proposed factors that contribute to the onset and maintenance of hoarding disorder (HD). Data suggests that hoarding is a chronic condition that starts early in life and does not remit if left untreated. There is emerging evidence that a number of factors contribute to the expression of HD symptoms, including genetics, neurocognitive functioning, attachments to possessions, beliefs, avoidance, personality factors, and life events. The extent to which each etiological factor uniquely contributes to hoarding is still unknown...
August 16, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797822/mental-health-nurses-emotions-exposure-to-patient-aggression-attitudes-to-and-use-of-coercive-measures-cross-sectional-questionnaire-survey
#19
Rahul Jalil, Jorg W Huber, Judith Sixsmith, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: Mental health nurses are exposed to patient aggression, and required to manage and de-escalate aggressive incidents; coercive measures such as restraint and seclusion should only be used as a last resort. An improved understanding of links between nurses' exposure to aggression, attitudes to, and actual involvement in, coercive measures, and their emotions (anger, guilt, fear, fatigue, sadness), could inform preparation and education for prevention and management of violence...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793825/controlling-acute-pain-to-improve-the-quality-of-postoperative-pain-management-an-update-from-the-european-society-of-regional-anesthesia-meeting-held-in-maastricht-september-2016
#20
Jose De Andrés, Esther Pogatzki-Zahn, Frank Huygen, Edmund Neugebauer, William Fawcett
Improvement in postoperative pain management remains a global concern with a significant unmet need for patients. This was the focus of a 'Change Pain' session at the 35th European Society of Regional Anesthesia meeting (Maastricht, September 2016). Awareness of the size and nature of the problem is important to improve postoperative pain management strategies. Optimal treatment of acute pain should aim to avoid long-term sequelae such as the development of chronic pain disorders (e.g., phantom limb pain)...
August 10, 2017: Pain Management
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